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Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson 2019 University of Connecticut

Deicing Salts Influence Ranavirus Outbreaks In Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Tadpoles, Sarah Jacobson

Honors Scholar Theses

Ecosystems are increasingly being exposed to anthropogenic stressors that could make animals and thus populations more susceptible to disease. For example, the application of deicing salts to roads is increasing in the northeastern United States. Chronic stress that larval amphibians experience when living in vernal pools with high salinity may alter their susceptibility to ranavirus, a pathogen responsible for mass mortality events worldwide. This project quantifies the effects of road salts and ranavirus exposure on larval wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) growth and survival. Using outdoor mesocsoms, we raised wood frog tadpoles in salt treatments and then exposed them to the ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli

Master's Theses

The spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is a euryhaline finfish candidate for marine aquaculture in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquaculture of this species currently uses salinities of 25 psu or greater making production challenging in areas where high salinity water is not available. This study aimed to document the effects of salinity on zootechnical performance of spotted seatrout embryos, early larvae, and juveniles in recirculating aquaculture systems to assist with the development of protocols for low salinity culture.

Embryos obtained from a volitional spawn at 29 psu were incubated at three salinities (12.5, 18.75, or 25 psu) until ...


Critically Evaluating Animal Research, Andrew Knight 2019 University of Winchester

Critically Evaluating Animal Research, Andrew Knight

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


Is Animal-Based Biomedical Research Being Used In Its Original Context?, Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Is Animal-Based Biomedical Research Being Used In Its Original Context?, Constança Carvalho, Daniel Alves, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


Animal Experimentation: Working Towards A Paradigm Change, Kathrin Herrmann (ed.), Kimberley Jayne (ed.) 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Animal Experimentation: Working Towards A Paradigm Change, Kathrin Herrmann (Ed.), Kimberley Jayne (Ed.)

eBooks

Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms inflicted upon animals for the sake of hoped-for benefits in humans. Despite this rationale for continued animal experimentation, shortcomings of this practice have become increasingly more apparent and well-documented. However, these limitations are not yet widely known or appreciated, and there is a danger that they may simply be ignored. The 51 experts who have contributed to Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change critically review current animal use in science, present new and innovative non-animal approaches to address urgent scientific ...


Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows 2019 Carroll College

Seasonal Changes In Susceptibility To Chytridiomycosis In Columbia Spotted Frogs, Delaney Burrows

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Chytridiomycosis is a potentially deadly skin disease found in amphibian populations all over the world. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that grows on the skin of amphibians. The fungus can cause a disruption in the homeostatic functions of the amphibian skin and can lead to death. The relationship between an amphibian’s antimicrobial skin secretions, cutaneous microbial communities and environmental water quality can affect their resistance and susceptibility to Bd infection. Columbia spotted frogs (Lithobates luteiventris) are native to western Montana and have been affected by chytridiomycosis. Three lakes known to be positive for Bd were ...


Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff

Undergraduate Research Conference

Do white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) prefer to eat certain types of acorns based on tannin content?

Hydrolyzable tannins consist of gallate groups connected via ester linkages to a carbohydrate (D-glucose)

The Prussian Blue method was used to determine hydrolyzable tannin content


2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'Annah Jones, DeLawnia Comer-Hagans 2019 Governors State University

2018 Guide Summer Research - Breast Cancer, Qur'annah Jones, Delawnia Comer-Hagans

GSU Research Day

This research poster details the relationship between cancer treatments and alternative approaches, such as mindfulness. The purpose of this study was to determine the methodology used by doctors to treat breast cancer and their willingness to try a holistic approach. This study was conducted on site at the UIC Cancer Center as well as remotely within hospitals around the Chicagoland area. We determined that mindfulness is in fact a worthwhile asset to breast cancer patients and that the field of oncology could support further research.


Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro 2019 New York Medical College

Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, K Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro

Nader G. Abraham

We have previously reported that the alpha1 subunit of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), acts as a receptor and an amplifier for reactive oxygen species, in addition to its distinct pumping function. On this background, we speculated that blockade of Na/K-ATPase-induced ROS amplification with a specific peptide, pNaKtide, might attenuate the development of steatohepatitis. To test this hypothesis, pNaKtide was administered to a murine model of NASH: the C57Bl6 mouse fed a "western" diet containing high amounts of fat and fructose. The administration of pNaKtide reduced obesity as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Of interest, we ...


Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham 2019 New York Medical College

Ablation Of Adipose-Ho-1 Expression Increases White Fat Over Beige Fat Through Inhibition Of Mitochondrial Fusion And Of Pgc1alpha In Female Mice, S Singh, I Grant, A Meissner, A Kappas, Nader Abraham

Nader G. Abraham

Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited. Adiposity, signaling proteins, fasting glucose and oxygen consumption were determined and compared to adipocyte cultures with depressed levels of both HO-1/HO-2 ...


