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The Role Of Gpr126 In Myelin Maintenance And Regeneration In The Peripheral Nervous System, Jessica A. Joseph 2015 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Gpr126 In Myelin Maintenance And Regeneration In The Peripheral Nervous System, Jessica A. Joseph

Undergraduate Theses—Unrestricted

Myelin is a multilayered insulating membrane that allows rapid propagation of electrical signals and provides neurotrophic and cellular support to axons. Specialized glial cells called oligodendrocytes synthesize myelin in the central nervous system (CNS), while Schwann cells myelinate axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Irregular myelin formation or myelin degeneration leads to debilitating diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the CNS and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in the PNS. However, the molecular mechanisms behind myelin maintenance or regeneration after injury or disease are not well understood. Adhesion G Protein- Coupled Receptors (aGPCRs) are a unique class of GPCRs, in that they ...


Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Investigation Of Fungi Inhabiting The Gastrointestinal Tract Of Healthy And Diseased Humans, Mallory J. Suhr

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Gastrointestinal microbiome studies have failed to include fungi in total community analyses. As a result, their diversity and function in the gut is poorly understood. Recent work has begun to uncover the role intestinal fungi play in diet, immune system development, interactions with other microorganisms in the gut, and pathogenesis of diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies allow for the ability to profile the fungal gut microbiome (“mycobiome”) in healthy and diseased states. This thesis explores the mycobiome in 1) healthy humans with a vegetarian diet and 2) pediatric small bowel transplant recipients that develop fungal bloodstream infections.

The gut mycobiome ...


Exploration Of Putative Mitochondrial Gene Expression In Crithidia Fasciculata As A Model For Pathogenic Trypanosomes Causing Human Disease, Baylye Boxall, Nadjean Sagesse 2015 Georgia State University

Exploration Of Putative Mitochondrial Gene Expression In Crithidia Fasciculata As A Model For Pathogenic Trypanosomes Causing Human Disease, Baylye Boxall, Nadjean Sagesse

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Hospital-Based Surveillance Of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia In South Bangalore, India., R Nisarga, R Premalatha, Shivananda, KL Ravikumar, U Shivappa, A Gopi, SB Chikkadasarahalli, R Batuwanthudawe, Paul E. Kilgore, SA Kim, I Balter, S Jouve, J Ye, M Moscariello 2015 Wayne State University

Hospital-Based Surveillance Of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia In South Bangalore, India., R Nisarga, R Premalatha, Shivananda, Kl Ravikumar, U Shivappa, A Gopi, Sb Chikkadasarahalli, R Batuwanthudawe, Paul E. Kilgore, Sa Kim, I Balter, S Jouve, J Ye, M Moscariello

Paul E. Kilgore

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia, distribution of pneumococcal serotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility in children aged 28 days to <60 months. DESIGN: Hospital-based surveillance. SETTING: South Bangalore, India. PARTICIPANTS: 9950 children aged 28 days to <60 months with clinical suspicion of invasive pneumococcal disease or pneumonia. RESULTS: The estimated at-risk population included 224,966 children <5 years of age. Forty cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were identified. Estimated invasive pneumococcal disease incidence was 17.8/100,000 with incidence being highest among children aged 6 months to <12 months (49.9/100,000). Clinical pneumonia syndrome was the most frequent diagnosis (12.5/100,000). Pneumococcal serotypes included: 6A (n=6, 16.7%); 14 (n=5, 13.9%); 5 (n=4, 11.1%); 6B (n=4, 11.1%); 1, 18C, and 19A (n=3 each, 8.3%); 9V (n=2, 5.6%); and 3, 4, 10C, 18A, 18F, and 19F (n=1 each, 2.8%). Serotypes 6A, 14, 6B, 1, 18C, 19A, 9V, 4, 10C, and 18A showed antibiotic resistance. Clinical pneumonia incidence was 2109/100,000, with incidence being highest among children aged 28 days to <6 months (5033/100,000). Chest radiograph-confirmed pneumonia incidence was 1114/100,000, with incidence being highest among children aged 28 days to <6 months (2413/100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia were found to be common causes of morbidity in young children living in South Bangalore, India.


