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Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine 2017 University of Wyoming

Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...


F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey 2017 College of William and Mary

F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...


Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte

University Scholar Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...


Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Fosfomycin Simulating Urinary Concentrations Achieved After A Single 3 Gram Oral Dose Versus Escherichia Coli Using An In Vitro Model, George G. Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A. Karlowsky 2017 University of Manitoba

Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Fosfomycin Simulating Urinary Concentrations Achieved After A Single 3 Gram Oral Dose Versus Escherichia Coli Using An In Vitro Model, George G. Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A. Karlowsky

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We assessed the activity of fosfomycin simulating urinary concentrations achieved after a single 3 gram oral dose against Escherichia coli using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Eleven urinary isolates of E. coli were studied. Isolates were ESBL-producing or carbapenemase-producing. The in vitro pharmacodynamic model was inoculated with an inoculum of (~1 × 106 cfu/mL). Fosfomycin was administered to simulate maximum free (ƒ) urine (U) concentrations and a t1/2 obtained after a standard single 3 gram oral dose in healthy volunteers (ƒUmax, 4000 mg/L; t1/2, 6 h). Sampling was performed over 48 h to ...


Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury 2017 Ancestral Health Society

Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau 2017 University of Southern Maine

Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau

All Theses & Dissertations

The National Research Council’s (NRC) A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas describes a vision of what it means to be proficient in science. The project discussed in this thesis was developed with a NIH SEPA Grant 8R25OD010937 to the Virology and Electron Microscopy Laboratory at the University of Southern Maine (USM) under the direction of Dr. S. Monroe Duboise. The goal of the project was to explore using discovery of extreme environment bacteria and their bacteriophages as a model for using the three dimensions of learning to teach Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ...


Role Of Intracellular Growth During The Gastrointestinal Stage Of Listeria Monocytogenes Infection, Grant Steven Jones 2017 University of Kentucky

Role Of Intracellular Growth During The Gastrointestinal Stage Of Listeria Monocytogenes Infection, Grant Steven Jones

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes foodborne disease in humans. L. monocytogenes invade the gut mucosa and then disseminate, causing systemic infections associated with high mortality rates in immunocompromised individuals. It is unknown how L. monocytogenes traffic to the mesenteric lymph nodes, which represent an important bottleneck for systemic spread. In addition, little is known about the gastrointestinal stage of infection due to the general resistance of mice to oral infection with L. monocytogenes. Our laboratory developed a novel foodborne mouse model of listeriosis utilizing a murinized strain of L. monocytogenes to investigate the gastrointestinal stage of ...


Clostridium Difficile, Ryan Osborn 2017 Otterbein University

Clostridium Difficile, Ryan Osborn

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Clostridium Difficile infection (CDI) is an antibiotic resistant bacterium that is widely recognized and currently noted to be the "most common and costly healthcare associated infection in the United States" (Abt, McKenney & Pamer, 2016). The topic of CDI is important to discuss, as this infection can attack all patient populations especially those following antibiotic treatment. A disruption in a person's intestinal microbiota is known to place them at higher risk for CDI (Abt, McKenney & Pamer, 2016). Becoming infected with this bacterium leads to symptoms of diarrhea, bloating, belly pain, and occasionally fevers. The growing prevalence, antibiotic resistance associated with ...


An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl McComas 2016 St. Mary's Medical Center, Huntington, WV

An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl Mccomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Introduction:

We report an unusual case of E. coli meningitis in an elderly woman who presented to the emergency room with a chief complaint of intractable low back pain.

Case Description:

A 67 year old woman presented to the emergency room for a chief complaint of intractable low back pain. After admission, the patient developed delirium. Blood cultures were drawn. Patient underwent a lumbar puncture which revealed purulent cerebrospinal fluid. Results of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures revealed pan-sensitive E. coli.

Conclusion:

In the geriatric population, delayed presentation of meningitis can occur for various reasons. With the older ...


Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology: Discovering The Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation, Joan Petersen, Susan McLaughlin 2016 CUNY Queensborough Community College

Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology: Discovering The Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation, Joan Petersen, Susan Mclaughlin

Open Educational Resources

The exercises in this laboratory manual are designed to engage students in hand-on activities that reinforce their understanding of the microbial world. Topics covered include: staining and microscopy, metabolic testing, physical and chemical control of microorganisms, and immunology. The target audience is primarily students preparing for a career in the health sciences, however many of the topics would be appropriate for a general microbiology course as well.


