Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...
Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Fosfomycin Simulating Urinary Concentrations Achieved After A Single 3 Gram Oral Dose Versus Escherichia Coli Using An In Vitro Model, George G. Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A. Karlowsky
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
We assessed the activity of fosfomycin simulating urinary concentrations achieved after a single 3 gram oral dose against Escherichia coli using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Eleven urinary isolates of E. coli were studied. Isolates were ESBL-producing or carbapenemase-producing. The in vitro pharmacodynamic model was inoculated with an inoculum of (~1 × 106 cfu/mL). Fosfomycin was administered to simulate maximum free (ƒ) urine (U) concentrations and a t1/2 obtained after a standard single 3 gram oral dose in healthy volunteers (ƒUmax, 4000 mg/L; t1/2, 6 h). Sampling was performed over 48 h to ...
Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, 2017 Ancestral Health Society
Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury
Journal of Evolution and Health
No abstract provided.
Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, 2017 University of Southern Maine
Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau
All Theses & Dissertations
The National Research Council’s (NRC) A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas describes a vision of what it means to be proficient in science. The project discussed in this thesis was developed with a NIH SEPA Grant 8R25OD010937 to the Virology and Electron Microscopy Laboratory at the University of Southern Maine (USM) under the direction of Dr. S. Monroe Duboise. The goal of the project was to explore using discovery of extreme environment bacteria and their bacteriophages as a model for using the three dimensions of learning to teach Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ...
An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, 2016 St. Mary's Medical Center, Huntington, WV
An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl Mccomas
Marshall Journal of Medicine
We report an unusual case of E. coli meningitis in an elderly woman who presented to the emergency room with a chief complaint of intractable low back pain.
A 67 year old woman presented to the emergency room for a chief complaint of intractable low back pain. After admission, the patient developed delirium. Blood cultures were drawn. Patient underwent a lumbar puncture which revealed purulent cerebrospinal fluid. Results of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures revealed pan-sensitive E. coli.
In the geriatric population, delayed presentation of meningitis can occur for various reasons. With the older ...
Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology: Discovering The Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation, 2016 CUNY Queensborough Community College
Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology: Discovering The Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation, Joan Petersen, Susan Mclaughlin
Open Educational Resources
The exercises in this laboratory manual are designed to engage students in hand-on activities that reinforce their understanding of the microbial world. Topics covered include: staining and microscopy, metabolic testing, physical and chemical control of microorganisms, and immunology. The target audience is primarily students preparing for a career in the health sciences, however many of the topics would be appropriate for a general microbiology course as well.
Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, 2016 California State University, Chico
Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots
STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations
The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...
Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...
Antibiotic Drug Discovery With An Eye Towards Overcoming Drug Resistance, 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Antibiotic Drug Discovery With An Eye Towards Overcoming Drug Resistance, Daniel Towner Hoagland
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
As a species, humans have become ever reliant on the use of antibiotics to facilitate our everyday lives. The widespread emergence of resistance to currently used antibiotics is commonly attributed to an over use in our society. Such resistance, coupled with a lack of innovation and production of novel antibiotic drugs, threatens to return humanity to an era similar to one before the discovery of the first antibiotics. The need to find new agents to be used in this fight is paramount, as well as learning from our recent failures to produce such compounds. This document will highlight my efforts ...
Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, 2016 Otterbein University
Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, Christine D. Ridge
Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship
Today’s medical world encompasses an environment in which gram-negative bacteria that once were defeated with common antibiotics, have now become resistant. Gram-negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter are pathogens that are an emerging threat causing sepsis due to multidrug-resistance (Pop-Vicas & Opal, 2014, p.189). The multidrug-resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria coupled with a patient population commonly seen in hospital settings, that consist of immunocompromised adults due to advancing age, comorbidities (e.g. AIDS, history of transplants, diabetes, and chemotherapy), and immunotherapies, create an environment for advanced infection or sepsis to take place.
Complications of multidrug-resistant ...
Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald
Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive bacterium that comprises part of the healthy human gut microbiome. When it gains sufficient access to peptides, C. difficile flourishes and releases tissue-damaging toxins, which cause inflammation of the colon that can develop into a Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI).10 The Ivey Laboratory believes that the best tactic in preventing CDIs is stopping peptide ingestion, which theoretically could be accomplished by manipulating the oligopeptide permease (App) system.7 In order to verify that altering the App system would successfully impede peptide uptake, first the expression of the app Promoter Region (appProR) of ...
Epidemiology Crucial To Cracking Elizabethkingia Crisis, 2016 Aurora Health Care
Epidemiology Crucial To Cracking Elizabethkingia Crisis, Angela Tonozzi
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
The author explains the epidemiological methods, tools and personnel required to pinpoint the source of Wisconsin’s 2016 outbreak of Elizabethkingia infections.
Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology
Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam
The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and ...
Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, 2016 James Madison University
Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf
James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)
Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have numerous applications in the medical, agricultural, and research fields, especially as an alternative to antibiotics in the age of antibiotic resistance. Phages are able to lyse, or break apart, bacterial cells with fewer side effects, more specificity, and less likelihood of resistance than antibiotics. The acceptance of phages in medicine and agriculture around the world today is not universal, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been slow to recognize phage therapy as a legitimate treatment. However, the successful use of phages in the past, as well as promising trial results ...
Evaluation Of Induced Cells Of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous To Inhibit Fungi, 2016 Georgia State University
Evaluation Of Induced Cells Of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous To Inhibit Fungi, Muzna Saqib
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta
UCARE Research Products
Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.
Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...
An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University
An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer
All College Thesis Program
Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers ...
Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, 2016 Center for Urban Population Health, Aurora Health Care
Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica Kram, Dennis Baumgardner, Kiley Bernhard, Melissa Lemke
Background: Neonatal death rate in the United States is 4/1,000 live births; infant death rate is 6/1,000. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) may be transmitted from a colonized mother (rates vary from 15% to 35%) to the newborn during a vaginal delivery, and may contribute to neonatal death. Purpose: To explore the geographic distribution and associated risk factors for maternal GBS colonization and infant death prior to discharge in eastern Wisconsin births. Methods: Retrospective study of institutional data from PeriData.net, a comprehensive birth registry, utilizing data from 2007 through 2013 at all Aurora medical centers. Categorical ...
An Evaluation Of Antibiotic Resistance: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Tetracyclic Indolines As A Novel Class Of Resistance-Modifying Agents For Mrsa & Analysis Of Recent Fda Regulations On Antibiotic Use In Livestock, 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder
An Evaluation Of Antibiotic Resistance: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Tetracyclic Indolines As A Novel Class Of Resistance-Modifying Agents For Mrsa & Analysis Of Recent Fda Regulations On Antibiotic Use In Livestock, Lakota K. Cleaver
Undergraduate Honors Theses
While the rate at which resistance develops against antimicrobials rises, research and development for new antimicrobials declines. By placing selective pressure on bacteria we are inadvertently forcing bacteria into expressing and propagating genes conferring high levels of resistance. Continued misuse and overuse of antibiotics, in light of the evident problem developing, must be resolved. To find a resolve, a multidisciplinary and multifaceted approach must be taken which involves 1) research and development of novel antimicrobial agents and 2) governmental regulation.
Strides in new antimicrobial drug development largely revolve around making old antibiotics usable again. Resistance-Modifying Agents (RMAs) act to re-sensitize ...
Application Of The Split Gfp System To Listeria Monocytogenes To Visualize The Virulence Factor Inlc, 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder
Application Of The Split Gfp System To Listeria Monocytogenes To Visualize The Virulence Factor Inlc, Dilara Batan
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to survive in a range of environments and cell types, and therefore serves as an important model system for host-pathogen studies. Lm can enter mammalian cells and survive within these host cells by secreting a number of virulence proteins during these steps. In the literature, there are inconsistencies in the localizations of one of these effector proteins, InlC. In order to better understand the localizations of the Lm effector protein InlC in the live cell during infections, a split GFP approach is taken to fluorescently label the protein. This system ...