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Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The ability to assess welfare is an important refinement that will ensure the good condition of animals used in experimentation. The present study investigated the impact of invasive procedures on the patterns of movement of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Recordings were made before and after fin clipping, PIT tagging and a standard pain test and these were compared with control and sham handled zebrafish. The fractal dimension (FD) from the 3D trajectories was calculated to determine the effect of these treatments on the complexity of movement patterns. While the FD of zebrafish trajectories did not differ over time in either the ...


Considering Aspects Of The 3rs Principles Within Experimental Animal Biology, Lynne U. Sneddon, Lewis G. Halsey, Nic R. Bury 2019 University of Liverpool

Considering Aspects Of The 3rs Principles Within Experimental Animal Biology, Lynne U. Sneddon, Lewis G. Halsey, Nic R. Bury

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The 3Rs – Replacement, Reduction and Refinement – are embedded into the legislation and guidelines governing the ethics of animal use in experiments. Here, we consider the advantages of adopting key aspects of the 3Rs into experimental biology, represented mainly by the fields of animal behaviour, neurobiology, physiology, toxicology and biomechanics. Replacing protected animals with less sentient forms or species, cells, tissues or computer modelling approaches has been broadly successful. However, many studies investigate specific models that exhibit a particular adaptation, or a species that is a target for conservation, such that their replacement is inappropriate. Regardless of the species used, refining ...


Does Environmental Enrichment Promote Recovery From Stress In Rainbow Trout?, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Jonathan Buckley, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Does Environmental Enrichment Promote Recovery From Stress In Rainbow Trout?, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Jonathan Buckley, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The EU Directive on animal experimentation suggests that all protected animals should have enrichment to improve welfare yet relatively little research has been conducted on the impact of enrichment in fish. Studies employing enrichment in zebrafish have been contradictory and all fish species should be provided with species-specific enrichments relevant to their ecology. Salmonids are important experimental models in studies within aquaculture, toxicology and natural ecosystems. This study therefore sought to establish whether an enriched environment in an experimental aquarium may promote improved welfare in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by enhancing their recovery from invasive procedures. Trout were held individually ...


Automated Monitoring Of Behaviour In Zebrafish After Invasive Procedures, Anthony G. Deakin, Jonathan Buckley, Hamzah S. AlZu'bi, Andrew R. Cossins, Joseph W. Spencer, Waleed Al'Nuaimy, Iain S. Young, Jack S. Thomson, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Automated Monitoring Of Behaviour In Zebrafish After Invasive Procedures, Anthony G. Deakin, Jonathan Buckley, Hamzah S. Alzu'bi, Andrew R. Cossins, Joseph W. Spencer, Waleed Al'nuaimy, Iain S. Young, Jack S. Thomson, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Fish are used in a variety of experimental contexts often in high numbers. To maintain their welfare and ensure valid results during invasive procedures it is vital that we can detect subtle changes in behaviour that may allow us to intervene to provide pain-relief. Therefore, an automated method, the Fish Behaviour Index (FBI), was devised and used for testing the impact of laboratory procedures and efficacy of analgesic drugs in the model species, the zebrafish. Cameras with tracking software were used to visually track and quantify female zebrafish behaviour in real time after a number of laboratory procedures including fin ...


An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers 2019 Open University, The Netherlands

An Animal-Assisted Intervention Study In The Nursing Home: Lessons Learned, Lonneke G. J. A. Schuurmans, Inge Noback, Jos M. G. A. Schols, Marie-Jose Enders-Slegers

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

AAI studies in the nursing home pose a specific set of challenges. In this article the practical and ethical issues encountered during a Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home AAI study are addressed with the aim of sharing our experiences for future researchers as well as AAI practitioners in general.

In our study we compared three groups of clients with dementia who participated in group sessions of either visiting dog teams, visiting FurReal Friend robot animals, or visiting students (control group) and monitored the effect on social interaction and neuropsychiatric symptoms through video analysis and questionnaires. We encountered the following four categories ...


Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, MIchael McDonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk 2019 University of British Columbia

Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, Michael Mcdonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

In November 2013, a group of international experts in animal research policy (n = 11) gathered in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss openness and accountability in animal research. The primary objective was to bring together participants from various jurisdictions (United States, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom) to share practices regarding the governance of animals used in research, testing and education, with emphasis on the governance process followed, the methods of community engagement, and the balance of openness versus confidentiality. During the forum, participants came to a broad consensus on the need for: (a) evidence-based metrics to allow ...


Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan VandeWoude, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan Vandewoude, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The intent of US federal laws mandating IACUC review of animal-related activities was to satisfy contemporary socioethical concerns by introducing deliberations about ethics and animal welfare into the research process when animals are used. These laws and the system they chartered have worked well for the most part in providing opportunities for consideration of animal welfare as a vital part of animal research. As a result, investigators today are far less naïve about the ethical issues raised by research on animals and typically more sympathetic about the need for such consideration. As evidence of this growing awareness, the literature on ...


Beyond Pain—Controlling Suffering In Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Beyond Pain—Controlling Suffering In Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

No abstract provided.


The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy, Andrew N. Rowan, Franklin M. Loew, Joan C. Weer 2019 Tufts University

The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy, Andrew N. Rowan, Franklin M. Loew, Joan C. Weer

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The controversy today regarding the use of animals in research appears on the surface to be a strongly polarized struggle between the scientific community and the animal protection movement. However, there is a wide range of opinions and philosophies on both sides. Mistrust between the factions has blossomed while communication has withered. Through the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the animal movement grew in numbers and financial resources, and developed much greater public recognition and political clout. The research community paid relatively little attention to the animal movement for much of this period but, alarmed by several public relations coups ...


Gene Delivery To Nonhuman Primate Preimplantation Embryos Using Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus, Dan Wang, Yuyu Niu, Lingzhi Ren, Yu Kang, Phillip W. L. Tai, Chenyang Si, Craig A. Mendonca, Hong Ma, Guangping Gao, Weizhi Ji 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Delivery To Nonhuman Primate Preimplantation Embryos Using Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus, Dan Wang, Yuyu Niu, Lingzhi Ren, Yu Kang, Phillip W. L. Tai, Chenyang Si, Craig A. Mendonca, Hong Ma, Guangping Gao, Weizhi Ji

Open Access Articles

Delivery of genome editing tools to mammalian zygotes has revolutionized animal modeling. However, the mechanical delivery method to introduce genes and proteins to zygotes remains a challenge for some animal species that are important in biomedical research. Here, an approach to achieve gene delivery and genome editing in nonhuman primate embryos is presented by infecting zygotes with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs). Together with previous reports from the authors of this paper and others, this approach is potentially applicable to a broad range of mammals. In addition to genome editing and animal modeling, this rAAV-based method can facilitate gene function studies ...


“Everyday” Knowledge And A New Paradigm Of Animal Research, David Fraser, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli 2019 University of British Columbia

“Everyday” Knowledge And A New Paradigm Of Animal Research, David Fraser, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli

David Fraser, PhD

Commentary on Marino and Allen (2017) The Psychology of Cows


Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob de Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun

Toxicology and Animal Models in Research Collection

Systematic review methodology is a means of addressing specific questions through structured, consistent, and transparent examinations of the relevant scientific evidence. This methodology has been used to advantage in clinical medicine, and is being adapted for use in other disciplines. Although some applications to toxicology have been explored, especially for hazard identification, the present preparatory study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to adapt it to the assessment of toxicological test methods. As our test case, we chose the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental toxicity and its mammalian counterpart, the standard mammalian prenatal development toxicity study, focusing the ...


Act On The Registration And Evaluation Of Chemicals (K-Reach) And Replacement, Reduction Or Refinement Best Practices, Soojin Ha, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim 2019 Ewha Womans University

Act On The Registration And Evaluation Of Chemicals (K-Reach) And Replacement, Reduction Or Refinement Best Practices, Soojin Ha, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim

Troy Seidle, PhD

Objectives - Korea’s Act on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemicals (K-REACH) was enacted for the protection of human health and the environment in 2015. Considering that about 2000 new substances are introduced annually across the globe, the extent of animal testing requirement could be overwhelming unless regulators and companies work proactively to institute and enforce global best practices to replace, reduce or refine animal use. In this review, the way to reduce the animal use for K-REACH is discussed. Methods - Background of the enforcement of the K-REACH and its details was reviewed along with the papers and regulatory documents ...


Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, AhRam Han, Da-eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae 2019 Ewha Womans University

Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, Ahram Han, Da-Eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, Seungjin Bae

Troy Seidle, PhD

Animal experiments have been widely conducted in the life sciences for more than a century, and have long been a subject of ethical and societal controversy due to the deliberate infliction of harm upon sentient animals. However, the harmful use of animals may also negatively impact the mental health of researchers themselves. We sought to evaluate the anxiety level of researchers engaged in animal use to analyse the mental stress from animal testing. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate how researchers feel when they conduct animal, as opposed to non-animal, based experiments ...


Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather 2019 Medical University of Vienna

Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

The ability to identify individual free-living animals in the field is an important method for studying their behavior. Apart from invasive external or internal tags, which may cause injury or abnormal behavior, most cephalopods cannot be tagged, as their skin is too soft and delicate for tag retention. Additionally, cephalopods remove many types of tags. However, body markings have been successfully used as a non invasive method to identify individuals of many different species of animals, including whale sharks, grey whales, seals, and zebras. We developed methods to sex and individually identify Caribbean reef squid, Sepiotheuthis sepioidea. Males showed distinct ...


Animal Organs In Humans: Uncalculated Risks And Unanswered Questions, Gillian R. Langley, Joyce D'Silva 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

Animal Organs In Humans: Uncalculated Risks And Unanswered Questions, Gillian R. Langley, Joyce D'Silva

Gill Langley, PhD

This report, produced jointly by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection and Compassion in World Farming, fills a number of significant gaps in the current debate about xenotransplantation.

In this report we also summarise the ethical and welfare issues concerning experiments on animals for xenotransplant research and their possible use as source animals for organs. Both these aspects are responsible for much pain and distress caused to many animals. We prefer the term “source animals” to “donor animals”, because animals do not choose to donate their organs for xenotransplantation.


Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, MIchael McDonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk 2019 University of British Columbia

Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, Michael Mcdonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk

Oversight of Animal Experimentation Collection

In November 2013, a group of international experts in animal research policy (n = 11) gathered in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss openness and accountability in animal research. The primary objective was to bring together participants from various jurisdictions (United States, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom) to share practices regarding the governance of animals used in research, testing and education, with emphasis on the governance process followed, the methods of community engagement, and the balance of openness versus confidentiality. During the forum, participants came to a broad consensus on the need for: (a) evidence-based metrics to allow ...


Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault 2019 University of Maine

Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida yeasts are common commensals that can cause mucosal disease and life-threatening systemic infections. While many of the components required for defense against Candida albicans infection are well established, questions remain about how various host cells at mucosal sites assess threats and coordinate defenses to prevent normally commensal organisms from becoming pathogenic. Using two Candida species, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, which differ in their abilities to damage epithelial tissues, we used traditional methods (pathogen CFU, host survival, and host cytokine expression) combined with high-resolution intravital imaging of transparent zebrafish larvae to illuminate host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level in ...


The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: I. Gilt Reproductive Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: I. Gilt Reproductive Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross

Aileen Keating

Supplemental Arg during gestation purportedly benefits fetal development. However, the benefits of a gestational Arg dietary strategy in commercial production are unclear. Therefore, objectives of this study examined Arg supplementation during different gestational stages and the effects on gilt reproductive performance. Pubertal gilts (n = 548) were allocated into four treatment groups: Control (n = 143; 0% supplemental Arg) or one of three supplemental Arg (1% as fed) treatments: from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); from 15 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); or from 85 d of gestation until farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). At farrowing ...


Ovarian Metabolism Of Xenobiotics, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Aileen F. Keating 2019 Iowa State University

Ovarian Metabolism Of Xenobiotics, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Aileen F. Keating

Aileen Keating

At birth, the mammalian ovary contains a finite number of primordial follicles, which once depleted, cannot be replaced. Xenobiotic exposures can destroy primordial follicles resulting in premature ovarian failure and, consequently, early entry into menopause. A number of chemical classes can induce premature ovarian failure, including environmental, chemotherapeutic and industrial exposures. While our knowledge on the mechanistic events that occur in the ovary with chemical exposures is increasing, our understanding of the ovary's capacity to metabolize such compounds is less established. This review will focus on three chemicals for which information on ovarian metabolism is known: trichloroethylene, 7,12-dimethylbenz ...


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