Tom Regan On ‘Kind’ Arguments Against Animal Rights And For Human Rights, Nathan Nobis 2015 Morehouse College

Tom Regan On ‘Kind’ Arguments Against Animal Rights And For Human Rights, Nathan Nobis

Societal Attitudes Toward Animals

Tom Regan argues that human beings and some non-human animals have moral rights because they are “subjects of lives,” that is, roughly, conscious, sentient beings with an experiential welfare. A prominent critic, Carl Cohen, objects: he argues that only moral agents have rights and so animals, since they are not moral agents, lack rights. An objection to Cohen’s argument is that his theory of rights seems to imply that human beings who are not moral agents have no moral rights, but since these human beings have rights, his theory of rights is false, and so he fails to show ...


A Moral Argument For Veganism, Dan Hooley, Nathan Nobis 2015 University of Toronto

A Moral Argument For Veganism, Dan Hooley, Nathan Nobis

Animal Agriculture, Food Choice, and Human Health

In this essay, we argue for dietary veganism. Our case has two steps. First, we argue that, in most circumstances, it is morally wrong to raise animals to produce meat, dairy products, most eggs (a possible exception we discuss is eggs from pet chickens) and most other animal food products. Turning animals into food, and using them for their byproducts, causes serious harms to animals that are morally unjustified: that is, the reasons given to justify causing these kinds of harms – goods or alleged goods that result from animal farming and slaughter – are inadequate to justify the bad done to ...


Effects Of Cannabidiol On Contractions And Calcium Signaling In Rat Ventricular Myocytes, Ramez M. Ali, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Anwar Qureshi, Mohanraj Rajesh, Sehamuddin Galadari, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz 2015 UAE University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Effects Of Cannabidiol On Contractions And Calcium Signaling In Rat Ventricular Myocytes, Ramez M. Ali, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Anwar Qureshi, Mohanraj Rajesh, Sehamuddin Galadari, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis plant, has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions under various physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, the effects of CBD on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes were investigated. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured in cells loaded with the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure action potential and Ca2+ currents. Radioligand binding was employed to study pharmacological characteristics of CBD binding. CBD (1 μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of ...


Clinical Evaluation Of A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay For Rapid Detection Of Neisseria Meningitidis In Cerebrospinal Fluid, Paul E. Kilgore 2015 Wayne State University

Clinical Evaluation Of A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay For Rapid Detection Of Neisseria Meningitidis In Cerebrospinal Fluid, Paul E. Kilgore

Paul E. Kilgore

BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading causative agent of bacterial meningitis in humans. Traditionally, meningococcal meningitis has been diagnosed by bacterial culture. However, isolation of bacteria from patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is time consuming and sometimes yields negative results. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods of detecting Nm have been considered the gold standard because of their superior sensitivity and specificity compared with culture. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and evaluated its ability to detect Nm in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a meningococcal LAMP assay (Nm LAMP ...


Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman 2015 University of California - Irvine

Dimethylsulfide Gas Transfer Coefficients From Algal Blooms In The Southern Ocean, T. G. Bell, Warren J. De Bruyn, Christa A. Marandino, S. D. Miller, C. S. Law, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, Earth, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s(-1). Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind ...


A Role For Folk Psychology In Animal Cognition Research, Kristin Andrews 2015 York University

A Role For Folk Psychology In Animal Cognition Research, Kristin Andrews

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

If we consider that the field of animal cognition research began with Darwin’s stories about clever animals, we can see that over the 150 years of work done in this field, there has been a slow swing back and forth between two extreme positions. One extreme is the view that other animals are very much like us, that we can use introspection in order to understand why other animals act as they do, and that no huge interpretive leap is required to understand animal minds. On the other extreme we have the view that other animals are utterly different ...


Response Of Soil Nitrification To The Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Monensin, Ivermectin And Zinc Bacitracin, Magda A. Konopka 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Response Of Soil Nitrification To The Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Monensin, Ivermectin And Zinc Bacitracin, Magda A. Konopka

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pharmaceutical residues can reach agricultural land through amendment with animal or human waste. Since 2010, a series of replicated plots received annual applications of ivermectin, monensin and zinc bacitracin, either singly or in a mixture, at 0.1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg concentrations. I collected soil samples before and after the fourth annual application of pharmaceuticals and assayed them for functional changes and amoA gene abundance, a gene needed for ammonia oxidation. In 2013, I exposed the soils to 100 mg/kg in a laboratory experiment which resulted in acceleration of nitrification. Under 10 mg/kg treatments in ...


