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The Effects Of A Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density And Bone Strength In Male And Female Rats, Haley Folta 2015 Chapman University

The Effects Of A Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density And Bone Strength In Male And Female Rats, Haley Folta

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sex differences following a 40% caloric restrictive diet and its impact on tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength between male and female rats. Thirty-two, six-week old Sprague Dawley rats (16 males and 16 females) were randomly divided into an ad libitum fed control group (MC, n=8 and FC, n=8) and a pair fed diet group placed on the 40% caloric restriction (MD, n=8 and FD, n=8) for a 6 week period. The caloric restrictive diet was equivalent to the normal fed diet in ...


The Impact Of A 20% Vs. A 40% Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density During The Growth Period In Male Rats, Kassandra Lee 2015 Chapman University

The Impact Of A 20% Vs. A 40% Caloric Restrictive Diet On Bone Mineral Density During The Growth Period In Male Rats, Kassandra Lee

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 20% and a 40% caloric restrictive diet on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in male rats during the growth period. Methods: 32 male rats were randomly divided into: control groups (C20, n=8 and C40, n=8), a group fed the 20% caloric restrictive diet (D20, n=8), and a group fed the 40% caloric restrictive diet (D40, n=8). An animal in the caloric restrictive diet group was matched and pair fed with an animal in the control group for 6 weeks. Each caloric ...


Puffs And Tufts: A Comparison Of Trichodesmium Colony Formations And Nutrient Availability Across The North Atlantic Ocean Using Remote Sensing Methods, Marc Rosenfield 2015 Chapman University

Puffs And Tufts: A Comparison Of Trichodesmium Colony Formations And Nutrient Availability Across The North Atlantic Ocean Using Remote Sensing Methods, Marc Rosenfield

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Trichodesmium, a genus of diazotrophic bacteria, has the capability and the population to produce a large percentage of the total oceanic N2-fixation. Though their population is known to be heavily dependent on two of the ocean’s largest limiting factors, phosphorus and iron concentrations, it is unknown what affect these factors have on the population. In this study two of the largest colony formations of Trichodesmium in the North Atlantic, tufts and puffs, are compared nutrient quality with respect to time and geographical location. Though very little nutrient in situ data was collected from the cruise, remote sensing data collected ...


Effects Of Human Recreational Activity On The Tameness Of Common Loons (Gavia Immer) In Northern Wisconsin, Seth Yund 2015 Chapman University

Effects Of Human Recreational Activity On The Tameness Of Common Loons (Gavia Immer) In Northern Wisconsin, Seth Yund

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is an aquatic diving bird that lives in freshwater habitats in Canada and the northern U.S.. Human activity on a loon’s resident lake may affect its fitness and behavior, yet few studies identify or quantify these effects. We modified existing techniques that measure escape distances in other species to measure tameness as the distance at which individual loons dove in response to human approach by canoe. Tameness was similar between pair members, suggesting that common lake conditions or the behavior of a mate might influence the behavior. Sex, size within sex, and human ...


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome ...


Persister Cell Control Mechanisms In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, William H. Law III 2015 University of Rhode Island

Persister Cell Control Mechanisms In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, William H. Law Iii

Senior Honors Projects

Persister cells are a subpopulation of bacteria that demonstrate high tolerance to antibiotics, but revert to sensitivity after antibiotics are removed. The mechanism for induction of the persister cell state and antibiotic tolerance is not completely understood but likely occurs through the establishment of dormancy. Some of the suggested mechanisms for persister cell formation in Escherichia coli include: toxin­-antitoxin systems, starvation, gene regulation by (p)ppGpp, and stochastic formation. In our study we examine the mechanisms behind persistence in the E. coli strain CFT073, a uropathogenic isolate, which forms elevated levels of persisters compared to the laboratory strain MG1655 ...


Exploration Of Putative Mitochondrial Gene Expression In Crithidia Fasciculata As A Model For Pathogenic Trypanosomes Causing Human Disease, Baylye Boxall, Nadjean Sagesse 2015 Georgia State University

Exploration Of Putative Mitochondrial Gene Expression In Crithidia Fasciculata As A Model For Pathogenic Trypanosomes Causing Human Disease, Baylye Boxall, Nadjean Sagesse

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Hospital-Based Surveillance Of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia In South Bangalore, India., R Nisarga, R Premalatha, Shivananda, KL Ravikumar, U Shivappa, A Gopi, SB Chikkadasarahalli, R Batuwanthudawe, Paul E. Kilgore, SA Kim, I Balter, S Jouve, J Ye, M Moscariello 2015 Wayne State University

