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Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the nanoparticles formed ...


Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov 2022 University of Rhode Island

Integration Of Medicinal Fungi Into The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden, Anthony Makashov

Senior Honors Projects

The Heber W. Youngken Jr. Medicinal Garden is a one-of-a-kind resource that houses close to 300 medicinal plants and is filled to the brim with educational opportunities. For the College of Pharmacy, this garden has been the centerpiece of many classes taught here at the University of Rhode Island and has roots as a physical teaching space. While the garden contains a plethora of plant species, medicinal fungi have yet to have been included in the garden, despite their relevance as both sources of pharmaceutical drug discovery and as natural products with inherent physiological benefits themselves. The purpose of my ...


Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall 2021 Johns Hopkins University

Cryptococcus Neoformans Melanization Incorporates Multiple Catecholamines To Produce Polytypic Melanin, Rosanna P. Baker, Christine Chrissian, Ruth E. Stark, Arturo Casadevall

Publications and Research

Melanin is a major virulence factor in pathogenic fungi that enhances the ability of fungal cells to resist immune clearance. Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human pathogenic fungus that synthesizes melanin from exogenous tissue catecholamine precursors during infection, but the type of melanin made in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is unknown. We analyzed the efficacy of various catecholamines found in brain tissue in supporting melanization using animal brain tissue and synthetic catecholamine mixtures reflecting brain tissue proportions. Solid-state NMR spectra of the melanin pigment produced from such mixtures yielded more melanin than expected if only the preferred constituent dopamine had been incorporated ...


Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell 2021 Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Micronutrient Supplements Can Promote Disruptive Protozoan And Fungal Communities In The Developing Infant Gut, Ana Popovic, Celine Bourdon, Pauline W. Wang, David S. Guttman, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Robert H J. Bandsma, John Parkinson, Lisa G. Pell

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health

Supplementation with micronutrients, including vitamins, iron and zinc, is a key strategy to alleviate child malnutrition. However, association of gastrointestinal disorders with iron has led to ongoing debate over their administration. To better understand their impact on gut microbiota, we analyse the bacterial, protozoal, fungal and helminth communities of stool samples collected from a subset of 80 children at 12 and 24 months of age, previously enrolled into a large cluster randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in Pakistan (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00705445). We show that while bacterial diversity is reduced in supplemented children, vitamins and iron (as well as ...


Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer

Faculty Publications

The stress response gene DDR48 has been characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans to be involved in combating various cellular stressors, from oxidative agents to antifungal compounds. Surprisingly, the biological function of DDR48 has yet to be identified, though it is likely an important part of the stress response. To gain insight into its function, we characterized DDR48 in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. Transcriptional analyses showed preferential expression of DDR48 in the mycelial phase. Induction of DDR48 in Histoplasma yeasts developed after treatment with various cellular stress compounds. We generated a ddr48∆ deletion mutant to further characterize ...


Impact Of Pulse Oximetry On Hospital Referral Acceptance In Children Under 5 With Severe Pneumonia In Rural Pakistan (District Jamshoro): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Trial, Fatima Mir, Apsara Ali, Suhail Chanar, Amjad Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Imran Ahmed, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2021 Aga Khan University

Impact Of Pulse Oximetry On Hospital Referral Acceptance In Children Under 5 With Severe Pneumonia In Rural Pakistan (District Jamshoro): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Trial, Fatima Mir, Apsara Ali, Suhail Chanar, Amjad Hussain, Arjumand Rizvi, Imran Ahmed, Zahid Memon, Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under 5 specifically in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Hypoxaemia is a life-threatening complication among children under 5 with pneumonia. Hypoxaemia increases risk of mortality by 4.3 times in children with pneumonia than those without hypoxaemia. Prevalence of hypoxaemia varies with geography, altitude and severity (9%-39% Asia, 3%-10% African countries). In this protocol paper, we describe research methods for assessing impact of Lady Health Workers (LHWs) identifying hypoxaemia in children with signs of pneumonia during household visits on acceptance of hospital referral in district Jamshoro, Sindh.
Methods ...


