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Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Prebiotics On Gut Bacterial Communities And Healing Of Induced Colitis In Mice, Krystyn Elizabeth Davis

Master's Theses

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and debilitating symptoms in those suffering from the diseases. After inducing colitis in a mouse model using Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS), prebiotics inulin and oligofructose enriched inulin (OEI) were used as treatments to determine their effects on the gut microbial community, physiological healing process, and immune response in the mice after initial inflammation and before subsequent inflammation, or relapse. The treatment with inulin led to an increase in regulatory T cell number, but this increase was not as significant as the increase induced by the OEI. Inulin increased the ...


Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, Christine D. Ridge 2016 Otterbein University

Gram-Negative Bacteria And Sepsis, Christine D. Ridge

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Today’s medical world encompasses an environment in which gram-negative bacteria that once were defeated with common antibiotics, have now become resistant. Gram-negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, and Acinetobacter are pathogens that are an emerging threat causing sepsis due to multidrug-resistance (Pop-Vicas & Opal, 2014, p.189). The multidrug-resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacteria coupled with a patient population commonly seen in hospital settings, that consist of immunocompromised adults due to advancing age, comorbidities (e.g. AIDS, history of transplants, diabetes, and chemotherapy), and immunotherapies, create an environment for advanced infection or sepsis to take place.

Complications of multidrug-resistant ...


Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Redesigning Gfp Reporter System For Utilization In Clostridium Difficile, Laura E. Fitzgerald

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive bacterium that comprises part of the healthy human gut microbiome. When it gains sufficient access to peptides, C. difficile flourishes and releases tissue-damaging toxins, which cause inflammation of the colon that can develop into a Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI).10 The Ivey Laboratory believes that the best tactic in preventing CDIs is stopping peptide ingestion, which theoretically could be accomplished by manipulating the oligopeptide permease (App) system.7 In order to verify that altering the App system would successfully impede peptide uptake, first the expression of the app Promoter Region (appProR) of ...


Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer H. Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer H. Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and ...


Epidemiology Crucial To Cracking Elizabethkingia Crisis, Angela Tonozzi 2016 Aurora Health Care

Epidemiology Crucial To Cracking Elizabethkingia Crisis, Angela Tonozzi

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The author explains the epidemiological methods, tools and personnel required to pinpoint the source of Wisconsin’s 2016 outbreak of Elizabethkingia infections.


Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf 2016 James Madison University

Bacteriophages: The Answer To Antibiotic Resistance?, Allie Casto, Adam Hurwitz, Kunny Kou, Gregory Mansour, Allison Mayzel, Rachel Policke, Alexander Schmidt, Rowan Shartel, Olivia Smith, Augustus Snyder, Allison Woolf

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have numerous applications in the medical, agricultural, and research fields, especially as an alternative to antibiotics in the age of antibiotic resistance. Phages are able to lyse, or break apart, bacterial cells with fewer side effects, more specificity, and less likelihood of resistance than antibiotics. The acceptance of phages in medicine and agriculture around the world today is not universal, and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been slow to recognize phage therapy as a legitimate treatment. However, the successful use of phages in the past, as well as promising trial results ...


Evaluation Of Induced Cells Of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous To Inhibit Fungi, Muzna Saqib 2016 Georgia State University

Evaluation Of Induced Cells Of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous To Inhibit Fungi, Muzna Saqib

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

An Analysis Of Bacterial Contamination Of Chicken Eggs And Antimicrobial Resistance, Holly Spitzer

All College Thesis Program

Chicken eggs are a major component of American diets, with an average yearly consumption of approximately 250 eggs per person (American Humane Society). While highly nutritious, eggs are also one of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illness in the United States. Eggs may become contaminated by a number of different types of bacteria during production, including Salmonella, a group of bacteria that, according to the CDC, causes more than 1.2 million cases of food borne illness in the United States every year. In an effort to decrease the frequency of bacterial contamination, many food producers ...


Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica Kram, Dennis Baumgardner, Kiley Bernhard, Melissa Lemke 2016 Center for Urban Population Health, Aurora Health Care

Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica Kram, Dennis Baumgardner, Kiley Bernhard, Melissa Lemke

Dennis Baumgardner

Background: Neonatal death rate in the United States is 4/1,000 live births; infant death rate is 6/1,000. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) may be transmitted from a colonized mother (rates vary from 15% to 35%) to the newborn during a vaginal delivery, and may contribute to neonatal death. Purpose: To explore the geographic distribution and associated risk factors for maternal GBS colonization and infant death prior to discharge in eastern Wisconsin births. Methods: Retrospective study of institutional data from PeriData.net, a comprehensive birth registry, utilizing data from 2007 through 2013 at all Aurora medical centers. Categorical ...


In Vitro Activity Of Polymyxin B And Meropenem Alone And In Combination Against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Brandon T. Kulengowski 2016 University of Kentucky

In Vitro Activity Of Polymyxin B And Meropenem Alone And In Combination Against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Brandon T. Kulengowski

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Background: Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are among the most urgent threats of the infectious disease realm. The incidence of these infections has only been increasing over the years and due to very limited treatment options, mortality is estimated at about 50%.

Methods: To evaluate the in vitro activity of meropenem and polymyxin B against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and time-kill studies were performed on K. pneumoniae clinical isolates representing a wide range of meropenem resistance (MICs 4 – 128 mg/L).

Results: Regrowth was observed at clinically relevant concentrations of meropenem alone ...


An Evaluation Of Antibiotic Resistance: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Tetracyclic Indolines As A Novel Class Of Resistance-Modifying Agents For Mrsa & Analysis Of Recent Fda Regulations On Antibiotic Use In Livestock, Lakota K. Cleaver 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

An Evaluation Of Antibiotic Resistance: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Tetracyclic Indolines As A Novel Class Of Resistance-Modifying Agents For Mrsa & Analysis Of Recent Fda Regulations On Antibiotic Use In Livestock, Lakota K. Cleaver

Undergraduate Honors Theses

While the rate at which resistance develops against antimicrobials rises, research and development for new antimicrobials declines. By placing selective pressure on bacteria we are inadvertently forcing bacteria into expressing and propagating genes conferring high levels of resistance. Continued misuse and overuse of antibiotics, in light of the evident problem developing, must be resolved. To find a resolve, a multidisciplinary and multifaceted approach must be taken which involves 1) research and development of novel antimicrobial agents and 2) governmental regulation.

Strides in new antimicrobial drug development largely revolve around making old antibiotics usable again. Resistance-Modifying Agents (RMAs) act to re-sensitize ...


Application Of The Split Gfp System To Listeria Monocytogenes To Visualize The Virulence Factor Inlc, Dilara Batan 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Application Of The Split Gfp System To Listeria Monocytogenes To Visualize The Virulence Factor Inlc, Dilara Batan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to survive in a range of environments and cell types, and therefore serves as an important model system for host-pathogen studies. Lm can enter mammalian cells and survive within these host cells by secreting a number of virulence proteins during these steps. In the literature, there are inconsistencies in the localizations of one of these effector proteins, InlC. In order to better understand the localizations of the Lm effector protein InlC in the live cell during infections, a split GFP approach is taken to fluorescently label the protein. This system ...


Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard 2015 University of San Francisco

Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 ushered in a new era of fiscal accountability for healthcare organizations. Healthcare organizations and providers are now jointly held responsible for the improved quality of patient care and sustained reductions in patient care events termed healthcare-acquired conditions. To ensure compliance with this newly enacted legislation, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began penalizing hospitals for targeted conditions leading to 30-day readmissions beginning in October 2012. Annually, CMS has focused attention on conditions that endanger patient health and welfare while secondarily attempting to reduce the excessive financial expenditures in care ...


Development Of Oral Vaccines Against Lyme Disease, Rita Raquel dos Anjos de Carvalho e Melo 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Development Of Oral Vaccines Against Lyme Disease, Rita Raquel Dos Anjos De Carvalho E Melo

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Lyme Disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. If left untreated, it can lead to permanent damage to the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. In some cases, patients that receive the recommended antibiotic therapy develop a debilitating health condition associated with substantial health care costs. Despite current preventive measures, the incidence and the geographic distribution of Lyme Disease continues to increase. Recent estimates from CDC suggest that the true number of cases of Lyme Disease in the US is approximately 300,000 per year. Yet, there is currently no ...


