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The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, Shon Thomas, Sreya Bagchi 2017 Northwestern University

The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, Shon Thomas, Sreya Bagchi

Undergraduate Research and Arts Exposition

Approximately 1 in 3 deaths in the US is caused by cardiovascular diseases, among them atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs through excessive cholesterol deposition (hyperlipidemia) along the inner layer of the artery called the intima, resulting in plaque formation that blocks arterial blood flow and could lead to heart attacks and strokes. It has recently been recognized that inflammation plays an important role in plaque formation. Specifically, T cell activation can affect the progression of atherosclerosis through interaction with antigen presenting cells (APCs) in a hyperlipidemic environment. APCs ingest foreign objects and present digested remnants on antigen presenting molecules at the cell ...


Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer 2017 University of Wyoming

Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Research provides the basis for scientific discovery and advancements in all areas of science. The process of discovery involves countless repetitions of the identical experiment in order to make a claim about the topic in question. In order to properly conduct an experiment that is similar or the same to one already executed, all of the variables must be perfectly controlled. In experiments discussed in this presentation, living conditions involving rats are the variables to control. Some of the variables include lighting, exercise, water intake, and diet.

A current problem facing research is the way diets are being reported in ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine 2017 University of Wyoming

Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...


Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Fosfomycin Simulating Urinary Concentrations Achieved After A Single 3 Gram Oral Dose Versus Escherichia Coli Using An In Vitro Model, George G. Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A. Karlowsky 2017 University of Manitoba

Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Fosfomycin Simulating Urinary Concentrations Achieved After A Single 3 Gram Oral Dose Versus Escherichia Coli Using An In Vitro Model, George G. Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A. Karlowsky

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We assessed the activity of fosfomycin simulating urinary concentrations achieved after a single 3 gram oral dose against Escherichia coli using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Eleven urinary isolates of E. coli were studied. Isolates were ESBL-producing or carbapenemase-producing. The in vitro pharmacodynamic model was inoculated with an inoculum of (~1 × 106 cfu/mL). Fosfomycin was administered to simulate maximum free (ƒ) urine (U) concentrations and a t1/2 obtained after a standard single 3 gram oral dose in healthy volunteers (ƒUmax, 4000 mg/L; t1/2, 6 h). Sampling was performed over 48 h to ...


The Effects Of A Hpv Educational Intervention Aimed At Collegiate Males On Knowledge, Vaccine Intention, And Uptake, Mary A. Knudtson 2017 Valparaiso University

The Effects Of A Hpv Educational Intervention Aimed At Collegiate Males On Knowledge, Vaccine Intention, And Uptake, Mary A. Knudtson

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States (US). In 2013, approximately 6% of 19 to 26-year-old males had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine (Richman, Maddy, Torres, & Goldberg, 2016). Currently there is no known cure for HPV, however a prophylactic vaccination provides an efficacious method for protection against HPV related diseases. The purpose of the evidence-based project was to provide a HPV educational intervention to collegiate males and examine the effects of HPV knowledge, intention to vaccinate, and receipt of vaccination. The Health Belief Model was selected to provide ...


Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan 2017 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital

Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring. Hence, therapeutic targets that reduce transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts may provide a clinically relevant approach to treat corneal fibrosis and improve long-term visual outcomes. Smad7 protein regulates the functional effects of TGFβ signaling ...


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

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Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury 2017 Ancestral Health Society

Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...


Aedes Aegypti And Dengue In The Philippines: Centering History And Critiquing Ecological And Public Health Approaches To Mosquito-Borne Disease In The Greater Asian Pacific, Maria R. Pettis 2017 Pomona College

Aedes Aegypti And Dengue In The Philippines: Centering History And Critiquing Ecological And Public Health Approaches To Mosquito-Borne Disease In The Greater Asian Pacific, Maria R. Pettis

Pomona Senior Theses

The global incidence of dengue has increase 30-fold over the past 50 years in the western or Asian Pacific, this region is also a contemporary epicenter for resource extraction and ecological destabilization. Dengue is addition to yellow fever, chikungunya and most recently zika virus, are transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti- a domesticated mosquito adept at breeding in artificial household containers and within homes. The history of the domestication and global distribution of Aedes aegypti is intrinsically linked to European expansion into and among tropical worlds. Contemporary population genetics research suggest the westward expansion of the mosquito vector beginning ...


