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Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer 2018 Western Oregon University

Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer

PURE Insights

Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...


Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Vancomycin Delays Clindamycin-Induced Fatality In The Hamster Model Of Clostridioides [Clostridium] Difficile Infection, Amelia E. Fox-King, Chrisabelle Mefferd, Jacqueline R. Phan, Nancy O. Nou, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Antibiotics can leave the host gut microbiome susceptible to Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile colonization and lethal toxin production. For instance, clindamycin-induced susceptibility to C. difficile infection (CDI) results in rapid fatality in hamster models, yet vancomycin has been shown to offer increased survival in hamsters challenged with C. difficile. We aim to develop an antibiotic treatment that will facilitate CDI susceptibility without prompt fatality in hamster models. An antibiotic regimen starting with a continuous vancomycin treatment along with a single clindamycin dosage is thought to reduce the major disruption in the indigenous gut microbiome and prevent clindamycin-induced death. Quantitative polymerase chain ...


Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust 2018 The New School

Simulating Antibiotic Resistance In The Computer Lab And Biology Lab: Ideas For Undergraduate Projects, Anne E. Yust

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Implementing Strategies To Reduce Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections On An Inpatient Pediatric Unit, Sherryann St. Pierre, Nicole Manchester, Jessica Howe, Melanie Lord, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Barbara Bush Children's Hospital 2018 Maine Medical Center

Implementing Strategies To Reduce Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections On An Inpatient Pediatric Unit, Sherryann St. Pierre, Nicole Manchester, Jessica Howe, Melanie Lord, Mark Parker, Suneela Nayak, Ruth Hanselman, Stephen Tyzik, Amy Sparks, Barbara Bush Children's Hospital

Operational Excellence

STRATEGIES TO REDUCE CENTRAL LINE ASSOCIATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS

Every central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) leads to poor outcomes, increased mortality and increased healthcare costs. A pediatric care team in an academic tertiary medical center set a goal to reduce the number of these infections on their unit.

The team’s research showed that daily bathing greatly decreases CLABSI. Their baseline metrics demonstrated an unacceptable level of those with central lines being bathed. A root cause analysis revealed that patient and family refusal was the leading cause for those who did not bathe.

A performance improvement plan was initiated that ...


Herpes Icp8 Protein Stimulates Homologous Recombination In Human Cells, Melvys Valledor, Richard S. Myers, Paul C. Schiller 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Herpes Icp8 Protein Stimulates Homologous Recombination In Human Cells, Melvys Valledor, Richard S. Myers, Paul C. Schiller

Open Access Articles

Recombineering has transformed functional genomic analysis. Genome modification by recombineering using the phage lambda Red homologous recombination protein Beta in Escherichia coli has approached 100% efficiency. While highly efficient in E. coli, recombineering using the Red Synaptase/Exonuclease pair (SynExo) in other organisms declines in efficiency roughly correlating with phylogenetic distance from E. coli. SynExo recombinases are common to double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a variety of organisms, including humans. Human Herpes virus 1 (HHV1) encodes a SynExo comprised of ICP8 synaptase and UL12 exonuclease. In a previous study, the Herpes SynExo was reconstituted in vitro and shown to catalyze a ...


A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Persistence detection is a mechanism that ensures a physiological output is only executed when the relevant input is sustained. Gene regulatory network circuits known as coherent type 1 feed forward loops (FFLs) with an AND-logic gate have been proposed to generate persistence detection. In such circuits two transcription factors (TFs) are both required to activate target genes and one of the two TFs activates the other. While numerous FFLs have been identified, examples of actual persistence detectors have only been described for bacteria. Here, we discover a transcriptional persistence detector in Caenorhabditis elegans involving the nuclear hormone receptors nhr-10 and ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco 2018 Tufts University

Transcriptome Analysis Of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae During Natural Infection Reveals Differential Expression Of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Between Men And Women, Kathleen Nudel, Ryan Mcclure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A. Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A. Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection. Here, we defined gonococcal global transcriptional responses in urethral specimens from men with symptomatic urethritis and compared these with transcriptional responses in specimens obtained from women ...


Draft Genome Sequence Of Bifidobacterium Longum Uma026, Isolated From Holstein Dairy Cow Feces, Korin Albert, David Sela 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Draft Genome Sequence Of Bifidobacterium Longum Uma026, Isolated From Holstein Dairy Cow Feces, Korin Albert, David Sela

Open Access Articles

The draft genome sequence of an isolate identified as Bifidobacterium longum is communicated herein. This strain was isolated from the feces of a 1-week-old Holstein dairy cow. The draft genome of this Bifidobacterium longum isolate is 2.39 Mb in length, with a G+C content of 60.1%.


