Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia
Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could ...
Induction And Suppression Of Antiviral Rna Silencing By Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Induction And Suppression Of Antiviral Rna Silencing By Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an emerging pathogen with wide host range and one of the most important viruses of plants. Information regarding processing of negative single stranded RNA viruses such as TSWV in the RNA silencing pathway remains limited. In nature TSWV is only transmitted by thrips as vectors and since infection occurs in both thrips and plants, an experimental system to transmit using thrips and the detection of TSWV were established. In order to understand the processing of TSWV in the RNA silencing pathway, Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant was used in the genetic analysis against ...
Exploring The Impact Of Olfaction On Short-Term And Long-Term Maternal Recognition In Peromyscus Californicus, 2017 Seattle Pacific University
Exploring The Impact Of Olfaction On Short-Term And Long-Term Maternal Recognition In Peromyscus Californicus, Mariah F. Conley
Previous studies have established a connection between social behavior and olfaction, in that as anosmia causes a decrease in perception of social cues, social behavior itself decreases. Studies investigating maternal behavior specifically have focused on foster care, in which the behaviors formed during parturition are conserved and displayed with unrelated pups. The combination of long-term retention of maternal behavior, maternal recognition, and olfaction has yet to be explored. In this study, I induced anosmia in Peromyscus californicus, a monogamous, biparental species, and analyzed their behavior with their own pups and with foreign pups in the days after birth, as well ...
The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, 2017 Northwestern University
The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, Shon Thomas, Sreya Bagchi
Undergraduate Research and Arts Exposition
Approximately 1 in 3 deaths in the US is caused by cardiovascular diseases, among them atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs through excessive cholesterol deposition (hyperlipidemia) along the inner layer of the artery called the intima, resulting in plaque formation that blocks arterial blood flow and could lead to heart attacks and strokes. It has recently been recognized that inflammation plays an important role in plaque formation. Specifically, T cell activation can affect the progression of atherosclerosis through interaction with antigen presenting cells (APCs) in a hyperlipidemic environment. APCs ingest foreign objects and present digested remnants on antigen presenting molecules at the cell ...
Controlling The Controls, 2017 University of Wyoming
Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Research provides the basis for scientific discovery and advancements in all areas of science. The process of discovery involves countless repetitions of the identical experiment in order to make a claim about the topic in question. In order to properly conduct an experiment that is similar or the same to one already executed, all of the variables must be perfectly controlled. In experiments discussed in this presentation, living conditions involving rats are the variables to control. Some of the variables include lighting, exercise, water intake, and diet.
A current problem facing research is the way diets are being reported in ...
An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, 2017 University of Maine
An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...
Procalcitonin Levels; An Alternative Diagnostic Approach For Community Acquired Pneumonia In Acute Care Settings And Determination Of Antibiotic Therapy, Jamie Anne Rhodine
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are an accurate reflection of bacterial replication within the human body. By deciphering between bacterial and viral invasion, antibiotic therapy will be reduced contributing to the reduction of antibiotic resistance. For atypical patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), PCT levels will detect when antibiotic therapy is effective and when it is safe to discontinue antibiotics. Hospital stay length will be reduced and patients to nurse ratios will improve. One simple diagnostic PCT test used as an adjunct with traditional diagnostic testing for CAP will help minimize morbidity and mortality rates among patients. Traditionally used with septic patients ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte
University Scholar Projects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...
F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, 2017 College of William and Mary
F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...
Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Fosfomycin Simulating Urinary Concentrations Achieved After A Single 3 Gram Oral Dose Versus Escherichia Coli Using An In Vitro Model, George G. Zhanel, Kate Parkinson, Sean Higgins, Andrew Denisuik, Heather Adam, Johann Pitout, Ayman Noreddin, James A. Karlowsky
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
We assessed the activity of fosfomycin simulating urinary concentrations achieved after a single 3 gram oral dose against Escherichia coli using an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Eleven urinary isolates of E. coli were studied. Isolates were ESBL-producing or carbapenemase-producing. The in vitro pharmacodynamic model was inoculated with an inoculum of (~1 × 106 cfu/mL). Fosfomycin was administered to simulate maximum free (ƒ) urine (U) concentrations and a t1/2 obtained after a standard single 3 gram oral dose in healthy volunteers (ƒUmax, 4000 mg/L; t1/2, 6 h). Sampling was performed over 48 h to ...
