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Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre

Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient and benthic algal biomass relationships can guide numeric nutrient criteria development in lotic systems. However, herbivorous macrograzers may confound this relationship by reducing the slope of the positive relationship between nutrients and periphyton biomass in streams. I conducted a mensurative field study to determine if stoneroller and crayfish abundance related to algal biomass at varying nutrient concentrations and manipulated macrograzer presence with electrical exclosures in streams to examine macrograzer effects on algal biomass and understand whether these effects on periphyton varied with total phosphorus (TP) or season. Macrograzer density was quantified across a TP gradient (n=15 streams; range ...


Future Warming And Acidification Result In Multiple Ecological Impacts To A Temperate Coralline Alga, Megan J. Huggett, Kathryn Mcmahon, Rachele Bernasconi 2018 Edith Cowan University

Future Warming And Acidification Result In Multiple Ecological Impacts To A Temperate Coralline Alga, Megan J. Huggett, Kathryn Mcmahon, Rachele Bernasconi

ECU Publications Post 2013

Coralline algae are a crucial component of reef systems, stabilising reef substrate, providing habitat and contributing to accretion. Coralline algae and their surface microbial biofilms are also important as settlement cues for marine invertebrates, yet few studies address the impact of future environmental conditions on interactions between coralline algae, reef microbes and settlement by larvae of marine invertebrates. We exposed the temperate coralline algal species Amphiroa gracilis to warming and/or acidification scenarios for 21 days. Algae became bleached but photosystem II function was not measurably impacted. Settlement by larvae of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma was reduced and the ...


Reducing Equifinality Using Isotopes In A Process-Based Stream Nitrogen Model Highlights The Flux Of Algal Nitrogen From Agricultural Streams, William I. Ford, James F. Fox, Erik Pollock 2017 University of Kentucky

Reducing Equifinality Using Isotopes In A Process-Based Stream Nitrogen Model Highlights The Flux Of Algal Nitrogen From Agricultural Streams, William I. Ford, James F. Fox, Erik Pollock

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The fate of bioavailable nitrogen species transported through agricultural landscapes remains highly uncertain given complexities of measuring fluxes impacting the fluvial N cycle. We present and test a new numerical model named Technology for Removable Annual Nitrogen in Streams For Ecosystem Restoration (TRANSFER), which aims to reduce model uncertainty due to erroneous parameterization, i.e., equifinality, in stream nitrogen cycle assessment and quantify the significance of transient and permanent removal pathways. TRANSFER couples nitrogen elemental and stable isotope mass‐balance equations with existing hydrologic, hydraulic, sediment transport, algal biomass, and sediment organic ...


Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth 2017 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth

Journal of Law and Health

The 2014 Toledo, Ohio tap water ban has, at least temporarily, put a spotlight on United States water supplies. Consequently, many Americans have begun to take a closer look at the quality of the fresh water bodies being used to supply tap water to their homes. Therefore, this Note analyzes the problems currently threatening the lakes, rivers, and other surface waters that are the source of fresh drinking water for huge populations in the United States. Part II examines the problem of nutrient pollution and explains the harmful effects it has on human health. Part III provides an overview of ...


Rediscovery Of The Microtubule System In Chlamydomonas, Yi Liu 2017 Marquette University

Rediscovery Of The Microtubule System In Chlamydomonas, Yi Liu

Dissertations (2009 -)

Extensive studies have revealed the complex mechanisms underlying the roles of the microtubule system in fundamental cellular processes, the severe consequences in development and health resulted from its anomaly, and the irreplaceable therapeutic agents that perturbs this vital yet inherently unstable cytoskeletal system. Most of the concepts derived from a handful of model organisms become dogma of the field despite contrary observations. By overcoming a major limitation of biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas - the intense autofluorescence common to photosynthetic cells - this dissertation discovered new phenomena of the microtubule system and conceived an invention. The microtubule system of the green alga is ...


Evaluation Of Flocculation, Sedimentation, And Filtration For Dewatering Of Scenedesmus Algae, Nicholas A. Rhea, Jack Groppo, Czarena Crofcheck 2017 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Of Flocculation, Sedimentation, And Filtration For Dewatering Of Scenedesmus Algae, Nicholas A. Rhea, Jack Groppo, Czarena Crofcheck

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Algae can be used as a feedstock for agricultural fertilizers, livestock and poultry feeds, anaerobic digestion, and biofuel production. For each end product, the requirements for moisture content (or solids content) vary, such that a desirable water removal strategy needs to be adaptable to varying levels of water removal. Flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration were evaluated as possible strategies for thickening and dewatering of algae. The goal of this study was to validate that algae cells treated by such means could be processed by vacuum belt filters and to determine the conditions under which the solids content could be increased to ...


Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Antibacterial Derivatives Of Marine Algae: An Overview Of Pharmacological Mechanisms And Applications, Emer Shannon, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The marine environment is home to a taxonomically diverse ecosystem. Organisms such as algae, molluscs, sponges, corals, and tunicates have evolved to survive the high concentrations of infectious and surface-fouling bacteria that are indigenous to ocean waters. Both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (diatoms) contain pharmacologically active compounds such as phlorotannins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, peptides, and terpenes which combat bacterial invasion. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics has become a global epidemic. Marine algae derivatives have shown promise as candidates in novel, antibacterial drug discovery. The efficacy of these compounds, their mechanism of action, applications as antibiotics, disinfectants, and ...


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they ...


The Production Of Biobutanol From Biomass Via A Hybrid Biological/Chemical Process, Thomas Melvin Potts 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Production Of Biobutanol From Biomass Via A Hybrid Biological/Chemical Process, Thomas Melvin Potts

Theses and Dissertations

Biobutanol use as a fuel began in the late 19th century. Problems remain in economic viability. A review of the state of the art and need for technical advances is presented.

The technical potential of producing biofuel from a naturally occurring macroalgae was studied. The algae grow in Jamaica Bay, New York City, in contaminated water. The process consisted of mechanical harvesting, drying, grinding, and acid hydrolysis to form an algal sugar solution. Clostridium beijerinckii and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum were used in an acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation to make butanol. Fermentation was followed by distillation Butanol concentrations during fermentation reached ...


Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman 2015 University of California - Irvine

Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s(-1). Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind ...


Lipid Extraction From Scenedesmus Sp. Microalgae For Biodiesel Production Using Hot Compressed Hexane, Hee-Yong Shin, Jae-Hun Ryu, Seong-Youl Bae, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Mark Crocker 2014 University of Kentucky

Lipid Extraction From Scenedesmus Sp. Microalgae For Biodiesel Production Using Hot Compressed Hexane, Hee-Yong Shin, Jae-Hun Ryu, Seong-Youl Bae, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Mark Crocker

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

Lipid extraction from Scenedesmus sp. microalgae using hot compressed hexane (HCH) was investigated. Extraction performance was evaluated near the critical point of hexane and was compared with that of hexane extraction performed at room temperature and pressure, and the Bligh and Dyer extraction method. Experimental data showed that HCH significantly improves the lipid yield and rate of lipid extraction compared to the use of hexane at ambient conditions. High yields of biodiesel-convertible lipid fractions were rapidly achieved at the critical point of hexane, at a level comparable to that of the Bligh and Dyer method.


The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic forcing, such as ocean acidification caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions, and eutrophication due to increased nutrient loadings in run-off, are causing major changes to the biogeochemistry of the oceans. As a consequence, coastal phytoplankton are susceptible to altered biogeochemical environments. This study examined the effect of a lower pH and increased levels of nutrients on the common coastal harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Growth rates, maximal cell yields, neutral lipid accumulation and toxicity of cells grown under various pH and nutrients regimes were measured. H. akashiwo growth was near maximal when grown at lower pH levels. There was a ...


Co2 Recycling Using Microalgae For The Production Of Fuels, Michael H. Wilson, John Groppo, Andrew Placido, S. Graham, S. A. Morton III, Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez, Aubrey Shea, Mark Crocker, Czarena Crofcheck, Rodney Andrews 2014 University of Kentucky

Co2 Recycling Using Microalgae For The Production Of Fuels, Michael H. Wilson, John Groppo, Andrew Placido, S. Graham, S. A. Morton Iii, Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez, Aubrey Shea, Mark Crocker, Czarena Crofcheck, Rodney Andrews

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty Publications

CO2 capture and recycle using microalgae was demonstrated at a coal-fired power plant (Duke Energy’s East Bend Station, Kentucky). Using an in-house designed closed loop, vertical tube photobioreactor, Scenedesmus acutus was cultured using flue gas as the CO2 source. Algae productivity of 39 g/(m2 day) in June–July was achieved at significant scale (18,000 L), while average daily productivity slightly in excess of 10 g/(m2 day) was demonstrated in the month of December. A protocol for low-cost algae harvesting and dewatering was developed, and the conversion of algal lipids—extracted from the ...