An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley 2017 University of Central Florida

An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley

Honors in the Major Theses

Polyamines, specifically putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are small cationic molecules found in all organisms. Cells can biosynthetically make these molecules, or alternatively, they can be transported from the extracellular environment. Malignant cells have been shown to require relatively high amounts of polyamines. There is a chemotherapeutic agent, DFMO, used to block the biosynthesis of polyamines. Many malignant cells can circumvent DFMO therapy by activating their transport system. A potential solution is to simultaneously block biosynthesis and transport of polyamines. However, little is known about the polyamine transport system in higher eukaryotes.

This thesis aims to add to the basic biological ...


Glucose-Mediated Catabolite Repression In Sinorhizobium Meliloti, Emily R. Murnin 2017 University of Redlands

Glucose-Mediated Catabolite Repression In Sinorhizobium Meliloti, Emily R. Murnin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract:

Alfalfa plants and the bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti interact in a symbiotic relationship in which the alfalfa plant receives a usable form of nitrogen, ammonia, to use as a fertilizer, while the bacteria receive a carbon and energy source from the plant roots. During this exchange, there is formation of a root nodule, and these bacteria are implanted inside the alfalfa root cells. To convert the nitrogen by the process of nitrogen fixation for the alfalfa plant, Sinorhizobium meliloti requires a great deal of energy. To conserve the energy that it has, this bacterium performs what is known as catabolite ...


Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.

Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...


Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau 2017 University of Southern Maine

Using Extremophile Bacteriophage Discovery In A Stem Education Professional Development Partnership To Explore Model Classroom Research Experiences Integrating The Three Dimentions Of The Next Generation Science Standards, Carrie L. Boudreau

All Theses & Dissertations

The National Research Council’s (NRC) A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas describes a vision of what it means to be proficient in science. The project discussed in this thesis was developed with a NIH SEPA Grant 8R25OD010937 to the Virology and Electron Microscopy Laboratory at the University of Southern Maine (USM) under the direction of Dr. S. Monroe Duboise. The goal of the project was to explore using discovery of extreme environment bacteria and their bacteriophages as a model for using the three dimensions of learning to teach Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ...


Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez 2017 CUNY City College

Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez

Master's Theses

Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...


Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2016 University of Toledo

Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Although primary cilia have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of embryonic mouse heart, their presence and function in adult mouse heart remains controversial. In this study, the presence of primary cilia in adult mouse heart was investigated. The presence of primary cilia was initially demonstrated in the surface of cardiac cells of mouse hearts from both young and adult mice by immunostaining with acetylated α-tubulin, a ciliary structural marker. The presence of cardiac primary cilia in 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month old mice was further confirmed by staining heart tissues with an antibody against pericentrin, a ...


Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John DeLong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D. 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D.

James Van Etten Publications

Virus population growth depends on contacts between viruses and their hosts. It is often unclear how sufficient contacts are made between viruses and their specific hosts to generate spikes in viral abundance. Here, we show that copepods, acting as predators, can bring aquatic viruses and their algal hosts into contact. Specifically, predation of the protist Paramecium bursaria by copepods resulted in a >100-fold increase in the number of chloroviruses in 1 d. Copepod predation can be seen as an ecological “catalyst” by increasing contacts between chloroviruses and their hosts, zoochlorellae (endosymbiotic algae that live within paramecia), thereby facilitating viral population ...


An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl McComas 2016 St. Mary's Medical Center, Huntington, WV

An Unusual Case Of Escherichia Coli Meningitis And Bacteremia In An Elderly Woman Presenting With Intractable Low Back Pain, Andrea M. Lauffer, Mahmoud Shorman, Carl Mccomas

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Introduction:

We report an unusual case of E. coli meningitis in an elderly woman who presented to the emergency room with a chief complaint of intractable low back pain.

Case Description:

A 67 year old woman presented to the emergency room for a chief complaint of intractable low back pain. After admission, the patient developed delirium. Blood cultures were drawn. Patient underwent a lumbar puncture which revealed purulent cerebrospinal fluid. Results of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures revealed pan-sensitive E. coli.

Conclusion:

In the geriatric population, delayed presentation of meningitis can occur for various reasons. With the older ...


Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology: Discovering The Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation, Joan Petersen, Susan McLaughlin 2016 CUNY Queensborough Community College

Laboratory Exercises In Microbiology: Discovering The Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation, Joan Petersen, Susan Mclaughlin

Open Educational Resources

The exercises in this laboratory manual are designed to engage students in hand-on activities that reinforce their understanding of the microbial world. Topics covered include: staining and microscopy, metabolic testing, physical and chemical control of microorganisms, and immunology. The target audience is primarily students preparing for a career in the health sciences, however many of the topics would be appropriate for a general microbiology course as well.


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