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Genetic Analysis Of Production, Physiological, And Egg Quality Traits In Heat-Challenged Commercial White Egg-Laying Hens Using 600k Snp Array Data, Kaylee Rowland, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2019 Iowa State University

Genetic Analysis Of Production, Physiological, And Egg Quality Traits In Heat-Challenged Commercial White Egg-Laying Hens Using 600k Snp Array Data, Kaylee Rowland, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Background: Heat stress negatively afects the welfare and production of chickens. High ambient temperature is considered one of the most ubiquitous abiotic environmental challenges to laying hens around the world. In this study, we recorded several production traits, feed intake, body weight, digestibility, and egg quality of 400 commercial white egg-laying hens before and during a 4-week heat treatment. For the phenotypes that had estimated heritabilities (using 600k SNP chip data) higher than 0, SNP associations were tested using the same 600k genotype data.

Results: Seventeen phenotypes had heritability estimates higher than 0, including measurements at various time points for ...


Durability Of Cell Line Xenograft Resection Models To Interrogate Tumor Micro-Environment Targeting Agents., Ian S. Miller, Liam Shiels, Emer Conroy, Kate Connor, Patrick Dicker, William M Gallagher, Norma O'Donovan, Robert S. Kerbel, John Crown, Annette Byrne 2019 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Durability Of Cell Line Xenograft Resection Models To Interrogate Tumor Micro-Environment Targeting Agents., Ian S. Miller, Liam Shiels, Emer Conroy, Kate Connor, Patrick Dicker, William M Gallagher, Norma O'Donovan, Robert S. Kerbel, John Crown, Annette Byrne

Physiology and Medical Physics Articles

Angiogenesis is a key tumor microenvironment (TME) event underpinning tumor growth and metastasis. Nevertheless, the relatively poor performance of anti-angiogenic therapies in clinical trials compared to pre-clinical studies implies that classical subcutaneous xenograft models have limited predictive potential in this setting. To address this issue, we established orthotopic surgical resection models of breast cancer, which replicate the phenotype of clinical post-resection micro-metastasis. To demonstrate the power and precision of these models, we recapitulated the BETH adjuvant trial (NCT00625898) where the addition of bevacizumab (BVZ) to chemotherapy plus trastuzumab (Trast) failed to provide additional benefit. SCID mice were orthotopically implanted with ...


Barkbase: Epigenomic Annotation Of Canine Genomes, Kate Megquier, Xue Li, Kathleen Morrill, Brittney Logan, Elinor K. Karlsson 2019 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard

Barkbase: Epigenomic Annotation Of Canine Genomes, Kate Megquier, Xue Li, Kathleen Morrill, Brittney Logan, Elinor K. Karlsson

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Dogs are an unparalleled natural model for investigating the genetics of health and disease, particularly for complex diseases like cancer. Comprehensive genomic annotation of regulatory elements active in healthy canine tissues is crucial both for identifying candidate causal variants and for designing functional studies needed to translate genetic associations into disease insight. Currently, canine geneticists rely primarily on annotations of the human or mouse genome that have been remapped to dog, an approach that misses dog-specific features. Here, we describe BarkBase, a canine epigenomic resource available at barkbase.org. BarkBase hosts data for 27 adult tissue types, with biological replicates ...


Jet Lag: What’S Light Got To Do With It?, Melissa Richardson 2019 Andrews University

Jet Lag: What’S Light Got To Do With It?, Melissa Richardson

Adventist Human-Subject Researchers Association

Jet lag results in memory loss and sleepiness. Current treatments for jet lag focus on symptoms and not the cause of jet lag; disrupted light environment. This study in mice, uncovered mechanisms of how light regulates jet lag recovery and memory. This work informs our future studies in humans.


