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How Do Fat Cells Work?, Christopher Adams 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

How Do Fat Cells Work?, Christopher Adams

Christopher S. Adams

Basic facts about body fat.


An Hsus Report: Welfare Issues With The Use Of Hormones And Antibiotics In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society of the United States 2016 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsus Report: Welfare Issues With The Use Of Hormones And Antibiotics In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society Of The United States

Farm Animals, Agribusiness, and Food Production

No abstract provided.


Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King 2016 College of William and Mary

Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Abstract: When an animal dies, that individual’s mate, relatives, or friends may express grief. Changes in the survivor’s patterns of social behavior, eating, sleeping, and/or of expression of affect are the key criteria for defining grief. Based on this understanding of grief, it is not only big-brained mammals like elephants, apes, and cetaceans who can be said to mourn, but also a wide variety of other animals, including domestic companions like cats, dogs, and rabbits; horses and farm animals; and some birds. With keen attention placed on seeking where grief is found to occur and where it ...


Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard 2015 University of San Francisco

Preventing 30-Day Readmissions Of Clostridium Difficile Patients Utilizing Targeted Discharge Instructions, Keith A. Howard

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 ushered in a new era of fiscal accountability for healthcare organizations. Healthcare organizations and providers are now jointly held responsible for the improved quality of patient care and sustained reductions in patient care events termed healthcare-acquired conditions. To ensure compliance with this newly enacted legislation, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began penalizing hospitals for targeted conditions leading to 30-day readmissions beginning in October 2012. Annually, CMS has focused attention on conditions that endanger patient health and welfare while secondarily attempting to reduce the excessive financial expenditures in care ...


Olfactory Enrichment In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus), Mystera M. Samuelson 2015 The University of Southern Mississippi

Olfactory Enrichment In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus), Mystera M. Samuelson

Dissertations

In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide array of sensory information at all times. However, it is impossible for captive environments to provide this level of complexity. Therefore unique procedures and practices are necessary for the maintenance of physiological and psychological health in captive animals (Wells, 2009). This project aims to explore the behavioral effect of scent added to the environment, with the goal of improving the welfare of captive sea lions by introducing two scent types: 1.) Natural scents, found in their native environment, and 2.) Non-natural scents, not found in their native ...


Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth Shapiro 2015 Animals and Society Institute

Psychology's Use Of Animals: Current Practices And Attitudes, Kenneth Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, Ph.D.

In this chapter, I present a psychology primer for the uninitiated, with special emphasis on psychology's uses of animals. After sketching the scope of the field generally, I review available data on present numbers and species of animals used in psychological research, level of suffering induced and current trends. I also provide several concrete examples of psychological research involving animals. Finally, the chapter concludes with a presentation of attitudes of psychologists toward animals and these practices.


Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Expansion Of The Chlorovirus Genus By Studies On Virus Natural History And Chlorella Host Metabolism, Cristian F. Quispe

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Inland waters cover about 2.5 percent of our planet and harbor huge numbers of known and unknown microorganisms including viruses. Viruses likely play dynamic, albeit largely undocumented roles in regulating microbial communities and in recycling nutrients in the ecosystem. Phycodnaviruses are a genetically diverse, yet morphologically similar, group of large dsDNA-containing viruses (160- to 560-kb) that inhabit aquatic environments. Members of the genus Chlorovirus are common in freshwater. They replicate in eukaryotic, single-celled, chlorella-like green algae that normally exist as endosymbionts of protists in nature. Very little is known about the natural history of the chloroviruses and how they ...


Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera 2015 Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo

Estudios En Biodiversidad, Volumen I, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Scott Monks, Maritza López-Herrera

Zea E-Books

Este libro es el producto del trabajo colegiado que han desarrollado los profesores, investigadores, y estudiantes que conforman la Red Temática de Calidad Ambiental y Desarrollo Sustentable, a través del macroproyecto “Evaluación del impacto ambiental por actividades antropogénicas: Alternativas de mitigación”. El cual fue apoyado con recursos financieros por parte del Programa para el Desarrollo Profesional Docente (PRODEP), de la Secretaria de Educación Pública (SEP) en México. Las instituciones de educación superior y cuerpos participantes en la red temática son la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Uso, Manejo y Conservación de la Biodiversidad UAEHCA- 10; Ciencias Ambientales UAEH-CA-59); Universidad ...


Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley A. Bernhard, Melissa A. Lemke 2015 Center for Urban Population Health, Aurora Health Care

Geographic Distribution Of Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization And Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization: Eastern Wisconsin, Jessica J.F. Kram, Dennis J. Baumgardner, Kiley A. Bernhard, Melissa A. Lemke

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Neonatal death rate in the United States is 4/1,000 live births; infant death rate is 6/1,000. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) may be transmitted from a colonized mother (rates vary from 15% to 35%) to the newborn during a vaginal delivery, and may contribute to neonatal death.

Purpose: To explore the geographic distribution and associated risk factors for maternal GBS colonization and infant death prior to discharge in eastern Wisconsin births.

Methods: Retrospective study of institutional data from PeriData.net, a comprehensive birth registry, utilizing data from 2007 through 2013 at all Aurora medical centers. Categorical ...


Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian

Wildlife, Conservation, and Endangered Species

Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in ...


Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja van de Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett 2015 Humane Society International

Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett

Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation

Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual ...


Optimization Of Potent And Selective Quinazolinediones: Inhibitors Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus That Block Rna-Dependent Rna-Polymerase Complex Activity, Daljit Matharu, Daniel Flaherty, Denise Simpson, Chad Schroeder, Donghoon Chung, Dan Yan, James Noah, Colleen Jonsson, E. White, Jeffrey Aubé, Richard Plemper, William Severson, Jennifer Golden 2015 University of Kansas

Optimization Of Potent And Selective Quinazolinediones: Inhibitors Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus That Block Rna-Dependent Rna-Polymerase Complex Activity, Daljit Matharu, Daniel Flaherty, Denise Simpson, Chad Schroeder, Donghoon Chung, Dan Yan, James Noah, Colleen Jonsson, E. White, Jeffrey Aubé, Richard Plemper, William Severson, Jennifer Golden

Denise S. Simpson, Ph.D.

A quinazolinedione-derived screening hit 2 was discovered with cellular antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (CPE EC50 = 2.1 μM), moderate efficacy in reducing viral progeny (4.2 log at 10 μM), and marginal cytotoxic liability (selectivity index, SI ∼ 24). Scaffold optimization delivered analogs with improved potency and selectivity profiles. Most notable were compounds 15 and 19 (EC50 = 300–500 nM, CC50 > 50 μM, SI > 100), which significantly reduced viral titer (>400,000-fold), and several analogs were shown to block the activity of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase complex of RSV.


After-Action Report Of Humane Society International's Emergency Response To The April 2015 Earthquake In Nepal, Nepal Earthquake Disaster Operations Team 2015 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

After-Action Report Of Humane Society International's Emergency Response To The April 2015 Earthquake In Nepal, Nepal Earthquake Disaster Operations Team

Global Disaster Response Reports

This report describes the timeline and extent of HSI response efforts, evaluates and assesses community (animal and human) health and medical response actions, and identifies issues and challenges faced by HSI responders during the days following the earthquake until their withdrawal, with the goal of providing HSI with practical recommendations to address those challenges.


Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2015 Chapman University

Application Of Ichip To Grow “Uncultivable” Microorganisms And Its Impact On Antibiotic Discovery, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Caretta J. Reese, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose. Antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, allowing significant progress in healthcare and improvement in life expectancy. Development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a natural phenomenon; however, the rate of antibiotic resistance emergence is increasing at an alarming rate, due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics in healthcare, agriculture and even everyday products. Traditionally, antibiotic discovery has been conducted by screening extracts of microorganisms for antimicrobial activity. However, this conventional source has been over-used to such an extent that it poses the risk of “running out” of new antibiotics. Aiming to increase access to a greater diversity of microorganisms, a ...


