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Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton 2020 University of Kentucky College of Medicine

Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Referral To Care For People Living With Hiv In Appalachia, Cameron A. Wade, Timothy N. Crawford, Nicole Leedy, Alice C. Thornton

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted on March 23, 2010 significantly impacted access to healthcare for people living with HIV (PLWH). Expansion of care was accomplished in three areas: eliminating exclusions for pre-existing conditions, elimination of lifetime caps on healthcare expenditures, and expansion of Medicaid eligibility.

Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of state implementation of the ACA Medicaid expansion on referral to HIV care at a Ryan White federally funded clinic in Kentucky (University of Kentucky Bluegrass Care Clinic [UK BCC]).

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newly enrolled patients at the UK BCC between March 2010 and …


The Current State Of Migrant Health In Morocco: Pre-And Peri-Covid-19 Pandemic, Layla Babahaji 2020 SIT Study Abroad

The Current State Of Migrant Health In Morocco: Pre-And Peri-Covid-19 Pandemic, Layla Babahaji

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In the early 21st century, Morocco transitioned from being a predominantly transit migration country into both a transit and destination country for migrants. In 2013, the Moroccan government took significant steps to adapt the healthcare system in better integrating migrants in its policies. The government implemented the National Strategy on Immigration and Asylum that improved access to public health care for migrants. Recently, in March of 2020, Morocco declared a state of medical emergency due to the current COVID-19 pandemic that continues today. This paper addresses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the current state of migrant health in …


On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson 2020 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is …


Mapping Misinformation In The Coronavirus Outbreak, Ana Santos Rutschman 2020 Saint Louis University School of Law

Mapping Misinformation In The Coronavirus Outbreak, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The coronavirus outbreak has sent ripples of fear and confusion across the world. These sentiments—and our collective responses to the outbreak—are made worse by rampant misinformation surrounding the new strain of the virus, COVID-2019. In this post, I survey some of the most pervasive areas of tentacular coronavirus-related misinformation that has proliferated online -- as well as the responses of social media companies like YouTube, Facebook, Pinterest and TikTok that may ultimately prove inadequate given the magnitude of the problem.


Generation Of An Oncolytic Adenovirus Targeting The Cxcr4 And Cxcr7 Chemokine Receptors In Breast Cancer, Samia Melissa O'Bryan 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Generation Of An Oncolytic Adenovirus Targeting The Cxcr4 And Cxcr7 Chemokine Receptors In Breast Cancer, Samia Melissa O'Bryan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women under 60 and the second most diagnosed cancer in women over 60. While treatments for localized breast cancer are quite successful with high survival rates at 99%, advanced breast cancer remains hard to treat with a nearly 75% decrease in survival. Current treatments are inefficient at treating advanced stages of breast cancer, and thus, new therapies are sorely needed to address the complexity of advanced stage breast cancer. The ideal therapy would be capable of systemic administration, targets cancer cells and spares normal tissue. Oncolytic adenovirus is an ideal therapeutic vector …


Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Iiv-6 Inhibits Nf-Kappab Responses In Drosophila, Cara C. West, Florentina Rus, Ying Chen, Anni Kleino, Monique Gangloff, Don B. Gammon, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur …


Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang 2019 Duke University

Control Of Antiviral Innate Immune Response By Protein Geranylgeranylation, Shigao Yang, Zhaozhao Jiang, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Donghai Wang

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates …


Complex History Of Codiversification And Host Switching Of A Newfound Soricid-Borne Orthohantavirus In North America, Schuyler W. Liphardt, Hae Ji Kang, Laurie J. Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara 2019 University of New Mexico

Complex History Of Codiversification And Host Switching Of A Newfound Soricid-Borne Orthohantavirus In North America, Schuyler W. Liphardt, Hae Ji Kang, Laurie J. Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Orthohantaviruses are tightly linked to the ecology and evolutionary history of their mammalian hosts. We hypothesized that in regions with dramatic climate shifts throughout the Quaternary, orthohantavirus diversity and evolution are shaped by dynamic host responses to environmental change through processes such as host isolation, host switching, and reassortment. Jemez Springs virus (JMSV), an orthohantavirus harbored by the dusky shrew (Sorex monticola) and five close relatives distributed widely in western North America, was used to test this hypothesis. Total RNAs, extracted from liver or lung tissue from 164 shrews collected from western North America during 1983–2007, were analyzed for orthohantavirus …


