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A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Persistence detection is a mechanism that ensures a physiological output is only executed when the relevant input is sustained. Gene regulatory network circuits known as coherent type 1 feed forward loops (FFLs) with an AND-logic gate have been proposed to generate persistence detection. In such circuits two transcription factors (TFs) are both required to activate target genes and one of the two TFs activates the other. While numerous FFLs have been identified, examples of actual persistence detectors have only been described for bacteria. Here, we discover a transcriptional persistence detector in Caenorhabditis elegans involving the nuclear hormone receptors nhr-10 and ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco 2018 Tufts University

Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan Mcclure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection. Here, we defined gonococcal global transcriptional responses in urethral specimens from men with symptomatic urethritis and compared these with transcriptional responses in specimens obtained from women ...


Draft Genome Sequence Of Bifidobacterium Longum Uma026, Isolated From Holstein Dairy Cow Feces, Korin Albert, David Sela 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Draft Genome Sequence Of Bifidobacterium Longum Uma026, Isolated From Holstein Dairy Cow Feces, Korin Albert, David Sela

Open Access Articles

The draft genome sequence of an isolate identified as Bifidobacterium longum is communicated herein. This strain was isolated from the feces of a 1-week-old Holstein dairy cow. The draft genome of this Bifidobacterium longum isolate is 2.39 Mb in length, with a G+C content of 60.1%.


The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela

Open Access Articles

Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing identified these isolates as unique strains of Bifidobacterium callitrichos. All three strains, including these ...


Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz NMD, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland 2018 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz Nmd, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Polymorphic Factor H-Binding Activity Of Cspa Protects Lyme Borreliae From The Host Complement In Feeding Ticks To Facilitate Tick-To-Host Transmission, Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Nguyen Thu, Nancy A. Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin 2018 State University of New York at Albany

Polymorphic Factor H-Binding Activity Of Cspa Protects Lyme Borreliae From The Host Complement In Feeding Ticks To Facilitate Tick-To-Host Transmission, Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Nguyen Thu, Nancy A. Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin

Open Access Articles

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), the causative agent of Lyme disease, establishes an initial infection in the host's skin following a tick bite, and then disseminates to distant organs, leading to multisystem manifestations. Tick-to-vertebrate host transmission requires that Bbsl survives during blood feeding. Complement is an important innate host defense in blood and interstitial fluid. Bbsl produces a polymorphic surface protein, CspA, that binds to a complement regulator, Factor H (FH) to block complement activation in vitro. However, the role that CspA plays in the Bbsl enzootic cycle remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that different CspA variants ...


Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Cd4+ And Cd8+ T Cells Differ In Their Capacity To Recognize Infected Macrophages, Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Stephen M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Cd4+ And Cd8+ T Cells Differ In Their Capacity To Recognize Infected Macrophages, Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Stephen M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Articles

Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and sustained CD8+ T cell response during Mtb infection, CD8+ T cells make limited contribution to protection. Here, we ask whether the ability of Mtb-specific T cells to restrict Mtb growth is related to their capacity to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We derived CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the Mtb immunodominant epitope TB10.44-11 and compared them to CD4+ T cell lines that recognized Ag85b240-254 or ESAT63-17. While the CD4+ T cells recognized Mtb-infected ...


Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best 2018 University of Louisville

Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legionella pneumophila is an environment organism that parasitizes a wide range of protozoa. Growth within the environmental host primes L. pneumophila for infection of human alveolar macrophages when contaminated aerosols are inhaled. Intracellular replication within either host requires the establishment a replicative niche, known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV depends on the type IVb translocation system, the Dot/Icm, to translocation >320 effectors into the host cytosol. Effectors are responsible for preventing lysosome fusion to the LCV, recruitment of ER-derived vesicles to the LCV, and modulation of a plethora of host processes to promote the ...


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 Peking Union Medical College

Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, > /=256 mg/liter) was ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah 2018 East Tennessee State University

Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction:

Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram negative ubiquitous bacteria commonly isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, fruits and animal/human feces usually introduced to human by ingestion of infected fruits/vegetables, thorn pricks and gastrointestinal translocation in lack of stomach acidity. However, the pathogen can also cause opportunistic human infection especially when the immune system is impaired. The aim of this case report is to investigate clinical features in a patient with P. agglomerans bacteremia and bring attention the opportunistic infection by this rare bacteria.