Evolution Of Nociception In Vertebrates: Comparative Analysis Of Lower Vertebrates, Lynne Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

Evolution Of Nociception In Vertebrates: Comparative Analysis Of Lower Vertebrates, Lynne Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Nociception is an important sensory system of major fundamental and clinical relevance. The nociceptive system of higher vertebrates is well studied with a wealth of information about nociceptor properties, involvement of the central nervous system and the in vivo responses to a noxious experience are already characterised. However, relatively little is known about nociception in lower vertebrates and this review brings together a variety of studies to understand how this information can inform the evolution of nociception in vertebrates. It has been demonstrated that teleost fish possess nociceptors innervated by the trigeminal nerve and that these are physiologically similar to ...


Plasticity In Animal Personality Traits: Does Prior Experience Alter The Degree Of Boldness?, Ashley Frost, Alexandra Winrow-Giffen, Paul Ashley, Lynne Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

Plasticity In Animal Personality Traits: Does Prior Experience Alter The Degree Of Boldness?, Ashley Frost, Alexandra Winrow-Giffen, Paul Ashley, Lynne Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Theoreticians predict that animal ‘personality’ traits may be maladaptive if fixed throughout different contexts, so the present study aimed to test whether these traits are fixed or plastic. Rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were given emboldening or negative experiences in the forms of watching bold or shy individuals responding to novelty or winning or losing fights to examine whether prior experience affected boldness. Bold individuals that lost fights or watched shy demonstrators became more shy by increasing their latency to approach a novel object, whereas shy observers that watched bold demonstrators remained cautious and did not modify their responses to novelty ...


Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan Reilly, Anja Kipar, David Hughes, John Quinn, Andrew Cossins, Lynne Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

Investigation Of Van Gogh-Like 2 Mrna Regulation And Localisation In Response To Nociception In The Brain Of Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio), Siobhan Reilly, Anja Kipar, David Hughes, John Quinn, Andrew Cossins, Lynne Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

The Van Gogh-like 2 (vangl2) gene is typically associated with planar cell polarity pathways, which is essential for correct orientation of epithelial cells during development. The encoded protein of this gene is a transmembrane protein and is highly conserved through evolution. Van Gogh-like 2 was selected for further study on the basis of consistent regulation after a nociceptive stimulus in adult common carp and rainbow trout in a microarray study. An in situ hybridisation was conducted in the brain of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio), 1.5 and 3 h after a nociceptive stimulus comprising of an acetic acid injection ...


Physiological And Behavioural Responses To Noxious Stimuli In The Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua), Jared R. Eckroth, Øyvind Aas-Hansen, Lynne U. Sneddon, Helena Bichão, Kjell B. Døving 2015 University of Oslo

Physiological And Behavioural Responses To Noxious Stimuli In The Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua), Jared R. Eckroth, Øyvind Aas-Hansen, Lynne U. Sneddon, Helena Bichão, Kjell B. Døving

Animal Sentience, Intelligence, and Behavior

In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222). The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR) at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min ...


Negative Skeletal Effects Of Locally Produced Adiponectin, Marcia J. Abbott, Theresa M. Roth, Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Dylan O'Carroll, Robert A. Nissenson 2015 Chapman University

Negative Skeletal Effects Of Locally Produced Adiponectin, Marcia J. Abbott, Theresa M. Roth, Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Dylan O'Carroll, Robert A. Nissenson

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3–4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation ...


Observing Panda Play: Implications For Zoo Programming And Conservation Efforts, Sarah Bexell, Olga Jarrett, Luo Lan, Hu Yan, Estelle Sandhaus, Zhang Zhihe, Terry Maple 2015 Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding

Observing Panda Play: Implications For Zoo Programming And Conservation Efforts, Sarah Bexell, Olga Jarrett, Luo Lan, Hu Yan, Estelle Sandhaus, Zhang Zhihe, Terry Maple

Sarah M. Bexell, Ph.D.

This study explores the effects of visitor observation of giant panda play on visitor concern for endangered species and satisfaction with seeing giant pandas. A total of 335 visitors to three institutions that house giant pandas participated in the study. These institutions are: the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, and the Chengdu Zoo, in China; and Zoo Atlanta in the U.S. After viewing the giant pandas, visitors were interviewed on whether they ever observed a panda play session, whether they observed panda play on the day of the visit, whether they wanted additional information on panda protection ...


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