The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela

Open Access Articles

Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing identified these isolates as unique strains of Bifidobacterium callitrichos. All three strains, including these ...


Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz NMD, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland 2018 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz Nmd, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson 2018 University of Kentucky

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism ...


Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


Polymorphic Factor H-Binding Activity Of Cspa Protects Lyme Borreliae From The Host Complement In Feeding Ticks To Facilitate Tick-To-Host Transmission, Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Nguyen Thu, Nancy A. Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin 2018 State University of New York at Albany

Polymorphic Factor H-Binding Activity Of Cspa Protects Lyme Borreliae From The Host Complement In Feeding Ticks To Facilitate Tick-To-Host Transmission, Thomas Hart, Ngoc Thien Nguyen Thu, Nancy A. Nowak, Fuming Zhang, Robert J. Linhardt, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin

Open Access Articles

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), the causative agent of Lyme disease, establishes an initial infection in the host's skin following a tick bite, and then disseminates to distant organs, leading to multisystem manifestations. Tick-to-vertebrate host transmission requires that Bbsl survives during blood feeding. Complement is an important innate host defense in blood and interstitial fluid. Bbsl produces a polymorphic surface protein, CspA, that binds to a complement regulator, Factor H (FH) to block complement activation in vitro. However, the role that CspA plays in the Bbsl enzootic cycle remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that different CspA variants ...


Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Cd4+ And Cd8+ T Cells Differ In Their Capacity To Recognize Infected Macrophages, Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Stephen M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Specific Cd4+ And Cd8+ T Cells Differ In Their Capacity To Recognize Infected Macrophages, Jason D. Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Stephen M. Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M. Fortune, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Articles

Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and sustained CD8+ T cell response during Mtb infection, CD8+ T cells make limited contribution to protection. Here, we ask whether the ability of Mtb-specific T cells to restrict Mtb growth is related to their capacity to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We derived CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the Mtb immunodominant epitope TB10.44-11 and compared them to CD4+ T cell lines that recognized Ag85b240-254 or ESAT63-17. While the CD4+ T cells recognized Mtb-infected ...


Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best 2018 University of Louisville

Nutritional Virulence Of Legionella Pneumophila., Ashley M. Best

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legionella pneumophila is an environment organism that parasitizes a wide range of protozoa. Growth within the environmental host primes L. pneumophila for infection of human alveolar macrophages when contaminated aerosols are inhaled. Intracellular replication within either host requires the establishment a replicative niche, known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Biogenesis of the LCV depends on the type IVb translocation system, the Dot/Icm, to translocation >320 effectors into the host cytosol. Effectors are responsible for preventing lysosome fusion to the LCV, recruitment of ER-derived vesicles to the LCV, and modulation of a plethora of host processes to promote the ...


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su 2018 Peking Union Medical College

Increasing Resistance To Azithromycin In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae In Eastern Chinese Cities: Resistance Mechanisms And Genetic Diversity Among Isolates From Nanjing, Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Bao-Xi Wang, Peter A. Rice, Xiao-Hong Su

Open Access Articles

Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. A total of 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Among the 384 isolates, 124 (32.3%) were AZM-R. High-level resistance (MIC, > /=256 mg/liter) was ...


Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah 2018 East Tennessee State University

Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction:

Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram negative ubiquitous bacteria commonly isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, fruits and animal/human feces usually introduced to human by ingestion of infected fruits/vegetables, thorn pricks and gastrointestinal translocation in lack of stomach acidity. However, the pathogen can also cause opportunistic human infection especially when the immune system is impaired. The aim of this case report is to investigate clinical features in a patient with P. agglomerans bacteremia and bring attention the opportunistic infection by this rare bacteria.

Case presentation:

We present a case of 57 year old caucasian lady with past medical history ...


Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel 2018 South Dakota State University

Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel

Volker Brozel


Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as serotype O157:H7, are a leading cause of food-associated outbreaks. While the primary reservoir is associated with cattle, plant foods have been associated as sources of human infection. E. coli is able to growin the tissue of food plants such as spinach. While fecal contamination is the primary suspect, soil has been underestimated as a potential reservoir. Persistence of bacterial populations in open systems is the product of growth, death, predation, and competition. Here we report that E. coli O157:H7 can grow using the soluble compounds in soil, and characterize the effect of soil ...


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