Hospital-Based Surveillance Of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia In South Bangalore, India., R Nisarga, R Premalatha, Shivananda, Kl Ravikumar, U Shivappa, A Gopi, Sb Chikkadasarahalli, R Batuwanthudawe, Paul E. Kilgore, Sa Kim, I Balter, S Jouve, J Ye, M Moscariello

Paul E. Kilgore

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia, distribution of pneumococcal serotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility in children aged 28 days to <60 months. DESIGN: Hospital-based surveillance. SETTING: South Bangalore, India. PARTICIPANTS: 9950 children aged 28 days to <60 months with clinical suspicion of invasive pneumococcal disease or pneumonia. RESULTS: The estimated at-risk population included 224,966 children <5 years of age. Forty cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were identified. Estimated invasive pneumococcal disease incidence was 17.8/100,000 with incidence being highest among children aged 6 months to <12 months (49.9/100,000). Clinical pneumonia syndrome was the most frequent diagnosis (12.5/100,000). Pneumococcal serotypes included: 6A (n=6, 16.7%); 14 (n=5, 13.9%); 5 (n=4, 11.1%); 6B (n=4, 11.1%); 1, 18C, and 19A (n=3 each, 8.3%); 9V (n=2, 5.6%); and 3, 4, 10C, 18A, 18F, and 19F (n=1 each, 2.8%). Serotypes 6A, 14, 6B, 1, 18C, 19A, 9V, 4, 10C, and 18A showed antibiotic resistance. Clinical pneumonia incidence was 2109/100,000, with incidence being highest among children aged 28 days to <6 months (5033/100,000). Chest radiograph-confirmed pneumonia incidence was 1114/100,000, with incidence being highest among children aged 28 days to <6 months (2413/100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia were found to be common causes of morbidity in young children living in South Bangalore, India.


Tom Regan On ‘Kind’ Arguments Against Animal Rights And For Human Rights, Nathan Nobis 2015 Morehouse College

Tom Regan On ‘Kind’ Arguments Against Animal Rights And For Human Rights, Nathan Nobis

Societal Attitudes Toward Animals

Tom Regan argues that human beings and some non-human animals have moral rights because they are “subjects of lives,” that is, roughly, conscious, sentient beings with an experiential welfare. A prominent critic, Carl Cohen, objects: he argues that only moral agents have rights and so animals, since they are not moral agents, lack rights. An objection to Cohen’s argument is that his theory of rights seems to imply that human beings who are not moral agents have no moral rights, but since these human beings have rights, his theory of rights is false, and so he fails to show ...


A Moral Argument For Veganism, Dan Hooley, Nathan Nobis 2015 University of Toronto

A Moral Argument For Veganism, Dan Hooley, Nathan Nobis

Animal Agriculture, Food Choice, and Human Health

In this essay, we argue for dietary veganism. Our case has two steps. First, we argue that, in most circumstances, it is morally wrong to raise animals to produce meat, dairy products, most eggs (a possible exception we discuss is eggs from pet chickens) and most other animal food products. Turning animals into food, and using them for their byproducts, causes serious harms to animals that are morally unjustified: that is, the reasons given to justify causing these kinds of harms – goods or alleged goods that result from animal farming and slaughter – are inadequate to justify the bad done to ...


A Role For Folk Psychology In Animal Cognition Research, Kristin Andrews 2015 York University

A Role For Folk Psychology In Animal Cognition Research, Kristin Andrews

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

If we consider that the field of animal cognition research began with Darwin’s stories about clever animals, we can see that over the 150 years of work done in this field, there has been a slow swing back and forth between two extreme positions. One extreme is the view that other animals are very much like us, that we can use introspection in order to understand why other animals act as they do, and that no huge interpretive leap is required to understand animal minds. On the other extreme we have the view that other animals are utterly different ...


The Efficacy And Specificity Of Gold Nanoparticles As Antibiotics For Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Nicole Osbaugh 2015 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Efficacy And Specificity Of Gold Nanoparticles As Antibiotics For Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Nicole Osbaugh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared antibiotic resistance a serious health threat to the global community. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have become particularly problematic, as very few new classes of small-molecule antibiotics for Gram-negative bacteria have emerged in recent decades. The Feldheim Lab has developed a combinatorial screening process for identifying mixed-ligand monolayer gold nanoparticle conjugates with antibiotic activity. The gold nanoparticle conjugates have been found to be highly active against E. coli. The bacteria develop resistance to the nanoparticles at a significantly slower rate than commercially available small-molecule drugs.

The Feldheim Research Team ...