Molecular Detection Of Aspergillus Flavus In Georgia Peanut, Variety Tifguard., Carolle Zolome 2021 Kennesaw State University

Molecular Detection Of Aspergillus Flavus In Georgia Peanut, Variety Tifguard., Carolle Zolome

Symposium of Student Scholars

Peanuts provide a good source of protein, minerals, and vitamins to consumers. The US peanut industry suffers great losses of nearly $26 million annually due to contamination by Aspergillus species. In spite of strict control measures against Aspergillus species, the industry is still facing economic loss due to contamination by this mold. Poor storage of peanuts in commercial outlets can lead to infection by the mold, releasing aflatoxin which is carcinogenic. A number of DNA based techniques are currently available for identification of the fungal population. This research aims at identifying if peanut, the variety Tifguard which is highly recommended ...


Effects Of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus Flavus In Peanuts, Onachukwu Nwolisa 2021 Kennesaw State University

Effects Of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus Flavus In Peanuts, Onachukwu Nwolisa

Symposium of Student Scholars

Effects of Neem Oil On Growth And Development Of Aspergillus flavus in peanuts**

Ona Nwolisa and Premila N Achar1

1Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA.

Aspergillus flavus is known to contaminate peanuts and produce aflatoxin which are carcinogenic metabolites. According to the USDA, more than $1 billion is spent on infection and prevention. Currently there is no single method known to eradicate Aspergillus spp. in peanuts and the industry continue to face the aflatoxin problem. There has been an increased interest in use of plant based antifungal products which are environmentally friendly and ...


Fungi: Are They Plants Or Animals?, Himanshu YN, Sufyan Ibrahim, Revathi P. Shenoy Dr 2021 Kasturba Manipal College, Manipal

Fungi: Are They Plants Or Animals?, Himanshu Yn, Sufyan Ibrahim, Revathi P. Shenoy Dr

Manipal Journal of Medical Sciences

The status of fungi in the phylogenetic setup still continues to be an intriguing question in biological sciences. Having long been considered as close relatives of plants, over the years, their resemblance towards animals has been brought into the greater limelight. While the vast diversity of the group demands a separate kingdom, evolution biology coaxes us to trace back their ancestry and establish similarities between different kingdoms and as newer pieces of evidence emerge up, the question as to whether fungi are plants or animals, remains contentious.


Telomeric And Sub-Telomeric Structure And Implications In Fungal Opportunistic Pathogens, Raffaella Diotti, Michelle Esposito, Chang Hui Shen 2021 CUNY Bronx Community College

Telomeric And Sub-Telomeric Structure And Implications In Fungal Opportunistic Pathogens, Raffaella Diotti, Michelle Esposito, Chang Hui Shen

Publications and Research

Telomeres are long non-coding regions found at the ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes. Although they have traditionally been associated with the protection of linear DNA ends to avoid gene losses during each round of DNA replication, recent studies have demonstrated that the role of these sequences and their adjacent regions go beyond just protecting chromosomal ends. Regions nearby to telomeric sequences have now been identified as having increased variability in the form of duplications and rearrangements that result in new functional abilities and biodiversity. Furthermore, unique fungal telomeric and chromatin structures have now extended clinical capabilities and understanding of pathogenicity ...


289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith 2021 SUNY Geneseo

289— Phenotypic Characterization Of Neurospora Crassa Fsd-1 Overexpression Strains, Hannah Smith

GREAT Day

Neurospora crassa is a model filamentous fungal organism that can reproduce both asexually and sexually. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the N. crassa female sexual development cycle. The transcription factor fsd-1 is necessary for sexual development, and fsd-1 deletion strains show delayed development of female reproductive structures and are sterile. Through previous experiments, we have been able to determine that there are three different transcripts of the fsd-1 gene, which differ by the length and intron/exon structure of their 5’ untranslated region. This project focuses on phenotypically characterizing the reproductive ability of strains overexpressing fsd-1 ...


Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe 2021 University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Microbiological Study In A Gneissic Cave From Sri Lanka, With Special Focus On Potential Antimicrobial Activities, Ethige Isuru P. Silva, Pathmakumara Jayasingha, Saman Senanayake, Anura Dandeniya, Dona Helani Munasinghe

International Journal of Speleology

The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis, thus the search for novel antimicrobial compounds has become a continuous necessity. Underexplored and extreme environments, such as cave ecosystems, have been identified as a promising potential source for the discovery of novel microorganisms with novel antimicrobial compounds (AMC). This study presents the first cave microbiological investigation in Sri Lanka, with a special preference for bioprospecting of novel AMC. The cave sediment characterization demonstrated the presence of close to strong acidic conditions (pH 3.1 – 3.3) and thus indicates the possibility of isolating acidophilic microorganisms. Eight cave wall/ceiling ...


Sociodemographic, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcomes Of Influenza Pneumonia Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Fazal Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Kashif Aziz, Mahmooda Jabeen Ashraf, Tazein Amber, Sumera Aziz Ali 2021 Aga Khan University

Sociodemographic, Clinical Characteristics, And Outcomes Of Influenza Pneumonia Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study, Fazal Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Kashif Aziz, Mahmooda Jabeen Ashraf, Tazein Amber, Sumera Aziz Ali

Section of Internal Medicine

Objective: To determine the sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of influenza pneumonia patients in tertiary care hospital, Karachi Pakistan.
Study design: A cross-sectional study.
Place and duration of study: The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2018. Methodology: All adult patients who were older than 18 years and suspected to have viral pneumonia were included in the study. Data were abstracted on 105 patients and were entered on preformed proforma after reviewing the files of patients.
Results: Ninety-four (89.5%) patients were influenza positive and 15.2% (n=16) had been vaccinated. Around 92.4 ...


Covid-19 Presenting With Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Intisar Ahmed, Hunaina Shahab, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Muhammad Sohaib 2021 Aga Khan University

Covid-19 Presenting With Spontaneous Pneumothorax, Intisar Ahmed, Hunaina Shahab, Muhammad Arslan Ahmed, Muhammad Sohaib

Section of Cardiology

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease mainly affects respiratory system. Its common clinical findings include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Characteristic radiological features of the disease include peripherally distributed, bilateral ground-glass opacities, predominantly involving the lower lung zones. In this report, we present a case of COVID-19 disease presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax. A 26-year male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department with fever, dry cough, shortness of breath and right-sided chest pain. Radiographic imaging of the patient revealed pneumothorax on the right and peripherally distributed non-homogenous opacification ...


Valley Fever: Education For Primary Care Providers And Allied Health Care Professionals, Michelle Elizabeth Bergen 2020 University of San Francisco

Valley Fever: Education For Primary Care Providers And Allied Health Care Professionals, Michelle Elizabeth Bergen

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Valley Fever: Educating Primary Care Providers and Allied Healthcare Professionals

Abstract

Problem: Coccidioidomycosis (cocci), informally Valley Fever (VF), infects the lungs with the fungal spore coccidioides. It is prevalent in areas where soil disturbance occurs. Currently, there are no related educational or standardized guidelines exist for primary care providers (PCPs) in California’s Central Valley, where VF is highly endemic (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).

Context: A Doctor of Nursing Practice project educational program for PCPs and allied healthcare workers (AHWs) at the Adventist Health Central Valley Network (AHCVN) clinics. The project aimed to educate PCPs to recognize ...


Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko 2020 University of Maine - Main

Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko

Honors College

Chytridiomycota is a phylum of microscopic aquatic fungi that form motile spores that typically have a single posterior flagellum, thus they require water to disperse (James et al., 2000). Chytridiomycota, collectively called chytrids, have round shapes with structures called rhizoids that absorb nutrients and anchor them to their substrate (Mueller et al., 2004). Chytrids are typically found in aquatic environments and soils since zoospores require water to germinate (James et al., 2000), but they also have been found in a number of unexpected environments. Chytrids are difficult to find because they are microscopic and have time-sensitive life cycles (Mueller et ...


