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Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes 2022 Chapman University

Female Presence Does Not Increase Testosterone But Still Ameliorates Sickness Behaviours In Male Japanese Quail, Brenna M. G. Gormally, Kaelyn Bridgette, Aubrey Emmi, Delilah Schuerman, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Infections can dramatically modify animal behaviour. The extent of these changes depends on an animal's environment. It has been proposed that testosterone modulates the suppression of behavioural symptoms of sickness under certain reproductive contexts. To further understand the role played by testosterone in modulating sickness behaviours under reproductive contexts, we studied a species, the Japanese quail, in which female exposure rapidly decreases circulating testosterone in males. Males received either an immune challenge (lipopolysaccharide – LPS) or a control injection and their behaviours, mass change and testosterone levels were quantified in the presence or absence of a female. Both the presence ...


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Keck Graduate Institute

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of ...


Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were used in ...


The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond 2022 University of Maine

The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the 8th most common cancer in the United States, with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most prevalent. Over 14,000 people die every year to RCC, with rates continuing to increase with an aging general population. Patients suffering from metastatic RCC (mRCC) have extremely poor prognoses, with a 5-year survival of only 11.2%. Current treatment options include resection of primary lesions, tyrosine kinase inhibition (Sunitinib, Pazopanib), mTOR inhibition (Temsirolimus, Everolimus), and immune checkpoint inhibition (Nivolumab, Atezolizumab). Recent attention has been drawn to inhibition of transcription factors like HIF2α (Belzutifan). There is ...


Characterizing The Roles Of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 & 2 In Zebrafish Behavior, Metabolism, And Seizure-Induced Activity, Kayci Kimmons 2022 University of Mississippi

Characterizing The Roles Of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 & 2 In Zebrafish Behavior, Metabolism, And Seizure-Induced Activity, Kayci Kimmons

Honors Theses

Epileptic disorders like Dravet Syndrome require novel studies to determine the most ideal treatment. New research linking the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to epileptic disorders is arising, but there is still much to be discovered about the function and regulatory impact of the endocannabinoid system and its receptors in epilepsies like Dravet. In this study, knockout models of larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to investigate the roles of cannabinoid receptors 1 & 2 in behavior, brain mitochondrial metabolism, and seizure-induced activity following exposure to THC and CBD. Larval zebrafish which lacked cannabinoid receptor 1 exhibited increased locomotion compared to ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. DeSmet 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas 2022 University of Alberta

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Quadruped Gait And Regulation Of Apoptotic Factors In Tibiofemoral Joints Following Intra-Articular Rhprg4 Injection In Prg4 Null Mice, Daniel S. Yang, Edward E. Dickerson, Ling X. Zhang, Holly Richendrfer, Padmini N. Karamchedu, Gary A. Badger, Tannin A. Schmidt, Alger M. Fredericks, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay 2022 Brown University

Quadruped Gait And Regulation Of Apoptotic Factors In Tibiofemoral Joints Following Intra-Articular Rhprg4 Injection In Prg4 Null Mice, Daniel S. Yang, Edward E. Dickerson, Ling X. Zhang, Holly Richendrfer, Padmini N. Karamchedu, Gary A. Badger, Tannin A. Schmidt, Alger M. Fredericks, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome leads to diarthrodial joint arthropathy and is caused by the absence of lubricin (proteoglycan 4—PRG4), a surface-active mucinous glycoprotein responsible for lubricating articular cartilage. In this study, mice lacking the orthologous gene Prg4 served as a model that recapitulates the destructive arthrosis that involves biofouling of cartilage by serum proteins in lieu of Prg4. This study hypothesized that Prg4-deficient mice would demonstrate a quadruped gait change and decreased markers of mitochondrial dyscrasia, following intra-articular injection of both hindlimbs with recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4). Prg4−/− (N = 44) mice of both sexes were injected with rhPRG4 and ...


Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Pollution, specifically heavy metal pollution, in various bodies of water has been a significant issue for decades. Research has been conducted on heavy metals and their effects on the environment, larger fish species, and humans since the 1970s (Skidmore, 1964; Adeniyi et al., 2007; Adeosun et al., 2015; Bawuro et al., 2018). It is known that zinc is a neurotoxin in some species and causes harm to the environment. It is also known that it causes harm to people if it is ingested or if they are exposed to it for long periods of time (Mahurpawar, 2015; Mizuno and Kawahara ...


Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high ...


Inhibition Of Interferon-Gamma-Stimulated Melanoma Progression By Targeting Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (Nnos), Shirley Tong, Maris A. Cinelli, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, He Huang, Anika Patel, Richard B. Silverman, Sun Yang 2022 Chapman University

Inhibition Of Interferon-Gamma-Stimulated Melanoma Progression By Targeting Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (Nnos), Shirley Tong, Maris A. Cinelli, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, He Huang, Anika Patel, Richard B. Silverman, Sun Yang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is shown to stimulate melanoma development and progression. However, the underlying mechanism has not been completely defined. Our study aimed to determine the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated signaling in IFN-γ-stimulated melanoma progression and the anti-melanoma effects of novel nNOS inhibitors. Our study shows that IFN-γ markedly induced the expression levels of nNOS in melanoma cells associated with increased intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels. Co-treatment with novel nNOS inhibitors effectively alleviated IFN-γ-activated STAT1/3. Further, reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ induced the expression of HIF1α, c-Myc, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 ...


Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello 2022 Yale University

Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Background

Hundreds of millions of people in poor countries continue to suffer from disease caused by bloodfeeding hookworms. While mice and rats are not reliably permissive hosts for any human hookworm species, adult Golden Syrian hamsters are fully permissive for the human and animal pathogen Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Similar to humans, hamsters may be infected with A. ceylanicum third-stage larvae orally or percutaneously. Oral infection typically leads to consistent worm yields in hamsters but may not accurately reflect the clinical and immunological manifestations of human infection resulting from skin penetration.