The Effects Of A Hpv Educational Intervention Aimed At Collegiate Males On Knowledge, Vaccine Intention, And Uptake, Mary A. Knudtson
Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States (US). In 2013, approximately 6% of 19 to 26-year-old males had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine (Richman, Maddy, Torres, & Goldberg, 2016). Currently there is no known cure for HPV, however a prophylactic vaccination provides an efficacious method for protection against HPV related diseases. The purpose of the evidence-based project was to provide a HPV educational intervention to collegiate males and examine the effects of HPV knowledge, intention to vaccinate, and receipt of vaccination. The Health Belief Model was selected to provide ...
Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, 2017 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital
Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring. Hence, therapeutic targets that reduce transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts may provide a clinically relevant approach to treat corneal fibrosis and improve long-term visual outcomes. Smad7 protein regulates the functional effects of TGFβ signaling ...
Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio
Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio
Journal of Evolution and Health
Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, 2017 Ancestral Health Society
Dietary Refinement And The Upper Gut Microbiota: The Starting Point For Obesity And Non-Communicable Diseases?, Ian Spreadbury
Journal of Evolution and Health
No abstract provided.
Freshwater Fungal Infections, 2017 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care
Freshwater Fungal Infections, Dennis J. Baumgardner
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews
Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails ...
Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., 2017 CUNY City College
Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez
Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...
Glucose-Mediated Catabolite Repression In Sinorhizobium Meliloti, 2017 University of Redlands
Glucose-Mediated Catabolite Repression In Sinorhizobium Meliloti, Emily R. Murnin
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Alfalfa plants and the bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti interact in a symbiotic relationship in which the alfalfa plant receives a usable form of nitrogen, ammonia, to use as a fertilizer, while the bacteria receive a carbon and energy source from the plant roots. During this exchange, there is formation of a root nodule, and these bacteria are implanted inside the alfalfa root cells. To convert the nitrogen by the process of nitrogen fixation for the alfalfa plant, Sinorhizobium meliloti requires a great deal of energy. To conserve the energy that it has, this bacterium performs what is known as catabolite ...
Aedes Aegypti And Dengue In The Philippines: Centering History And Critiquing Ecological And Public Health Approaches To Mosquito-Borne Disease In The Greater Asian Pacific, Maria R. Pettis
Pomona Senior Theses
The global incidence of dengue has increase 30-fold over the past 50 years in the western or Asian Pacific, this region is also a contemporary epicenter for resource extraction and ecological destabilization. Dengue is addition to yellow fever, chikungunya and most recently zika virus, are transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti- a domesticated mosquito adept at breeding in artificial household containers and within homes. The history of the domestication and global distribution of Aedes aegypti is intrinsically linked to European expansion into and among tropical worlds. Contemporary population genetics research suggest the westward expansion of the mosquito vector beginning ...
A New Species Of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda; Caligidae) Parasitic On Three Kelpfish Species (Clinidae) From The Southern California Coast, Julianne Kalman Passarelli, Danny Tang
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
A new copepod species, Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., is established based on female and male specimens obtained from the Giant Kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus Girard, 1854, and Striped Kelpfish, Gibbonsia metzi Hubbs, 1927, captured at Inner Cabrillo Beach in southern California, U.S.A. In addition, comparisons with copepod specimens identified by Wilson (1935) as L. parviventris Wilson, 1905 from the Spotted Kelpfish, Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper, 1864), in Newport Bay, California, revealed they are conspecific with L. schaadti n. sp. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of characters that include: female with a genital complex that is ...
An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, 2017 University of Central Florida
An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley
Honors in the Major Theses
Polyamines, specifically putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are small cationic molecules found in all organisms. Cells can biosynthetically make these molecules, or alternatively, they can be transported from the extracellular environment. Malignant cells have been shown to require relatively high amounts of polyamines. There is a chemotherapeutic agent, DFMO, used to block the biosynthesis of polyamines. Many malignant cells can circumvent DFMO therapy by activating their transport system. A potential solution is to simultaneously block biosynthesis and transport of polyamines. However, little is known about the polyamine transport system in higher eukaryotes.
This thesis aims to add to the basic biological ...