Case presentation:

We present a case of 57 year old caucasian lady with past medical history ...


Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel 2018 South Dakota State University

Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel

Volker Brozel


Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as serotype O157:H7, are a leading cause of food-associated outbreaks. While the primary reservoir is associated with cattle, plant foods have been associated as sources of human infection. E. coli is able to growin the tissue of food plants such as spinach. While fecal contamination is the primary suspect, soil has been underestimated as a potential reservoir. Persistence of bacterial populations in open systems is the product of growth, death, predation, and competition. Here we report that E. coli O157:H7 can grow using the soluble compounds in soil, and characterize the effect of soil ...


The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts 2018 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

As a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encounters many barriers to invasion and dissemination in the host that may change the nature of host response. Lm has been most commonly studied using intravenous (i.v.) inoculation, however, a method that delivers a bolus of bacteria directly to the bloodstream. Thus, little is known about what systemic and local mediators are triggered during the natural course of infection and how these may impact susceptibility. Our laboratory used foodborne transmission of Lm in mice to assess whether the method of transmission and the specific organ microenvironment could affect infection-induced secretion of type ...


Usefulness Of The Captia Syphilis Igg Eia Test Method And Reverse Algorithm For Detection Of Syphilis Infection In A Public Health Setting, Patricia Armour 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Usefulness Of The Captia Syphilis Igg Eia Test Method And Reverse Algorithm For Detection Of Syphilis Infection In A Public Health Setting, Patricia Armour

Theses and Dissertations

Syphilis, a systemic sexually transmitted disease, is on the rise in the US, with infection rates the highest recorded since 1994 according to the CDC. Useful laboratory testing is an important diagnostic tool for determining individual syphilis infection and preventing community-wide disease spread.

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a specific automated treponemal test method, the CaptiaTM Syphilis IgG EIA, and the syphilis reverse algorithm interpretation for detecting syphilis infection among patients seeking care in a public health clinic. The study employed a retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive correlational design with data collected between 2012-2013 from ...


Mrub_1199 & Mrub_2272 Of Meiothermus Ruber Are Orthologous Genes To The B0262 Gene In Escherichia Coli While Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015 & Mrub_2271 Are Not Orthologous To The B0262 Gene Coding For The Iron (Fe3+) Abc Transport System, Kumail Hussain, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_1199 & Mrub_2272 Of Meiothermus Ruber Are Orthologous Genes To The B0262 Gene In Escherichia Coli While Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015 & Mrub_2271 Are Not Orthologous To The B0262 Gene Coding For The Iron (Fe3+) Abc Transport System, Kumail Hussain, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1199, Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015, Mrub_2271 and Mrub_2272 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of an Iron (Fe3+) ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_1199 (DNA coordinates [1211595-1212572] on the reverse strand) encodes the permease component (aka transmembrane domain); and 2) Mrub_1200 (DNA coordinates [1212612-1214093] on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain (aka nucleotide binding domain); and 3) Mrub_1201 (DNA coordinates [1214347-1215309] on the reverse strand) encodes the substrate binding protein (aka the periplasmic component); and Mrub_2015 ( DNA coordinates [2053963-2054949] on the reverse strand) encodes ...


Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs 2017 Technische Universität München, Germany

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The human pathogen L. monocytogenes and the animal pathogen L. ivanovii, together with four other species isolated from symptom-free animals, form the "Listeria sensu stricto" clade. The members of the second clade, "Listeria sensu lato", are believed to be solely environmental bacteria without the ability to colonize mammalian hosts. To identify novel determinants that contribute to infection by L. monocytogenes, the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis, we performed a genome comparison of the two clades and found 151 candidate genes that are conserved in the Listeria sensu stricto species. Two factors were investigated further in vitro and in ...


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo 2017 Bowling Green State University

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay DiMarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse McAtee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard 2017 Delaware State University

Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay Dimarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse Mcatee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

Commercial scale production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feed stocks has been hampered by the resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic conversion, primarily owing to lignin. This study investigated whether DypB, the lignin-degrading peroxidase from Rodococcus jostii, depolymerizes lignin and reduces recalcitrance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). The protein was targeted to the cytosol or the ER using ER-targeting and retention signal peptides. For each construct, five independent transgenic lines were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Our findings reveal that expression of DypB in the cytosol and ER does not affect plant development. ER-targeting increased protein accumulation, and extracts from transgenic ...


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