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. McCool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots 2016 California State University, Chico

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...


Antibiotic Drug Discovery With An Eye Towards Overcoming Drug Resistance, Daniel Towner Hoagland 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Antibiotic Drug Discovery With An Eye Towards Overcoming Drug Resistance, Daniel Towner Hoagland

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

As a species, humans have become ever reliant on the use of antibiotics to facilitate our everyday lives. The widespread emergence of resistance to currently used antibiotics is commonly attributed to an over use in our society. Such resistance, coupled with a lack of innovation and production of novel antibiotic drugs, threatens to return humanity to an era similar to one before the discovery of the first antibiotics. The need to find new agents to be used in this fight is paramount, as well as learning from our recent failures to produce such compounds. This document will highlight my efforts ...


Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, Christine D. Ridge 2016 Otterbein University

Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, Christine D. Ridge

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Today’s medical world encompasses an environment in which gram-negative bacteria that once were defeated with common antibiotics, have now become resistant. Gram-negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter are pathogens that are an emerging threat causing sepsis due to multidrug-resistance (Pop-Vicas & Opal, 2014, p.189). The multidrug-resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria coupled with a patient population commonly seen in hospital settings, that consist of immunocompromised adults due to advancing age, comorbidities (e.g. AIDS, history of transplants, diabetes, and chemotherapy), and immunotherapies, create an environment for advanced infection or sepsis to take place.

Complications of multidrug-resistant ...


Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive bacterium that comprises part of the healthy human gut microbiome. When it gains sufficient access to peptides, C. difficile flourishes and releases tissue-damaging toxins, which cause inflammation of the colon that can develop into a Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI).10 The Ivey Laboratory believes that the best tactic in preventing CDIs is stopping peptide ingestion, which theoretically could be accomplished by manipulating the oligopeptide permease (App) system.7 In order to verify that altering the App system would successfully impede peptide uptake, first the expression of the app Promoter Region (appProR) of ...


Peptidomimetic Small Molecules Disrupt Type Iv Secretion System Activity In Diverse Bacterial Pathogens, Carrie L. Shaffer, James A.D. Good, Santosh Kumar, K. Syam Krishnan, Jennifer A. Gaddy, John T. Loh, Joseph Chappell, Fredrik Almqvist, Timothy L. Cover, Maria Hadjifrangiskou 2016 Vanderbilt University

Peptidomimetic Small Molecules Disrupt Type Iv Secretion System Activity In Diverse Bacterial Pathogens, Carrie L. Shaffer, James A.D. Good, Santosh Kumar, K. Syam Krishnan, Jennifer A. Gaddy, John T. Loh, Joseph Chappell, Fredrik Almqvist, Timothy L. Cover, Maria Hadjifrangiskou

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Bacteria utilize complex type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate diverse effector proteins or DNA into target cells. Despite the importance of T4SSs in bacterial pathogenesis, the mechanism by which these translocation machineries deliver cargo across the bacterial envelope remains poorly understood, and very few studies have investigated the use of synthetic molecules to disrupt T4SS-mediated transport. Here, we describe two synthetic small molecules (C10 and KSK85) that disrupt T4SS-dependent processes in multiple bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori exploits a pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS to inject an oncogenic effector protein (CagA) and peptidoglycan into gastric epithelial cells. In ...


Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and ...


Epidemiology Crucial To Cracking Elizabethkingia Crisis, Angela Tonozzi 2016 Aurora Health Care

Epidemiology Crucial To Cracking Elizabethkingia Crisis, Angela Tonozzi

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The author explains the epidemiological methods, tools and personnel required to pinpoint the source of Wisconsin’s 2016 outbreak of Elizabethkingia infections.


Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf 2016 James Madison University

Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have numerous applications in the medical, agricultural, and research fields, especially as an alternative to antibiotics in the age of antibiotic resistance. Phages are able to lyse, or break apart, bacterial cells with fewer side effects, more specificity, and less likelihood of resistance than antibiotics. The acceptance of phages in medicine and agriculture around the world today is not universal, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been slow to recognize phage therapy as a legitimate treatment. However, the successful use of phages in the past, as well as promising trial results ...


Evaluation Of Induced Cells Of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous To Inhibit Fungi, Muzna Saqib 2016 Georgia State University

Evaluation Of Induced Cells Of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous To Inhibit Fungi, Muzna Saqib

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


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