Clinical Evaluation Of A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay For Rapid Detection Of Neisseria Meningitidis In Cerebrospinal Fluid, Paul E. Kilgore 2015 Wayne State University

Clinical Evaluation Of A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay For Rapid Detection Of Neisseria Meningitidis In Cerebrospinal Fluid, Paul E. Kilgore

Paul E. Kilgore

BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading causative agent of bacterial meningitis in humans. Traditionally, meningococcal meningitis has been diagnosed by bacterial culture. However, isolation of bacteria from patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is time consuming and sometimes yields negative results. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods of detecting Nm have been considered the gold standard because of their superior sensitivity and specificity compared with culture. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and evaluated its ability to detect Nm in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a meningococcal LAMP assay (Nm LAMP ...


The Presence And Functionality Of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria In The Constructed Treatment Wetland At The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge, Keith Lewy 2015 University of Pennsylvania

The Presence And Functionality Of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria In The Constructed Treatment Wetland At The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge, Keith Lewy

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

The vast majority of research done on constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) has focused on outdoor installations, with little work done on indoor systems. Previous work on the indoor CTW at the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge focused on whether the lack of floral diversity in the system would negatively impact its ability to remove various chemical parameters, but despite their great importance in bioremediation the microbial communities in these CTWs have never been studied. In this study, the presence and functionality of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was examined in various points of the treatment system using both culture-dependent and culture-independent DNA-based ...


Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman 2015 University of California - Irvine

Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, Earth, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s(-1). Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind ...


Expectations For Methodology And Translation Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis 2015 University of Alberta

Expectations For Methodology And Translation Of Animal Research: A Survey Of Health Care Workers, Ari Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Background: Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans.

Methods: After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs ...


Response Of Soil Nitrification To The Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Monensin, Ivermectin And Zinc Bacitracin, Magda A. Konopka 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Response Of Soil Nitrification To The Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Monensin, Ivermectin And Zinc Bacitracin, Magda A. Konopka

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pharmaceutical residues can reach agricultural land through amendment with animal or human waste. Since 2010, a series of replicated plots received annual applications of ivermectin, monensin and zinc bacitracin, either singly or in a mixture, at 0.1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg concentrations. I collected soil samples before and after the fourth annual application of pharmaceuticals and assayed them for functional changes and amoA gene abundance, a gene needed for ammonia oxidation. In 2013, I exposed the soils to 100 mg/kg in a laboratory experiment which resulted in acceleration of nitrification. Under 10 mg/kg treatments in ...


Hiv Drug Resistance Among Infants And Children In South Africa: How Efficient Is Genotypic Testing?, Ellen Hendrix 2014 SIT Study Abroad

Hiv Drug Resistance Among Infants And Children In South Africa: How Efficient Is Genotypic Testing?, Ellen Hendrix

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background: South Africa has the largest prevalence of HIV infection. This epidemic impacts adults as well as the pediatric population. The presence of drug-resistant mutations to antiretroviral therapies among infants and children is on the rise. Few studies have been conducted on this topic. Objective: The study aims to determine whether drug resistance testing in the form of genotypic testing is cost-effective when deciding whether to switch to a new HIV antiretroviral therapy following drug failure. Method: An interactive research approach is taken by collecting primary data from experts in this field. Secondary sources including guidelines from the World Health ...


Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Is Part Of The Human Oropharyngeal Virome And Is Associated With Changes In Cognitive Functions In Humans And Mice, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David D. Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James R. Gurnon, Irina V. Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten 2014 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Is Part Of The Human Oropharyngeal Virome And Is Associated With Changes In Cognitive Functions In Humans And Mice, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David D. Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James R. Gurnon, Irina V. Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) are large DNA viruses known to infect certain eukaryotic green algae and have not been previously shown to infect humans or to be part of the human virome. We unexpectedly found sequences homologous to the chlorovirus Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1) in a metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from human oropharyngeal samples. These samples were obtained by throat swabs of adults without a psychiatric disorder or serious physical illness who were participating in a study that included measures of cognitive functioning. The presence of ATCV-1 DNA was confirmed by quantitative PCR with ATCV-1 DNA being documented ...


Dengue Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels Associated With Protection From Infection In Thai Cluster Studies, Darunee Buddhari, Jared Aldstadt, Timothy P. Endy, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Ananda Nisalak, Benjawan Khuntirat, Richard G. Jarman, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, Thomas W. Scott, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon 2014 Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences

Dengue Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels Associated With Protection From Infection In Thai Cluster Studies, Darunee Buddhari, Jared Aldstadt, Timothy P. Endy, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Ananda Nisalak, Benjawan Khuntirat, Richard G. Jarman, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, Thomas W. Scott, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV) infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs) have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007), cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study ...


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