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Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz NMD, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland 2018 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz Nmd, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 Peking Union Medical College

Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, > /=256 mg/liter) was ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah 2018 East Tennessee State University

Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction:

Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram negative ubiquitous bacteria commonly isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, fruits and animal/human feces usually introduced to human by ingestion of infected fruits/vegetables, thorn pricks and gastrointestinal translocation in lack of stomach acidity. However, the pathogen can also cause opportunistic human infection especially when the immune system is impaired. The aim of this case report is to investigate clinical features in a patient with P. agglomerans bacteremia and bring attention the opportunistic infection by this rare bacteria.

Case presentation:

We present a case of 57 year old caucasian lady with past medical history ...


Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel 2018 South Dakota State University

Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel

Volker Brozel


Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as serotype O157:H7, are a leading cause of food-associated outbreaks. While the primary reservoir is associated with cattle, plant foods have been associated as sources of human infection. E. coli is able to growin the tissue of food plants such as spinach. While fecal contamination is the primary suspect, soil has been underestimated as a potential reservoir. Persistence of bacterial populations in open systems is the product of growth, death, predation, and competition. Here we report that E. coli O157:H7 can grow using the soluble compounds in soil, and characterize the effect of soil ...


The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts 2018 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Ifnβ And Prostaglandin E2 In Suppression Of Innate Immunity To Listeria Monocytogenes, Michelle G. Pitts

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

As a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encounters many barriers to invasion and dissemination in the host that may change the nature of host response. Lm has been most commonly studied using intravenous (i.v.) inoculation, however, a method that delivers a bolus of bacteria directly to the bloodstream. Thus, little is known about what systemic and local mediators are triggered during the natural course of infection and how these may impact susceptibility. Our laboratory used foodborne transmission of Lm in mice to assess whether the method of transmission and the specific organ microenvironment could affect infection-induced secretion of type ...


Usefulness Of The Captia Syphilis Igg Eia Test Method And Reverse Algorithm For Detection Of Syphilis Infection In A Public Health Setting, Patricia Armour 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Usefulness Of The Captia Syphilis Igg Eia Test Method And Reverse Algorithm For Detection Of Syphilis Infection In A Public Health Setting, Patricia Armour

Theses and Dissertations

Syphilis, a systemic sexually transmitted disease, is on the rise in the US, with infection rates the highest recorded since 1994 according to the CDC. Useful laboratory testing is an important diagnostic tool for determining individual syphilis infection and preventing community-wide disease spread.

The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a specific automated treponemal test method, the CaptiaTM Syphilis IgG EIA, and the syphilis reverse algorithm interpretation for detecting syphilis infection among patients seeking care in a public health clinic. The study employed a retrospective, nonexperimental descriptive correlational design with data collected between 2012-2013 from ...


Mrub_1199 & Mrub_2272 Of Meiothermus Ruber Are Orthologous Genes To The B0262 Gene In Escherichia Coli While Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015 & Mrub_2271 Are Not Orthologous To The B0262 Gene Coding For The Iron (Fe3+) Abc Transport System, Kumail Hussain, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_1199 & Mrub_2272 Of Meiothermus Ruber Are Orthologous Genes To The B0262 Gene In Escherichia Coli While Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015 & Mrub_2271 Are Not Orthologous To The B0262 Gene Coding For The Iron (Fe3+) Abc Transport System, Kumail Hussain, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1199, Mrub_1200, Mrub_1201, Mrub_2015, Mrub_2271 and Mrub_2272 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of an Iron (Fe3+) ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_1199 (DNA coordinates [1211595-1212572] on the reverse strand) encodes the permease component (aka transmembrane domain); and 2) Mrub_1200 (DNA coordinates [1212612-1214093] on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain (aka nucleotide binding domain); and 3) Mrub_1201 (DNA coordinates [1214347-1215309] on the reverse strand) encodes the substrate binding protein (aka the periplasmic component); and Mrub_2015 ( DNA coordinates [2053963-2054949] on the reverse strand) encodes ...


Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs 2017 Technische Universität München, Germany

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The human pathogen L. monocytogenes and the animal pathogen L. ivanovii, together with four other species isolated from symptom-free animals, form the "Listeria sensu stricto" clade. The members of the second clade, "Listeria sensu lato", are believed to be solely environmental bacteria without the ability to colonize mammalian hosts. To identify novel determinants that contribute to infection by L. monocytogenes, the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis, we performed a genome comparison of the two clades and found 151 candidate genes that are conserved in the Listeria sensu stricto species. Two factors were investigated further in vitro and in ...


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo 2017 Bowling Green State University

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay DiMarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse McAtee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard 2017 Delaware State University

Reducing Biomass Recalcitrance By Heterologous Expression Of A Bacterial Peroxidase In Tobacco (Nicotiana Benthamiana), Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Bertrand Hankoua, Kay Dimarco, Robert Pace, Mark Crocker, Jesse Mcatee, Nivedita Nagachar, Ming Tien, Tom L. Richard

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

Commercial scale production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feed stocks has been hampered by the resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic conversion, primarily owing to lignin. This study investigated whether DypB, the lignin-degrading peroxidase from Rodococcus jostii, depolymerizes lignin and reduces recalcitrance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). The protein was targeted to the cytosol or the ER using ER-targeting and retention signal peptides. For each construct, five independent transgenic lines were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Our findings reveal that expression of DypB in the cytosol and ER does not affect plant development. ER-targeting increased protein accumulation, and extracts from transgenic ...


Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru 2017 University of Louisville

Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are two of the primary pathogens that are associated in the etiology and progression of chronic periodontitis. In T. forsythia, KLIKK proteases are the recently identified group of proteolytic enzymes that are secreted through Type IX secretion system (T9SS). Among, these KLIKK proteases a synergistic relationship was observed between karilysin and mirolysin in invading the host complement system for the survival of the bacteria. Since, karilysin has been already characterized, in this study we propose to study about mirolysin through structural, biochemical and biological characterization. The obtained results from the experiments has shown the propensity ...


Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. McClain, Timothy L. Cover 2017 Vanderbilt University

Genetic Signatures For Helicobacter Pylori Strains Of West African Origin, Kennady K. Bullock, Carrie L. Shaffer, Andrew W. Brooks, Ousman Secka, Mark H. Forsyth, Mark S. Mcclain, Timothy L. Cover

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse bacterial species that colonizes the stomach in about half of the human population. Most persons colonized by H. pylori remain asymptomatic, but the presence of this organism is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Multiple populations and subpopulations of H. pylori with distinct geographic distributions are recognized. Genetic differences among these populations might be a factor underlying geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence. Relatively little is known about the genomic features of African H. pylori strains compared to other populations of strains. In this study, we first analyzed the genomes of H. pylori strains ...


Antibacterial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From The Medicinal Plant Vochysia Divergens (Pantanal, Brazil), Francielly M. W. Gos, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Jon S. Thorson, Rodrigo Aluizio, Yvelise M. Possiede, Jürgen Rohr, Chirlei Glienke 2017 Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

Antibacterial Activity Of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated From The Medicinal Plant Vochysia Divergens (Pantanal, Brazil), Francielly M. W. Gos, Daiani C. Savi, Khaled A. Shaaban, Jon S. Thorson, Rodrigo Aluizio, Yvelise M. Possiede, Jürgen Rohr, Chirlei Glienke

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM). However, to date, the knowledge about endophytes from Brazil remains scarce. Thus, we analyzed the antimicrobial potential of 10 actinomycetes isolated from the medicinal plant Vochysia divergens located in the Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, an unexplored wetland in Brazil. Strains were classified as belonging to the Aeromicrobium, Actinomadura, Microbacterium, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Sphaerisporangium, Streptomyces, and Williamsia genera, through morphological and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyzes. A susceptibility analysis demonstrated that the strains were largely resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin and nalidixic acid. Additionally, different culture media (SG and R5A), and temperatures ...


A Platform For The Discovery And Characterization Of Proteins That Associate With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Rna Polymerase, Danielle N. Brogren 2017 Northern Michigan University

A Platform For The Discovery And Characterization Of Proteins That Associate With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Rna Polymerase, Danielle N. Brogren

All NMU Master's Theses

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen notable for its ability to colonize the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Once the bacterium infects and colonizes humans, it is extremely difficult to eradicate. This leads to long-term infections that significantly damage the lungs and other tissues. P. aeruginosa infections are challenging to treat due to the bacterium’s natural antibiotic resistance and the rise of multidrug resistant strains. Development of novel drug treatments are a necessity.

In all organisms, the regulation of gene expression is a highly controlled process. Remarkably, in P. aeruginosa bioinformatics studies showed that 20% of its genome ...


Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth 2017 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth

Journal of Law and Health

The 2014 Toledo, Ohio tap water ban has, at least temporarily, put a spotlight on United States water supplies. Consequently, many Americans have begun to take a closer look at the quality of the fresh water bodies being used to supply tap water to their homes. Therefore, this Note analyzes the problems currently threatening the lakes, rivers, and other surface waters that are the source of fresh drinking water for huge populations in the United States. Part II examines the problem of nutrient pollution and explains the harmful effects it has on human health. Part III provides an overview of ...


Crystal Structure Of Yersinia Pestis Virulence Factor Yfea Reveals Two Polyspecific Metal-Binding Sites, Christopher D. Radka, Lawrence J. DeLucas, Landon S. Wilson, Matthew B. Lawrenz, Robert D. Perry, Stephen G. Aller 2017 The University of Alabama at Birmingham

Crystal Structure Of Yersinia Pestis Virulence Factor Yfea Reveals Two Polyspecific Metal-Binding Sites, Christopher D. Radka, Lawrence J. Delucas, Landon S. Wilson, Matthew B. Lawrenz, Robert D. Perry, Stephen G. Aller

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Gram-negative bacteria use siderophores, outer membrane receptors, inner membrane transporters and substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) to transport transition metals through the periplasm. The SBPs share a similar protein fold that has undergone significant structural evolution to communicate with a variety of differentially regulated transporters in the cell. In Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, YfeA (YPO2439, y1897), an SBP, is important for full virulence during mammalian infection. To better understand the role of YfeA in infection, crystal structures were determined under several environmental conditions with respect to transition-metal levels. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and anomalous X-ray scattering data show that YfeA ...


Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine 2017 University of Wyoming

Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...


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