Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, 2018 University of Louisville
Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater
Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.
The purpose of this study ...
Targeting Neuropeptides To Bone Fractures For Accelerated Healing, 2018 Purdue University
Targeting Neuropeptides To Bone Fractures For Accelerated Healing, Nicholas A. Young, Jeffery J. Nielsen, Philip S. Low
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
In patients over the age of 65 especially, bone fractures represent a significant disease burden. Non-invasive drug therapies are not available for bone fractures which represents a problem for this population. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), two neuromodulator peptides in the glucagon superfamily, have demonstrated positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation and activity. Using acidic oligopeptides, we have developed ligands that target to and accumulate at fracture sites. These targeting ligands can be synthesized in sequence with bone anabolic peptides to minimize off target effects and increase potency at the fracture site to create safer and ...
Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach
Investigation Of Zebrafish Larvae Behavior As Precursor For Suborbital Flights: Feasibility Study, Pedro Llanos, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Mark Rubinstein, Sherine S.L. Chan
Pedro J. Llanos (www.AstronauticsLlanos.com)
Identifying The 5’End Of The Camta1 Genes In Zebrafish, 2018 Brigham Young University
Identifying The 5’End Of The Camta1 Genes In Zebrafish, Morgan Fronk
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are a significant cause of infant death and are frequently caused by mutations in transcription factors. Camta1 (calmodulin binding transcription activator 1) is a transcription factor that has been proposed as a modulator in embryonic heart development and a possible cause of CHDs. The only other known member of its family in vertebrates is involved in activating a hypertrophy gene program in adult heart failure. Unlike camta2, camta1 is expressed in the embryonic heart during heart looping. However, few studies have been done on camta1. In zebrafish, there are two camta1 ohnologs (homologs created through a ...
Investigations Of Biotremors In The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo Calyptratus), 2018 Western Kentucky University
Investigations Of Biotremors In The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo Calyptratus), Kathryn C. Laslie
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
While substrate-borne vibrations are utilized by different reptile species, true conspecific communication via biotremors has not yet been demonstrated in reptiles. This study follows a preliminary report that the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) could produce biotremors in communicative contexts. I tested chameleon behavioral sensitivity to vibrations by placing them on a dowel attached to a shaker emitting vibrations of 25, 50, 150, 300, and 600 Hz and then measured their changes in velocity before and after the stimulus. I then paired chameleons in various social contexts [anthropogenic disturbance (human disruption of animal); dominance (malemale; female-female C. calyptratus); courtship (male-female C ...
Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
The Wide Utility Of Rabbits As Models Of Human Diseases, 2018 Universidade do Porto, Portugal
The Wide Utility Of Rabbits As Models Of Human Diseases, Pedro J. Esteves, Yuxing Chen, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu, Michael Vaine, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Open Access Articles
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases. Examples include syphilis, tuberculosis, HIV-AIDS, acute hepatic ...
Juvenile Amphibian Response To Oak And Maple Leaf Litter, 2018 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Juvenile Amphibian Response To Oak And Maple Leaf Litter, Benjamin Breslau
Honors Scholar Theses
The composition of tree species within New England forests has changed significantly in recent decades, with an increase in maple (Acer spp.) abundance and a decrease in oak (Quercus spp.) abundance. Changing forest structure results in changing leaf litter composition of the forest floor, which influences the ground-dwelling amphibians that live in the litter. To better understand how changes to forest composition alters amphibian habitat quality, we recorded the growth and survival of 27 juvenile wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus or Rana sylvatica) and 27 juvenile American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) in response to leaf litter type. Between early August and late ...
The Effect Of Diet On Craniofacial Growth In Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mouse Model, 2018 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth
The Effect Of Diet On Craniofacial Growth In Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mouse Model, Summer H. Ladd
Theses and Dissertations
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, or “brittle bone disease”) is a rare disorder that is caused by genetic point mutations (COL1A1/COL1A2) that affect type 1 collagen. In OI type III (severe) patients, limb bones are more susceptible to skeletal fractures and the bones of the craniofacial region are underdeveloped. Some OI type III patients also suffer from dental malocclusions or fractures (dentinogenesis imperfecta, DI). The goals of this project are 1) to describe the facial phenotype in an OI mouse model, to see if this model can be used to test potential behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions; and 2) to determine if ...
Pyruvate Kinase Isoform M2 Influences Autophagy And Related Processes In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells, 2018 University of Connecticut
Pyruvate Kinase Isoform M2 Influences Autophagy And Related Processes In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells, Matthew Lin
University Scholar Projects
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer that affects ~14 million people in the world. Like all cancers, HCC is a disease that arises from unstinted cellular growth initiated by genetic alterations, metabolic changes, and dysregulation in key cellular pathways. Of interest is the relationship between metabolism and cell proliferation/degradation for therapeutic targeting. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a dimeric, glycolytically inactive isoform of the final enzyme involved in glycolysis, that is often upregulated in cancerous tissue. It is thought that the enzymatic function of PKM2 outside of glycolysis contributes to the biosynthesis of anabolic intermediates ...