A Preliminary Study For The Future Translocation Of A Saimiri Sciureus Troop From Sumak Allpa To Yasuní National Park: Assessing The Habitat Use, Population, And Behavior Of A Common Squirrel Monkey Troop In Indillama, Kenia French 2019 SIT Study Abroad

A Preliminary Study For The Future Translocation Of A Saimiri Sciureus Troop From Sumak Allpa To Yasuní National Park: Assessing The Habitat Use, Population, And Behavior Of A Common Squirrel Monkey Troop In Indillama, Kenia French

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Sumak Allpa, an organization specializing in primate rehabilitation, plans to introduce a Common Squirrel Monkey Troop ( Saimiri sciureus ), the Yasuní Troop, to the Indillama region of Yasuní National Park. This study analyzes the habitat use, population, and behavior of the Saimiri sciureus troop, referred to as the Indillama Troop, already existing in the region, from April 14th to May 4th, 2019. Focal and scan observation techniques were used to observe the troop’s behavior, and EasyTrails on an iPhone 7 was used to record GPS data. EasyTrails was also used to map the trail system in the Indillama region. Thirty ...


Mammals Of The Northern Andes: An Analysis Of Camera Trap Data And Observation In Angochagua, Ecuador, Risa Berman 2019 SIT Study Abroad

Mammals Of The Northern Andes: An Analysis Of Camera Trap Data And Observation In Angochagua, Ecuador, Risa Berman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The high Andes of Ecuador are home to a diverse community of mammals, many of which are threatened. These include the Andean bear, Andean fox, puma, and mountain tapir. This study used camera traps, direct observation, and indirect observation over three weeks to monitor the wildlife in the mountains of the Parroquia of Angochagua. The five species observed during this period were Andean bear, Andean fox, dog, mountain paca, and mouse. While this short study did not completely survey the mammalian community of the area, it confirmed the presence, diet, sociality, temporal habits, elevational range, and habitat preferences of the ...


Microbiota Of The Gut-Lymph Node Axis: Depletion Of Mucosa-Associated Segmented Filamentous Bacteria And Enrichment Of Methanobrevibacter By Colistin Sulfate And Linco-Spectin In Pigs, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Beate Pinior, Barbara Metzler-Zebeli, Monika Handler, Kristina Gense, Christian Knecht, Andrea Ladinig, Monika Dzieciol, Stefanie U. Wetzels, Martin Wagner, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Evelyne Mann 2019 University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

Microbiota Of The Gut-Lymph Node Axis: Depletion Of Mucosa-Associated Segmented Filamentous Bacteria And Enrichment Of Methanobrevibacter By Colistin Sulfate And Linco-Spectin In Pigs, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Beate Pinior, Barbara Metzler-Zebeli, Monika Handler, Kristina Gense, Christian Knecht, Andrea Ladinig, Monika Dzieciol, Stefanie U. Wetzels, Martin Wagner, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Evelyne Mann

Animal Science Publications

Microorganisms are translocated from the gut to lymphatic tissues via immune cells, thereby challenging and training the mammalian immune system. Antibiotics alter the gut microbiome and consecutively might also affect the corresponding translocation processes, resulting in an imbalanced state between the intestinal microbiota and the host. Hence, understanding the variant effects of antibiotics on the microbiome of gut-associated tissues is of vital importance for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and animal health. In the present study, we analyzed the microbiome of (i) pig feces, ileum, and ileocecal lymph nodes under the influence of antibiotics (Linco-Spectin and Colistin sulfate) using 16S rRNA gene ...


Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Mediated Rnai Approach For Autosomal Dominant C9orf72 Associated Als, Gabriela Toro 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Gene Therapy For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Aav Mediated Rnai Approach For Autosomal Dominant C9orf72 Associated Als, Gabriela Toro

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons causing progressive muscle weakness and respiratory failure. In 2011, the presence of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within chromosome 9 open reading frame 72(C9ORF72) was identified in ALS patient samples, becoming the major known genetic cause for ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Carriers of this mutation present reduced levels of C9ORF72 mRNA, RNA foci produced by the aggregating expansion and toxic dipeptides generated through repeat-associated non-ATG translation. These findings have led to multiple hypotheses on the pathogenesis of C9ORF72: 1) Haploinsufficiency, 2) RNA gain-of-function, 3) RAN Translation ...