Phylogenetic Estimates Of Hiv-1 Gp120 Indel Rates Across The Group M Subtypes, John Palmer, Art Poon 2019 Western University

Phylogenetic Estimates Of Hiv-1 Gp120 Indel Rates Across The Group M Subtypes, John Palmer, Art Poon

Western Research Forum

Insertions and deletions (indels) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 play a significant role in the evolution of HIV pathogenesis and transmission fitness. While substitution rates in HIV-1 are well characterized by phylogenetic models, there is a lack of quantitative measures of indel rates in HIV-1. Here we use a dated-tip phylogenetic analysis of gp120 sequences to estimate indel rates for 7 subtypes and CRFs of HIV-1 group M.

We obtained and processed 26,359 HIV-1 gp120 sequences from the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV Sequence database. After filtering these sequences, we extracted the conserved and variable regions from the remaining …


The Association Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Andrew Allee 2019 Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri

The Association Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Reactivation And Alzheimer’S Disease, Andrew Allee

BIO 410 Spring 2019 Research Papers

This review will focus on the interaction of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and its causative role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) noting specifically, the epidemiological relevance of addressing this problem, as well as the molecular pathways associated. HSV-1 reactivation tends to be one of the primary causative events that is responsible for many of the pathologies associated with AD, such as: amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation caused by malfunctioning cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. HSV-1 reactivation is a primary causative event in downstream dysfunction and is also shown to be directed by …


Anti-Crispr Vs. Crispr: The Evolutionary Arms Race Between Microorganisms, Rachael M. St. Jacques 2019 James Madison University

Anti-Crispr Vs. Crispr: The Evolutionary Arms Race Between Microorganisms, Rachael M. St. Jacques

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

CRISPR arrays are a defense mechanism employed by bacteria against viral invaders. Cas proteins do the work in detecting, capturing, and integrating the viral DNA into the CRISPR array (Barrangou et al., 2007). Anti-CRISPR proteins are produced by phages, viruses that infect bacteria, to stop the bacterial host’s CRISPR-Cas complex from interrupting the phage life cycle (Bondy-Denomy, et al., 2015).

SEA-PHAGES is a course-based bacteriophage research network composed of 120 colleges and known at James Madison University as Viral Discovery. JMU uses the unsequenced Streptomyces griseus ATCC10137 as a host for bacteriophage discovery and propagation, and in this study we …


Effects Of Ambient And Laser Light On Water Evaporation From The Surface Of Polyurethane Swabs Doped With Surfactant, Collin Campbell 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Ambient And Laser Light On Water Evaporation From The Surface Of Polyurethane Swabs Doped With Surfactant, Collin Campbell

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyurethane swabs are a common instrument for environmental sampling in the food, medical, and forensic fields due to their high recovery of organisms like viruses, spores, and bacteria. For sampling microbes in food and medical facilities, storage of the collected samples occurs under the absence of light to promote growth for more accurate testing. In the forensic fields, microbial growth results in sample contamination so the inhibition of this growth requires the drying of the swabs. This work studies the evaporation rates of water from polyurethane swabs under zero watt incident light, 30 W fluorescent bulb, 50 mW 532 nm …


Severity Of Disease And Mortality For Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Viral Pneumonia Compared To Patients With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Richard Y. Kim, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Rodrigo Cavallazzi 2019 University of Louisville

Severity Of Disease And Mortality For Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Viral Pneumonia Compared To Patients With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia, Richard Y. Kim, Thomas Chandler, Stephen P. Furmanek, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: There exists a large body of literature to help identify, diagnose, treat, and manage community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Despite this, there is little data that directly compares the clinical syndromes and complications of pure bacterial pneumonia to pure viral pneumonia. Our study compares the clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of viral vs. bacterial etiologies of CAP.

Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) international study database. Data was collected concerning patient demographics, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, radiological findings, severity of illness, and clinical outcomes and stratified according to the two study groups, CAVP …


The N-Glycan Structures Of The Antigenic Variants Of Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Protein Help To Identify The Virus-Encoded Glycosyltransferases, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Luca Unione, Irina Agarkova, Domenico Garozzo, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Sicheng Lin, Todd L. Lowary, Antonio Molinaro, Eric Noel, Maria Elena Laugieri, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro 2019 University of Napoli

The N-Glycan Structures Of The Antigenic Variants Of Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Protein Help To Identify The Virus-Encoded Glycosyltransferases, Immacolata Speciale, Garry A. Duncan, Luca Unione, Irina Agarkova, Domenico Garozzo, Jesus Jimenez-Barbero, Sicheng Lin, Todd L. Lowary, Antonio Molinaro, Eric Noel, Maria Elena Laugieri, Michela Tonetti, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro

James Van Etten Publications

The chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is a large dsDNA virus that infects the microalga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. Unlike most other viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery required to glycosylate its major capsid protein (MCP). The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the PBCV-1 MCP consist of nonasaccharides, and similar glycans are not found elsewhere in the three domains of life. Here, we identified the roles of three virus-encoded glycosyltransferases (GTs) that have four distinct GT activities in glycan synthesis. Two of the three GTs were previously annotated as GTs but the third …


Chloroviruses Lure Hosts Through Long-Distance Chemical Signaling, David Dunigan, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Irina Agarkova, John DeLong, James L. Van Etten 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chloroviruses Lure Hosts Through Long-Distance Chemical Signaling, David Dunigan, Maitham Ahmed Al-Sammak, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Irina Agarkova, John Delong, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses exist in aquatic systems around the planet where they infect certain eukaryotic green algae that are mutualistic endosymbionts in a variety of protists and metazoans. Natural chlorovirus populations are seasonally dynamic but the precise temporal changes in these populations and the mechanisms that underlie them have, heretofore, been unclear. We recently reported the novel concept that predator/prey-mediated virus activation regulates chlorovirus population dynamics, and in the current manuscript demonstrate virus packaged chemotactic modulation of prey behavior.

Viruses have not previously been reported to act as chemotactic/chemo-attractive agents. Rather, viruses as extracellular entities are generally viewed as non-metabolically active spore-like …


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams 2018 James Madison University

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2016 to 2019

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles …


Capsid Structure Of Dsrna Fungal Viruses, Daniel Luque, Carlos P. Mata, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón 2018 Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Spain

Capsid Structure Of Dsrna Fungal Viruses, Daniel Luque, Carlos P. Mata, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José R. Castón

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Most fungal, double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses lack an extracellular life cycle stage and are transmitted by cytoplasmic interchange. dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, nevertheless, are dynamic particles involved in the organization of the viral genome and the viral polymerase necessary for RNA synthesis. The atomic structure of the T = 1 capsids of four mycoviruses was resolved: the L-A virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScV-L-A), Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), Penicillium stoloniferum virus F (PsV-F), and Rosellinia necatrix …


Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen 2018 College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University; Institute for Family Health

Using Clinical Decision Support Within The Electronic Health Record To Reduce Incorrect Prescribing For Acute Sinusitis, Regina Ginzburg, Justin J. Conway, Eve Waltermaurer, Wendy Song, Samantha P. Jellinek-Cohen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Acute sinusitis has viral etiology in more than 90% of cases, but antibiotics are prescribed for more than 80% of adults in the United States. While applications of computer-assisted guidelines have been found effective in reducing inaccurate prescribing for acute respiratory infections, there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the utilization of electronic best practice alerts (BPA) in improving treatment for acute sinusitis.

Methods: This observational cohort study examined prescribing behavior for sinusitis at a single Federally Qualified Health Center 1 year prior and during the first year of implementation of a BPA in the electronic health …


Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which is a multi-factorial disorder involving co-infections of viruses and bacteria including mycoplasma. BRDC causes great economic losses to the United States feedlot industry. BVDV infection induces immunosuppression in infected animals. BVDV Npro binds and degrades the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and effectively blocks type I interferon (type I IFN) expression in host cells. BRSV nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2, block activation of IRF-3. In calves, concurrent infection with BVDV and BRSV resulted in more severe clinical signs …


Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo 2018 University of Kentucky

Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Virus particles protect genomes from hostile environments within and outside the host, eventually delivering these genomes to target tissues to initiate infection. Complex processes requiring significant energy and time are necessary to assemble these virus particles, but only a small portion of released virus will successfully infect new target cells (Fig 1A). While the science of virology has developed based on the isolation and purification of viral particles, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cell-to-cell transmission of viruses and/or viral components is also highly relevant [1,2].

Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages. The first is efficiency: genomic …


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