Respiratory Disease, Behavior, And Survival Of Mountain Goat Kids, 2018 Iowa State University
Respiratory Disease, Behavior, And Survival Of Mountain Goat Kids, Julie A. Blanchong, Christopher A. Anderson, Nicholas Clark, Robert W. Klaver, Paul J. Plummer, Mike Cox, Caleb Mcadoo, Peregrine L. Wolff
Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications
Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain ...
Developing New Apparatus For In-Situ Vermicomposting And Varying Diet Parameters To Understand Optimal Conditions For Soil Fertilization., Nataliya Ryzhenko
Lesley University Community of Scholars Day
Vermicomposting is the process of decomposing vegetable and other food waste using earthworms.
We investigate apparatus for in-situ vermicomposting and vary diet parameters to understand optimal conditions for soil fertilization.
As a pilot project, we created a small in-situ vermicomposting apparatus which can be used in a home or at a small farm. In this setting, we need to ensure that the setup does not produce repulsive odor, since it is meant to be kept indoors. Also, the setup should be easily maintained: the food waste easily added, and the bedding kept moist.
Based on results seen, in-situ vermicomposting farm ...
Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, 2018 University of Sydney
Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul Mcgreevy
Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.
The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined ...
Disarming “Nature” As A Weapon: A Queer Ecosemiotic Reimagining Of Futurity And Environmental Ethics Through Memoir, Sam Lauer
In this thesis, I posit that the need for an active, conscious, and radical queering of ecocriticism as a literary and cultural theory has arisen in light of the postmodern problematization of “nature” and the “natural,” along with the queerness of society, culture, and science. The way we understand “nature” (in life and in texts), whether of physical environments, inherent selfhood, or normalcy, begs to be appropriately informed by discourses and realities of queerness in order for both social and environmental healing to take place. I have analyzed three works of queer creative nonfiction—memoirs—to illuminate the ways in ...
Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Clinical research studies show that chronic pain is a prevalent, difficult affliction to manage. The most common management for chronic pain is opioids, which research is showing to paradoxically induce persistent, worsened pain states as well as potentially having negative effects on memory. The necessity for understanding chronic pain and drug management options is apparent, and research is aiming to do just that. Exercise is one potential preventative measure or post hoc treatment possibility for chronic pain, as abundant research has shown. Knowledge of the interactions between exercise, morphine dosing, and peripheral nerve injury is nonexistent. As such, we desired ...
Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, 2017 University of New Orleans
Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...
Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi
Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer
Natural and anthropogenic changes resulting from altered hydrology, hurricanes, variable precipitation, and the BP oil spill have all taken their toll on oyster reefs in Mississippi. In response, oyster reef restoration efforts are currently underway within the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand why these efforts succeed or fail, it is crucial to consider predator-prey relationships within the context of the trophic dynamics of oyster reefs. Thus, for this dissertation study I integrated a multidisciplinary approach to understanding key trophic interactions affecting oyster recruitment, growth and survival, comprising field sampling, manipulative lab experiments, and individual-based modeling. Spat settlement ...
Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, 2017 University of Southern Mississippi
Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway
Bottlenose dolphins are an important species of interest because they possess a variety of abilities that are relatively rare in the animal kingdom, one being complex acoustic communication. Signature whistles - distinctive calls that are unique for each individual – are one of the most studied call types, but we know little about how these calls are used in various contexts, such as during an introduction. Looking at the socio-behavioral context in which signature whistles are used is likely the best way of learning how these whistles are used in a particular context (Caldwell, Caldwell, & Tyack, 1990). For this project, the behavior ...
Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, 2017 Chapman University
Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels play essential roles in the regulation of cellular excitability and have been implicated in neurological and cardiovascular diseases through both animal model studies and human genetic association studies. Over the past two decades, positive modulators of SK channels such as NS309 and 1-EBIO have been developed. Our previous structural studies have identified the binding pocket of 1-EBIO and NS309 that is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. In this study, we took advantage of four compounds with potencies varying over three orders of magnitude, including 1-EBIO, NS309, SKS-11 (6-bromo-5-methyl-1H-indole-2 ...
Does The Stress Inherent To Laboratory Life And Experimentation On Animals Adversely Affect Research Data?, 2017 Cruelty Free International
Does The Stress Inherent To Laboratory Life And Experimentation On Animals Adversely Affect Research Data?, Jarrod Bailey
Validation of Animal Experimentation
Stress and distress in laboratory animals is often inherent and unavoidable. The effect of these factors on the reliability and relevance of experimental data is not sufficiently appreciated. Greater awareness, debate and discussion of this issue are urgently required.