Pretreatment Of Scenedesmus Sp. Biomass As A Potential Anaerobic Digestion Substrate, Xinyi E, Czarena Crofcheck 2014 University of Kentucky

Pretreatment Of Scenedesmus Sp. Biomass As A Potential Anaerobic Digestion Substrate, Xinyi E, Czarena Crofcheck

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Algal biomass can be a potential substrate for anaerobic digestion. However, raw algae cells show a resistance to biological degradation, resulting in a slower methane production rate. Varying thermal and chemical pretreatments of algal biomass were investigated in an attempt to increase soluble organic matter (SOM) yield, which would result in enhanced methane production during subsequent anaerobic digestion. Scenedesmus sp. was harvested using three different procedures: with flocculation, with flocculation and drying, and without flocculation or drying. For all pretreatments and algae types, fluorescence micrographs were obtained to visually confirm the degradation of the algal cell walls. A complete 2 ...


The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman 2014 Bowling Green State University

The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman

Honors Projects

Lake Erie has experienced harmful algal blooms with increased frequency since the mid-1990s due to excess nutrients from Rivers, such as the Maumee River, and largely agricultural watersheds. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture contributes to eutrophication, algal blooms, and the degradation of water quality. This creates stress on aquatic fauna, reduced aesthetic quality, odor, and limits of the water for usage of drinking, recreation, and industry. This research paper asks what the contributions of having access to manure application records, soil records, and information about antibiotics have on what is known about manure management and antibiotic resistance, which has been ...


Relationships Between Landscape Factors And Crayfish Density And The Interacting Effects Of Grazing And Increased Sedimentation On Algal Biomass, Katheryn Haley Rose 2013 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationships Between Landscape Factors And Crayfish Density And The Interacting Effects Of Grazing And Increased Sedimentation On Algal Biomass, Katheryn Haley Rose

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years in the United States there has been a rapid expansion in anthropogenic sources of sediment in streams including construction, agriculture, and drilling for natural gas. Potential effects land disturbance associated with activities from natural gas development on aquatic biota in surrounding streams have not yet been well documented. An increase in inorganic sediment in streams can be detrimental to organisms through a variety of mechanisms including alteration of dominant substrate type, higher turbidity resulting in lower visibility, and burial of food resources such as algae and detritus. Increasing sedimentation in stream environments through anthropogenic disturbance is a ...


Influence Of Media Composition On The Growth Rate Of Chlorella Vulgaris And Scenedesmus Acutus Utilized For Co2 Mitigation, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Xinyi E, Aubrey Shea, Michael D. Montross, Mark Crocker, Rodney Andrews 2013 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Media Composition On The Growth Rate Of Chlorella Vulgaris And Scenedesmus Acutus Utilized For Co2 Mitigation, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Xinyi E, Aubrey Shea, Michael D. Montross, Mark Crocker, Rodney Andrews

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have increased since the industrial revolution due to increasing combustion of fossil fuels. One possible CO2 mitigation strategy is the use of microalgae for mitigation of CO2. This paper focuses on the influence of media composition on the growth rate of two microalgae strains, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus actus. A KNO3 based medium was found to work better for Chlorella, while a urea based equivalent worked better for Scenedesmus. The urea based media investigated here resulted in growth similar to that found with previously reported KNO3 based media. This should result in ...


Influence Of Flue Gas Components On The Growth Rate Of Chlorella Vulgaris And Scenedesmus Acutus, Czarena Crofcheck, Aubrey Shea, Michael D. Montross, Mark Crocker, Rodney Andrews 2013 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Flue Gas Components On The Growth Rate Of Chlorella Vulgaris And Scenedesmus Acutus, Czarena Crofcheck, Aubrey Shea, Michael D. Montross, Mark Crocker, Rodney Andrews

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have increased since the industrial revolution due to the increase in combustion of fossil fuels. One possible alternative strategy is the use of microalgae for CO2 capture and recycling. Major components in coal-derived flue gas that may accumulate and effect algae growth include both sulfur oxides and fly ash. However, in practical application, sulfur oxides will be converted quickly to the acid product (H2SO4) in the aerobic aqueous conditions of algae cultivation. In this article, the influence of elevated H2SO4 levels and the presence of coal-derived fly ash were ...


Action Spectrum For Photoentrainment Of The Circadian Clock In Wild-Type Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jennifer Forbes=Stovall 2011 Western Kentucky University

Action Spectrum For Photoentrainment Of The Circadian Clock In Wild-Type Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jennifer Forbes=Stovall

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The circadian clock is an endogenous timer that oscillates with a period of approximately 24 hours and is reset upon environmental time cues such as the daily light/ dark or temperature cycles. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for research on the circadian clock, because it shows several well-characterized behaviors that exhibit a circadian rhythm. Its circadian rhythm of phototaxis (swimming toward light) has been automated. Former action spectrum studies using the circadian phototaxis rhythm as an indicator surprisingly found that pulses of blue light were not effective in resetting the circadian clock of dark-adapted cells. This may have ...


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