Hiv Drug Resistance Among Infants And Children In South Africa: How Efficient Is Genotypic Testing?, Ellen Hendrix 2014 SIT Study Abroad

Hiv Drug Resistance Among Infants And Children In South Africa: How Efficient Is Genotypic Testing?, Ellen Hendrix

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background: South Africa has the largest prevalence of HIV infection. This epidemic impacts adults as well as the pediatric population. The presence of drug-resistant mutations to antiretroviral therapies among infants and children is on the rise. Few studies have been conducted on this topic. Objective: The study aims to determine whether drug resistance testing in the form of genotypic testing is cost-effective when deciding whether to switch to a new HIV antiretroviral therapy following drug failure. Method: An interactive research approach is taken by collecting primary data from experts in this field. Secondary sources including guidelines from the World Health ...


Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Is Part Of The Human Oropharyngeal Virome And Is Associated With Changes In Cognitive Functions In Humans And Mice, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David D. Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James R. Gurnon, Irina V. Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten 2014 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

Chlorovirus Atcv-1 Is Part Of The Human Oropharyngeal Virome And Is Associated With Changes In Cognitive Functions In Humans And Mice, Robert H. Yolken, Lorraine Jones-Brando, David D. Dunigan, Geetha Kannan, Faith Dickerson, Emily Severance, Sarven Sabunciyan, C. Conover Talbot Jr., Emese Prandovszky, James R. Gurnon, Irina V. Agarkova, Flora Leister, Kristin L. Gressitt, Ou Chen, Bryan Deuber, Fangrui Ma, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, James L. Van Etten

James Van Etten Publications

Chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae) are large DNA viruses known to infect certain eukaryotic green algae and have not been previously shown to infect humans or to be part of the human virome. We unexpectedly found sequences homologous to the chlorovirus Acanthocystis turfacea chlorella virus 1 (ATCV-1) in a metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from human oropharyngeal samples. These samples were obtained by throat swabs of adults without a psychiatric disorder or serious physical illness who were participating in a study that included measures of cognitive functioning. The presence of ATCV-1 DNA was confirmed by quantitative PCR with ATCV-1 DNA being documented ...


Dengue Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels Associated With Protection From Infection In Thai Cluster Studies, Darunee Buddhari, Jared Aldstadt, Timothy P. Endy, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Ananda Nisalak, Benjawan Khuntirat, Richard G. Jarman, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, Thomas W. Scott, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon 2014 Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences

Dengue Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels Associated With Protection From Infection In Thai Cluster Studies, Darunee Buddhari, Jared Aldstadt, Timothy P. Endy, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Chonticha Klungthong, Ananda Nisalak, Benjawan Khuntirat, Richard G. Jarman, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, Thomas W. Scott, Alan L. Rothman, In-Kyu Yoon

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV) infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs) have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007), cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study ...


Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian 2014 University of Maine - Main

Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian

Honors College

Rhinoceros poaching is an act of killing a rhinoceros in order to take its horn, which is then used for human consumption or for cultural traditions. Both the Asian and the African rhinoceros are targets because of the demand from China, Vietnam, Yemen, and other countries around the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine practice is the main demand for rhinoceros horn and this demand in rhinoceros horn has caused an increase in the black market. Conservation of the rhinoceros is decreasing primarily because the price of rhinoceros horn is more than double the average household income in South Africa, thus making ...


Out-Of-Sequence Signal 3 As A Mechanism For Virus-Induced Immune Suppression Of Cd8 T Cell Responses, Stina L. Urban, Raymond M. Welsh 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Out-Of-Sequence Signal 3 As A Mechanism For Virus-Induced Immune Suppression Of Cd8 T Cell Responses, Stina L. Urban, Raymond M. Welsh

Open Access Articles

Virus infections are known to induce a transient state of immune suppression often associated with an inhibition of T cell proliferation in response to mitogen or cognate-antigen stimulation. Recently, virus-induced immune suppression has been linked to responses to type 1 interferon (IFN), a signal 3 cytokine that normally can augment the proliferation and differentiation of T cells exposed to antigen (signal 1) and co-stimulation (signal 2). However, pre-exposure of CD8 T cells to IFN-inducers such as viruses or poly(IratioC) prior to antigen signaling is inhibitory, indicating that the timing of IFN exposure is of essence. We show here that ...


Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Wildlife And The Environment (1998-2013), Erich Yahner 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Wildlife And The Environment (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Humane Education Bibliographies

No abstract provided.


Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Humane Education Bibliographies

No abstract provided.


Annotated Bibliography: Cruelty To Animals And Violence To Humans (1998-2013), Erich Yahner 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Cruelty To Animals And Violence To Humans (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Humane Education Bibliographies

No abstract provided.


Annotated Bibliography: Humane Education (1998-2013), Erich Yahner 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Humane Education (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Humane Education Bibliographies

No abstract provided.


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