Invasive Pulmonary Infection By Syncephalastrum Species: Two Case Reports And Review Of Literature, Memoona Irshad, Nosheen Nasir, Urooj Haider Hashmi, Joveria Farooqi, Syed Faisal Mahmood 2020 Aga Khan University

Invasive Pulmonary Infection By Syncephalastrum Species: Two Case Reports And Review Of Literature, Memoona Irshad, Nosheen Nasir, Urooj Haider Hashmi, Joveria Farooqi, Syed Faisal Mahmood

Section of Internal Medicine

Background: Syncephalastrum species belong to the class Zygomycetes and order Mucorale. These are found in the environment and tropical soil, usually presenting as colonizers and rarely cause human infection. Syncephalastrum racemosum is a species of the genus Syncephalastrum and is the most commonly identified pathogen. Most cases are reported in immunocompromised individuals, such as patients on long term steroids, poorly controlled diabetes, or patients with malignancy.
Case presentation: We are describing two cases of rare fungal infection by Syncephalastrum species causing invasive pulmonary manifestation. Both patients had compromised immune status and presented with worsening dyspnea to the emergency room. Both ...


Trichosporon Species And Fusarium Species As A Cause Of Empyema Thoracis In A Diabetic Patient, Nousheen Iqbal, Muhammad Ammar, Muhammad Irfan, Kauser Jabeen 2020 Aga Khan University

Trichosporon Species And Fusarium Species As A Cause Of Empyema Thoracis In A Diabetic Patient, Nousheen Iqbal, Muhammad Ammar, Muhammad Irfan, Kauser Jabeen

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

Of late, fungal infections are increasingly being recognized in diabetic patients. Here we present a case of polymicrobial fungal empyema due to Trichosporon species and Fusarium species developed after community-acquired pneumonia in a diabetic patient. Trichosporon species are basidiomycetous yeast and Fusarium species are soil saprophytes with a worldwide distribution. Fungal empyema cases are rare and are mostly caused by Aspergillus and Candida species. Polymicrobial fungal empyema with Trichosporon species and Fusarium species has not been reported previously. Our patient was successfully treated with antifungal therapy. This case highlights that fungal empyema should be considered in diabetic patients especially if ...


The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson 2020 East Tennessee State University

The Effects Of Farnesol, A Quorum Sensing Molecule From Candida Albicans, On Alcaligenes Faecalis, Savannah Hutson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Quorum sensing molecules have become a recent focus of study to learn if and how they can be used, both on their own and in conjecture with current antimicrobial methods, as a means of bacterial control. One such quorum sensing molecule is the sesquiterpene alcohol, Farnesol, which is synthesized and released by the fungus, Candida albicans. In most in-vivo cases, our laboratory has shown that Alcaligenes faecalis overtakes C. albicans, preventing its growth. However, as a way to counteract this inhibitory effect, Farnesol may be one way that Candida has found to fight back. In this study, we focused on ...


The Effect Of Alcaligenes Faecalis On Inhibition Of Candida Albicans Biofilm And Planktonic Growth, Nausheen A. Siddiqui 2020 East Tennessee State University

The Effect Of Alcaligenes Faecalis On Inhibition Of Candida Albicans Biofilm And Planktonic Growth, Nausheen A. Siddiqui

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is a fungal microorganism found on the human body and in the environment. An opportunistic pathogen causing local and systemic infection, this fungus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. More alarming is its growing resistance against the limited number of antifungals we have for treatment Candida infections. An area of current research, termed polymicrobial interactions, focuses on how different microorganisms interact with each other for limited space, nutrients, and survival. The current study focuses on attempting to inhibit planktonic and biofilm growth stages by using the benign bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis, previously shown in our lab ...


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