Towards A Better Understanding Of Temporomandibular Disorder, Jessica R. Cox 2019 MIssouri State University

Towards A Better Understanding Of Temporomandibular Disorder, Jessica R. Cox

MSU Graduate Theses

Results from the OPPERA study provided evidence that risk factors such as neck muscle tension, prolonged jaw opening, and female gender increase the likelihood of developing temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD), which are prevalent, debilitating orofacial pain conditions. Peripheral and central sensitization, which mediate a lowering of the stimulus required for pain signaling, are implicated in the underlying pathology of chronic TMJD. The goal of my study was to investigate cellular changes in the expression of proteins associated with the development of central sensitization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant in the upper trapezius muscles to promote ...


Decrypting Female Attractivity In Garter Snakes, Holly Rucker 2019 James Madison University

Decrypting Female Attractivity In Garter Snakes, Holly Rucker

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Pheromones are utilized by many species as sexual signals driving mate choice, and pheromone production in vertebrates hinges on sex hormone action. Female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) produce a skin-based sex pheromone used by males for mate detection and selection. Estradiol is necessary for pheromone production, yet the specific mechanisms within the skin are unknown. Central to this is the metabolism of testosterone to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase. It is hypothesized that female garter snakes synthesize estradiol locally in the skin and maintain pheromone production via tissue-specific regulation of aromatase. Further, I hypothesize that female attractiveness, and ...


Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson 2019 University of Connecticut

Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson

Honors Scholar Theses

Ecosystems are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic stressors that could make animals and thus populations more susceptible to disease. For example, the application of deicing salts to roads is increasing in the northeastern United States. Chronic stress that larval amphibians experience when living in vernal pools with high salinity may alter their susceptibility to ranavirus, a pathogen responsible for mass mortality events worldwide. This project quantifies the effects of road salts and ranavirus exposure on larval wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) growth and survival. Using outdoor mesocsoms, we raised wood frog tadpoles in salt treatments and then exposed them to the ...


Critically Evaluating Animal Research, Andrew Knight 2019 University of Winchester

Critically Evaluating Animal Research, Andrew Knight

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


Is Animal-Based Biomedical Research Being Used In Its Original Context?, Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Is Animal-Based Biomedical Research Being Used In Its Original Context?, Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows 2019 Carroll College

Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Chytridiomycosis is a potentially deadly skin disease found in amphibian populations all over the world. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that grows on the skin of amphibians. The fungus can cause a disruption in the homeostatic functions of the amphibian skin and can lead to death. The relationship between an amphibian’s antimicrobial skin secretions, cutaneous microbial communities and environmental water quality can affect their resistance and susceptibility to Bd infection. Columbia spotted frogs (Lithobates luteiventris) are native to western Montana and have been affected by chytridiomycosis. Three lakes known to be positive for Bd were ...


Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff

Undergraduate Research Conference

Do white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) prefer to eat certain types of acorns based on tannin content?

Hydrolyzable tannins consist of gallate groups connected via ester linkages to a carbohydrate (D-glucose)

The Prussian Blue method was used to determine hydrolyzable tannin content


2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'Annah Jones, DeLawnia Comer-Hagans 2019 Governors State University

2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'annah Jones, Delawnia Comer-Hagans

GSU Research Day

This research poster details the relationship between cancer treatments and alternative approaches, such as mindfulness. The purpose of this study was to determine the methodology used by doctors to treat breast cancer and their willingness to try a holistic approach. This study was conducted on site at the UIC Cancer Center as well as remotely within hospitals around the Chicagoland area. We determined that mindfulness is in fact a worthwhile asset to breast cancer patients and that the field of oncology could support further research.


Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro 2019 New York Medical College

Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro

Nader G. Abraham

We have previously reported that the alpha1 subunit of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), acts as a receptor and an amplifier for reactive oxygen species, in addition to its distinct pumping function. On this background, we speculated that blockade of Na/K-ATPase-induced ROS amplification with a specific peptide, pNaKtide, might attenuate the development of steatohepatitis. To test this hypothesis, pNaKtide was administered to a murine model of NASH: the C57Bl6 mouse fed a "western" diet containing high amounts of fat and fructose. The administration of pNaKtide reduced obesity as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Of interest, we ...


Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham 2019 New York Medical College

Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham

Nader G. Abraham

Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited. Adiposity, signaling proteins, fasting glucose and oxygen consumption were determined and compared to adipocyte cultures with depressed levels of both HO-1/HO-2 ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli

Master's Theses

The spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is a euryhaline finfish candidate for marine aquaculture in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquaculture of this species currently uses salinities of 25 psu or greater making production challenging in areas where high salinity water is not available. This study aimed to document the effects of salinity on zootechnical performance of spotted seatrout embryos, early larvae, and juveniles in recirculating aquaculture systems to assist with the development of protocols for low salinity culture.

Embryos obtained from a volitional spawn at 29 psu were incubated at three salinities (12.5, 18.75, or 25 psu) until ...


Non-Human Primates In Medical Research And Drug Development: A Critical Review, Jarrod Bailey 2019 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Non-Human Primates In Medical Research And Drug Development: A Critical Review, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

There is much current debate surrounding the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in medical research and drug development. This review, stimulated by calls for evidence from UK-based inquiries into NHP research, takes a critical view in order to provide some important balance against papers supporting NHP research and calling for it to be expanded. We show that there is a paucity of evidence to demonstrate the positive contribution or successful translation of NHP research to human medicine, that there is a great deal of often overlooked data showing NHP research to be irrelevant, unnecessary, even hazardous to human health and ...


The Ban On The Use Of Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research And Testing In The Uk Should Be Made Permanent And Legally Binding, Michelle Thew, Jarrod Bailey, Michael Balls, Michelle Hudson 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

The Ban On The Use Of Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research And Testing In The Uk Should Be Made Permanent And Legally Binding, Michelle Thew, Jarrod Bailey, Michael Balls, Michelle Hudson

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The Coalition Government is currently considering how to transpose Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation into UK law. The Directive bans the use of Great Apes in laboratories, but EU Member States can seek (now or, more likely, at some time in the future) a derogation from the Commission to permit such use, where this is considered essential for the preservation of the species in question or in relation to an unexpected outbreak of a life-threatening or debilitating clinical condition in human beings. Currently, the policy of the Government is not to approve any experiments on Great Apes, but ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 1. Validity Of The Chimpanzee Model, Jarrod Bailey 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 1. Validity Of The Chimpanzee Model, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The USA is the only significant user of chimpanzees in biomedical research in the world, since many countries have banned or limited the practice due to substantial ethical, economic and scientific concerns. Advocates of chimpanzee use cite hepatitis C research as a major reason for its necessity and continuation, in spite of supporting evidence that is scant and often anecdotal. This paper examines the scientific and ethical issues surrounding chimpanzee hepatitis C research, and concludes that claims of the necessity of chimpanzees in historical and future hepatitis C research are exaggerated and unjustifiable, respectively. The chimpanzee model has several major ...


Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Research on captive chimpanzees incurs considerable animal welfare, ethical and financial costs. Advocates of such research claim these costs are outweighed by substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge, and that the genetic similarity of chimpanzees to humans enables the former to make critical contributions to preventing, diagnosing and combating human diseases. To assess these claims, we examined the disciplines investigated in 749 studies of captive chimpanzees published from 1995-2004 inclusive, and subjected 95 randomly selected papers to a detailed citation analysis:

49.5% (47/95) of papers had not been cited at the time of this study; 38.5% (34/95 ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 2. Alternative Replacement Methods, Jarrod Bailey 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 2. Alternative Replacement Methods, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C virus (HCV) research was examined in the report associated with this paper (1: Validity of the Chimpanzee Model), in which it was concluded that claims of past necessity of chimpanzee use were exaggerated, and that claims of current and future indispensability were unjustifiable. Furthermore, given the serious scientific and ethical issues surrounding chimpanzee experimentation, it was proposed that it must now be considered redundant — particularly in light of the demonstrable contribution of alternative methods to past and current scientific progress, and the future promise that these methods hold. This paper builds on this ...


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