Genetic Control Of Survival And Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Bp) Infection, Felicia D. Emery 2015 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Genetic Control Of Survival And Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Bp) Infection, Felicia D. Emery

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is a saprophytic, gram-negative aerobe and the causative agent of the disease melioidosis. Melioidosis is an infectious disease that occurs in humans and animals and is prevalent in Southeast Asia, northern Australia and other tropical areas. Transmission occurs through direct contact with the organism via ingestion, inhalation, or through open wounds and skin abrasions. Clinical presentation is extremely variable and can range from acute septicemia with bacterial dissemination to distant sites, to an isolated pulmonary infection. Treatment of melioidosis can be problematic because it is often difficult to diagnose and Bp is resistant to a diverse group ...


Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley A. Bernhard, Melissa A. Lemke 2015 Center for Urban Population Health, Aurora Health Care

Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley A. Bernhard, Melissa A. Lemke

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Neonatal death rate in the United States is 4/1,000 live births; infant death rate is 6/1,000. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) may be transmitted from a colonized mother (rates vary from 15% to 35%) to the newborn during a vaginal delivery, and may contribute to neonatal death.

Purpose: To explore the geographic distribution and associated risk factors for maternal GBS colonization and infant death prior to discharge in eastern Wisconsin births.

Methods: Retrospective study of institutional data from PeriData.net, a comprehensive birth registry, utilizing data from 2007 through 2013 at all Aurora medical centers. Categorical ...


Metagenomes From High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls On Microbial Community Structure And Function, William Inskeep, Douglas Rusch, Zackary Jay, Markus Herrgard, Mark Kozubal, Toby Richardson, Richard Macur, Natsuko Hamamura, Ryan Jennings, Bruce Fouke, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Frank Roberto, Mark Young, Ariel Schwartz, Eric Boyd, Jonathan Badger, Eric Mathur, Alice Ortmann, Mary Bateson, Gill Geesey 2015 Montana State University - Bozeman

Metagenomes From High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls On Microbial Community Structure And Function, William Inskeep, Douglas Rusch, Zackary Jay, Markus Herrgard, Mark Kozubal, Toby Richardson, Richard Macur, Natsuko Hamamura, Ryan Jennings, Bruce Fouke, Anna-Louise Reysenbach, Frank Roberto, Mark Young, Ariel Schwartz, Eric Boyd, Jonathan Badger, Eric Mathur, Alice Ortmann, Mary Bateson, Gill Geesey

Anna-Louise Reysenbach

The Yellowstone caldera contains the most numerous and diverse geothermal systems on Earth, yielding an extensive array of unique high-temperature environments that host a variety of deeply-rooted and understudied Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The combination of extreme temperature and chemical conditions encountered in geothermal environments often results in considerably less microbial diversity than other terrestrial habitats and offers a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities and for establishing linkages between putative metabolisms and element cycling. Metagenome sequence (14-15,000 Sanger reads per site) was obtained for five hightemperature (>65°C) chemotrophic microbial communities sampled ...


Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey 2015 Olivet Nazarene University

Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to counter-current or flash chromatographic methods. Some of the crude extracts and chromatographic fractions had anti-tuberculosis and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang, 2006. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants, many of which have not been investigated for their ...


Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2015 Chapman University

Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose. Antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, allowing significant progress in healthcare and improvement in life expectancy. Development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a natural phenomenon; however, the rate of antibiotic resistance emergence is increasing at an alarming rate, due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics in healthcare, agriculture and even everyday products. Traditionally, antibiotic discovery has been conducted by screening extracts of microorganisms for antimicrobial activity. However, this conventional source has been over-used to such an extent that it poses the risk of “running out” of new antibiotics. Aiming to increase access to a greater diversity of microorganisms, a ...


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