Non-Human Primates In Medical Research And Drug Development: A Critical Review, Jarrod Bailey 2019 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Non-Human Primates In Medical Research And Drug Development: A Critical Review, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

There is much current debate surrounding the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in medical research and drug development. This review, stimulated by calls for evidence from UK-based inquiries into NHP research, takes a critical view in order to provide some important balance against papers supporting NHP research and calling for it to be expanded. We show that there is a paucity of evidence to demonstrate the positive contribution or successful translation of NHP research to human medicine, that there is a great deal of often overlooked data showing NHP research to be irrelevant, unnecessary, even hazardous to human health and ...


The Ban On The Use Of Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research And Testing In The Uk Should Be Made Permanent And Legally Binding, Michelle Thew, Jarrod Bailey, Michael Balls, Michelle Hudson 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

The Ban On The Use Of Chimpanzees In Biomedical Research And Testing In The Uk Should Be Made Permanent And Legally Binding, Michelle Thew, Jarrod Bailey, Michael Balls, Michelle Hudson

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The Coalition Government is currently considering how to transpose Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation into UK law. The Directive bans the use of Great Apes in laboratories, but EU Member States can seek (now or, more likely, at some time in the future) a derogation from the Commission to permit such use, where this is considered essential for the preservation of the species in question or in relation to an unexpected outbreak of a life-threatening or debilitating clinical condition in human beings. Currently, the policy of the Government is not to approve any experiments on Great Apes, but ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 1. Validity Of The Chimpanzee Model, Jarrod Bailey 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 1. Validity Of The Chimpanzee Model, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The USA is the only significant user of chimpanzees in biomedical research in the world, since many countries have banned or limited the practice due to substantial ethical, economic and scientific concerns. Advocates of chimpanzee use cite hepatitis C research as a major reason for its necessity and continuation, in spite of supporting evidence that is scant and often anecdotal. This paper examines the scientific and ethical issues surrounding chimpanzee hepatitis C research, and concludes that claims of the necessity of chimpanzees in historical and future hepatitis C research are exaggerated and unjustifiable, respectively. The chimpanzee model has several major ...


Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

Chimpanzee Research: An Examination Of Its Contribution To Biomedical Knowledge And Efficacy In Combating Human Diseases, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe, Theodora Capaldo

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Research on captive chimpanzees incurs considerable animal welfare, ethical and financial costs. Advocates of such research claim these costs are outweighed by substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge, and that the genetic similarity of chimpanzees to humans enables the former to make critical contributions to preventing, diagnosing and combating human diseases. To assess these claims, we examined the disciplines investigated in 749 studies of captive chimpanzees published from 1995-2004 inclusive, and subjected 95 randomly selected papers to a detailed citation analysis:

49.5% (47/95) of papers had not been cited at the time of this study; 38.5% (34/95 ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 2. Alternative Replacement Methods, Jarrod Bailey 2019 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Use Of Chimpanzees In Hepatitis C Research Past, Present And Future: 2. Alternative Replacement Methods, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C virus (HCV) research was examined in the report associated with this paper (1: Validity of the Chimpanzee Model), in which it was concluded that claims of past necessity of chimpanzee use were exaggerated, and that claims of current and future indispensability were unjustifiable. Furthermore, given the serious scientific and ethical issues surrounding chimpanzee experimentation, it was proposed that it must now be considered redundant — particularly in light of the demonstrable contribution of alternative methods to past and current scientific progress, and the future promise that these methods hold. This paper builds on this ...


Critical Evaluation Of The Use Of Dogs In Biomedical Research And Testing In Europe, Nina Hasiwa, Jarrod Bailey, Peter Clausing, Mardas Daneshian, Sándor Farkas, István Gyertyán, Robert Hubrecht, Werner Kobel, Goran Krummenacher, Marcel Leist, Hannes Lohi, Adám Miklósi, Frauke Ohl, Klaus Olejniczak, Georg Schmitt, Patrick Sinnett-Smith, David Smith, Kristina Wagner, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung 2019 University of Konstanz

Critical Evaluation Of The Use Of Dogs In Biomedical Research And Testing In Europe, Nina Hasiwa, Jarrod Bailey, Peter Clausing, Mardas Daneshian, Sándor Farkas, István Gyertyán, Robert Hubrecht, Werner Kobel, Goran Krummenacher, Marcel Leist, Hannes Lohi, Adám Miklósi, Frauke Ohl, Klaus Olejniczak, Georg Schmitt, Patrick Sinnett-Smith, David Smith, Kristina Wagner, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Dogs are sometimes referred to as “man’s best friend” and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea that the intrinsic value of all animals is the same, and that also several other animal species are used in biomedical research and toxicology. This aspect and many others are discussed in an introductory chapter dealing with ethical considerations on the use ...


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