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Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz NMD, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland 2018 Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine

Phytobiological Warfare: An Evolutionary Approach To Botanical Medicine, Guillermo Ruiz Nmd, Tiffany Turner, Jeffrey Langland

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester

Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty

#History: A Journal of Student Research

At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...


The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen 2018 Liberty University

Infections Not Fought: Antibiotic Resistance In Underserved Communities, Derek Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

In 1928, the profound effects of penicillin were discovered and antibiotic treatments became extremely popular. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, like tetracyclines, have been since branded as cure-all prescriptions and used profusely in the Western World and abroad. Due to ignorance of specific biochemical mechanisms and the misuse of antibiotics these drugs inadvertently allowed the rise in prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains of certain bacteria as the century progressed. Now, the specific genetic causes and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are being understood, but the fight against antimicrobial resistance is far from over. In the United States, thousands of fatalities are caused annually by ...


Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2018 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Use Of Urine Antigen Testing For Blastomyces In An Integrated Health System, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Blastomycosis, an endemic fungal infection, mimics many other diseases. We explored the use of Blastomyces urine antigen (BuAg), reportedly the most sensitive noninvasive test, in clinical practice and compared it to other noninvasive tests.

Methods: A total of 836 BuAg tests performed on unique patients (first test only) at one large integrated health system from June 2013 to May 2016 were retrospectively reviewed to examine test characteristics and demographic features. Of these, 100 cases from 2015, a year containing a large local blastomycosis outbreak, were randomly selected for detailed analysis.

Results: Demographics for the BuAg-tested population: mean age 54 ...


Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah 2018 East Tennessee State University

Pantoea Agglomerans Bacteremia: A Rare Case Of Spontaneous Human Infection By A Plant Pathogen In An Immunocompromised Host., Utsab R. Panta, James A. Joslyn, Rupal D. Shah

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction:

Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram negative ubiquitous bacteria commonly isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, fruits and animal/human feces usually introduced to human by ingestion of infected fruits/vegetables, thorn pricks and gastrointestinal translocation in lack of stomach acidity. However, the pathogen can also cause opportunistic human infection especially when the immune system is impaired. The aim of this case report is to investigate clinical features in a patient with P. agglomerans bacteremia and bring attention the opportunistic infection by this rare bacteria.

Case presentation:

We present a case of 57 year old caucasian lady with past medical history ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, these individuals have chronic inflammation associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular pathology. HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Though the majority of proviruses that persist during antiviral therapy are defective for production of infectious virions, many are expressed, raising the possibility that the HIV-1 provirus or its transcripts contribute to ongoing inflammation. Here we found that the HIV-1 provirus activated innate immune ...


Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel 2018 South Dakota State University

Growth And Extended Survival Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Soil Organic Matter, Volker Brozel

Volker Brozel


Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as serotype O157:H7, are a leading cause of food-associated outbreaks. While the primary reservoir is associated with cattle, plant foods have been associated as sources of human infection. E. coli is able to growin the tissue of food plants such as spinach. While fecal contamination is the primary suspect, soil has been underestimated as a potential reservoir. Persistence of bacterial populations in open systems is the product of growth, death, predation, and competition. Here we report that E. coli O157:H7 can grow using the soluble compounds in soil, and characterize the effect of soil ...


Ras Hyperactivation Versus Overexpression: Lessons From Ras Dynamics In Candida Albicans, Vavilala A. Pratyusha, Guiliana Soraya Victoria, Mohammad Firoz Khan, Dominic T. Haokip, Bhawna Yadav, Nibedita Pal, Subhash Chandra Sethi, Priyanka Jain, Sneh Lata Singh, Sobhan Sen, Sneha Sudha Komath 2018 Jawaharlal Nehru University

Ras Hyperactivation Versus Overexpression: Lessons From Ras Dynamics In Candida Albicans, Vavilala A. Pratyusha, Guiliana Soraya Victoria, Mohammad Firoz Khan, Dominic T. Haokip, Bhawna Yadav, Nibedita Pal, Subhash Chandra Sethi, Priyanka Jain, Sneh Lata Singh, Sobhan Sen, Sneha Sudha Komath

Open Access Articles

Ras signaling in response to environmental cues is critical for cellular morphogenesis in eukaryotes. This signaling is tightly regulated and its activation involves multiple players. Sometimes Ras signaling may be hyperactivated. In C. albicans, a human pathogenic fungus, we demonstrate that dynamics of hyperactivated Ras1 (Ras1G13V or Ras1 in Hsp90 deficient strains) can be reliably differentiated from that of normal Ras1 at (near) single molecule level using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Ras1 hyperactivation results in significantly slower dynamics due to actin polymerization. Activating actin polymerization by jasplakinolide can produce hyperactivated Ras1 dynamics. In a sterol-deficient hyperfilamentous GPI mutant of C ...


Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogen Recognition By Cd4 Effectors Drives Key Effector And Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus, Priyadharshini Devarajan, Michael C. Jones, Olivia Kugler-Umana, Allen M. Vong, Jingya Xia, Susan L. Swain

Open Access Articles

Although much is known about the mechanisms by which pathogen recognition drives the initiation of T cell responses, including those to respiratory viruses, the role of pathogen recognition in fate decisions of T cells once they have become effectors remains poorly defined. Here, we review our recent studies that suggest that the generation of CD4 T cell memory is determined by recognition of virus at an effector "checkpoint." We propose this is also true of more highly differentiated tissue-restricted effector cells, including cytotoxic "ThCTL" in the site of infection and TFH in secondary lymphoid organs. We point out that ThCTL ...


Biochemical Analysis Of Dimethyl Suberimidate-Crosslinked Yeast Nucleosomes, Yuichi Ichikawa, Paul D. Kaufman 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Biochemical Analysis Of Dimethyl Suberimidate-Crosslinked Yeast Nucleosomes, Yuichi Ichikawa, Paul D. Kaufman

Open Access Articles

Nucleosomes are the fundamental unit of eukaryotic chromosome packaging, comprised of 147 bp of DNA wrapped around two molecules of each of the core histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Nucleosomes are symmetrical, with one axis of symmetry centered on the homodimeric interaction between the C-termini of the H3 molecules. To explore the functional consequences of nucleosome symmetry, we designed an obligate pair of H3 heterodimers, termed H3X and H3Y, allowing us to compare cells with single or double H3 alterations. Our biochemical validation of the heterodimeric X-Y interaction included intra-nucleosomal H3 crosslinking using dimethyl suberimidate (DMS). Here, we ...


Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche 2018 University of Vermont

Bibliometric Analysis Of Scholarly Publications On The Zika Virus, 1952-2016, Frances A. Delwiche

University Libraries Faculty and Staff Publications

The 2015-2016 epidemic in the Americas caused by the Zika Virus (ZIKV) triggered a dramatic increase in the number of scholarly publications on this topic. In an effort to understand and characterize this body of literature, a bibliometric study was conducted on all articles found in PubMed that were published on the Zika virus between 1952 and 2016. Study parameters included publication date, source journal, subject and category of source journal, and country of first author. The data was frequency-ranked, enabling identification of the most highly productive journal titles, subject areas, and countries. The study concluded with a comparison between ...


Transcriptome Profiling Of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals Mir-204 As A Multi-Target Biotherapy Deliverable By Raavs, Yi Lu, Phillip W. L. Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J. Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D. Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcriptome Profiling Of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals Mir-204 As A Multi-Target Biotherapy Deliverable By Raavs, Yi Lu, Phillip W. L. Tai, Jianzhong Ai, Dominic J. Gessler, Qin Su, Xieyi Yao, Qiang Zheng, Phillip D. Zamore, Xun Xu, Guangping Gao

Open Access Articles

Corneal neovascularization (NV) is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs) and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs. Among these, we selected miR-204 and assessed its efficacy and therapeutic ...


Splenic Infarction: An Under-Recognized Complication Of Infectious Mononucleosis?, Yan Li, Ann George, Sami Arnaout, Jennifer P. Wang, George M. Abraham 2018 Saint Vincent Hospital

Splenic Infarction: An Under-Recognized Complication Of Infectious Mononucleosis?, Yan Li, Ann George, Sami Arnaout, Jennifer P. Wang, George M. Abraham

Open Access Articles

Splenic infarction is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. We describe 3 cases of splenic infarction attributed to infectious mononucleosis that we encountered within a 2-month period. We underscore the awareness of this potential complication of infectious mononucleosis and discuss the differential diagnosis of splenic infarction, including infectious etiologies. While symptomatic management is usually sufficient for infectious mononucleosis-associated splenic infarction, close monitoring for other complications, including splenic rupture, is mandated.


Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an obligate intracellular parasite, human adenovirus (HAdV) must utilize host factors for survival and replication. Early during infection, its multifunctional E1A protein interacts with an impressive range of cellular target proteins to exert control over the cellular environment. Through these virus-host interactions, E1A massively reprograms both viral and cellular transcription to activate the other HAdV genes, downregulate the host’s immune response, and induce the cell cycle. Consequently, E1A converts the infected cell into a compliant state more amenable for HAdV replication, resulting from its numerous protein-protein interactions. I sought to examine E1A’s interaction with cellular protein kinase ...


The Three-Fold Axis Of The Hiv-1 Capsid Lattice Is The Species-Specific Binding Interface For Trim5alpha, Damien Morger, Franziska Zosel, Martin Buhlmann, Sara Zuger, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Benjamin Schuler, Jeremy Luban, Markus G. Grutter 2018 University of Zurich

The Three-Fold Axis Of The Hiv-1 Capsid Lattice Is The Species-Specific Binding Interface For Trim5alpha, Damien Morger, Franziska Zosel, Martin Buhlmann, Sara Zuger, Maximilian Mittelviefhaus, Benjamin Schuler, Jeremy Luban, Markus G. Grutter

Open Access Articles

Rhesus TRIM5alpha (rhTRIM5alpha) potently restricts replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Restriction is mediated through direct binding of the C-terminal B30.2 domain of TRIM5alpha to the assembled HIV-1 capsid core. This host-pathogen interaction involves multiple capsid molecules within the hexagonal HIV-1 capsid lattice. However, the molecular details of this interaction and the precise site at which the B30.2 domain binds remain largely unknown. The human orthologue of TRIM5alpha (hsTRIM5alpha) fails to block infection by HIV-1 both in vivo and in vitro This is thought to be due to differences in binding to the capsid lattice. To ...


Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2018 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans’ Hospital

Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. We tested the potential of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) combination gene therapy to treat preformed corneal fibrosis using established rabbit in vivo and human in vitro models.

METHODS. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were used. Corneal fibrosis was produced by alkali injury. Twenty-four hours after scar formation, cornea received topically either balanced salt solution (BSS; n ¼ 6), polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticle (PEI2-GNP)-naked plasmid (n ¼ 6) or PEI2-GNP plasmids expressing BMP7 and HGF genes (n ¼ 6). Donor human corneas were used to obtain primary human corneal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts for mechanistic ...


On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen 2018 Arizona State University

On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen

Open Access Articles

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the beta -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can result in serious neurological sequelae. Recent work has revealed much about the demographic and selective forces shaping the evolution of congenitally transmitted HCMV both on the level of hosts and within host compartments, providing insight into the dynamics of congenital infection, reinfection, and evolution of HCMV with important implications for the development of effective treatments and vaccines.


A Long Cytoplasmic Loop Governs The Sensitivity Of The Anti-Viral Host Protein Serinc5 To Hiv-1 Nef, Weiwei Dai, Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu, Heinrich G. Gottlinger 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Long Cytoplasmic Loop Governs The Sensitivity Of The Anti-Viral Host Protein Serinc5 To Hiv-1 Nef, Weiwei Dai, Yoshiko Usami, Yuanfei Wu, Heinrich G. Gottlinger

Open Access Articles

We recently identified the multipass transmembrane protein SERINC5 as an antiviral protein that can potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity and is counteracted by HIV-1 Nef. We now report that the anti-HIV-1 activity, but not the sensitivity to Nef, is conserved among vertebrate SERINC5 proteins. However, a Nef-resistant SERINC5 became Nef sensitive when its intracellular loop 4 (ICL4) was replaced by that of Nef-sensitive human SERINC5. Conversely, human SERINC5 became resistant to Nef when its ICL4 was replaced by that of a Nef-resistant SERINC5. In general, ICL4 regions from SERINCs that exhibited resistance to a given Nef conferred resistance to the same ...


New Gorilla Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent Immune Responses And Protection In A Mouse Malaria Model, Keith Limbach, Ann M. Moormann, Joseph T. Bruder 2018 Naval Medical Research Center

New Gorilla Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent Immune Responses And Protection In A Mouse Malaria Model, Keith Limbach, Ann M. Moormann, Joseph T. Bruder

Ann M. Moormann

BACKGROUND: A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors.

RESULTS: The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and ...


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