Methodology/Principal findings

In this study we compared host responses following ...


Conditioned Territory Defense In Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches (Gromphadorhina Portentosa), Macy R. Albaitis 2022 Bucknell University

Conditioned Territory Defense In Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches (Gromphadorhina Portentosa), Macy R. Albaitis

Honors Theses

In male blue gourami fish (Trichogaster trichopterus), signaled presentation of a male rival produces an aggressive conditioned response that results in an increased likelihood of the male winning the contest (Hollis, 1984). I replicated this classic study in a species that also shows territorial aggression: the Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC; Gromphadorhina portentosa). During training, four adult male MHCs were designated as “CS+” animals and received a light (NS) followed by visual access to a rival male (US). Simultaneously, another group of four adult male MHCs designated as “UNC” animals received the light (NS) and visual access to a rival male ...


The Effect Of Visitor Density And Interaction On The Behavior Of Four Ray Species (Hypanus Sabina, Hypanus Say, Pseudobatos Lentiginosus, And Rhinoptera Bonasus) Housed In An Aquatic Touch Pool, Aimee Marie Little 2022 University of North Florida

The Effect Of Visitor Density And Interaction On The Behavior Of Four Ray Species (Hypanus Sabina, Hypanus Say, Pseudobatos Lentiginosus, And Rhinoptera Bonasus) Housed In An Aquatic Touch Pool, Aimee Marie Little

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human-Animal Interactions (HAI) in zoological institutions are thought to be important in helping visitors to establish a connection with animals and thus making them more likely to contribute to conservation efforts. However, animals can respond to visitor interaction in both negative and positive ways. The growing focus on animal welfare in zoological institutions emphasizes the need for assessing different environmental inputs, including visitor interaction, and how these inputs influence behavioral outputs associated with welfare. A touch pool exhibit presents a novel interactive experience that allows visitors to directly interact with various aquatic species, including elasmobranchs, whose conservation has important implications ...


Evaluating Relative Abundance, Fish Length, And Marine Protected Area Effectiveness For Four Key Rocky Reef Species Along The Northern Californian Coast, Leon Davis 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt

Evaluating Relative Abundance, Fish Length, And Marine Protected Area Effectiveness For Four Key Rocky Reef Species Along The Northern Californian Coast, Leon Davis

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Marine protected areas (MPAs) were created with the purpose of helping conserve and restore diminished populations of marine organisms. Measuring the effectiveness of MPAs requires long-term monitoring, investigating the abundance and size distributions of the species that utilize the conservation areas, and comparing the results to neighboring reference sites that are not currently protected. In this study, observations from long-term MPA monitoring in northern California (2010-2019) were modeled with substrate, oceanographic, spatial, temporal, and body size variables to describe the variability in abundance and size of three fish groups: Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops), the Blue rockfish group (comprised of Blue ...


Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitors Reduce Microgliosis, Neuronal Loss, And Tau Phosphorylation In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Weijun Ou, Joshua Yang, Juste Simanauskaite, Matthew Choi, Demi M. Castellanos, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Karen D. Parfitt, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria 2021 Chapman University

Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitors Reduce Microgliosis, Neuronal Loss, And Tau Phosphorylation In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Weijun Ou, Joshua Yang, Juste Simanauskaite, Matthew Choi, Demi M. Castellanos, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Karen D. Parfitt, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, making biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs), including etanercept, viable therapeutics for AD. The protective effects of biologic TNFIs on AD hallmark pathology (Aβ deposition and tau pathology) have been demonstrated. However, the effects of biologic TNFIs on Aβ-independent tau pathology have not been reported. Existing biologic TNFIs do not cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), therefore we engineered a BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI by fusing the extracellular domain of the type-II human TNF-α receptor (TNFR) to a transferrin receptor antibody (TfRMAb) that ferries the TNFR into the ...


Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige DeJarnett 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige Dejarnett

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pets have historically been viewed as family members, children, property, or economic resources. However, research surrounding animal maltreatment has expressed this issue as an individually-based problem, rather than a community-based phenomenon. Correlations have been found between animal cruelty, antisocial behaviors, and future interpersonal violence, whether this correlation be a predictive relationship, or a resultant relationship. Past research has also found correlations between animal treatment practices and the rural/urban differences of this behavior. However, there are many community-based indicators that have not been explored to understand the distribution of animal maltreatment. This study aims to explore these ideas by analyzing ...


Canine Microwear In Relation To Diet In Sumatran Primates And African Great Apes, Putu Pujiantari 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Canine Microwear In Relation To Diet In Sumatran Primates And African Great Apes, Putu Pujiantari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis considers canine microwear in relation to diet in five Sumatran primates (Pongo abelii, Hylobates lar, Hylobates agilis, Presbytis thomasi, and Macaca fascicularis) and two African great apes (Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) using both microwear texture analysis and microwear feature analysis techniques. Statistical results for texture analysis show that there are significant differences in scale of maximum and heterogeneity. This indicates that some species have large pits on their canine surfaces, having these dominated by deep features at coarse scale yet have a slight microwear heterogeneity. For feature analysis, all variables show statistically significant variation. Variance in ...


Arrhythmogenic Hearts In Pkd2 Mutant Mice Are Characterized By Cardiac Fibrosis, Systolic, And Diastolic Dysfunctions, Farideh Amirrad, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kiumars Shamloo, Brian S. Muntean, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Arrhythmogenic Hearts In Pkd2 Mutant Mice Are Characterized By Cardiac Fibrosis, Systolic, And Diastolic Dysfunctions, Farideh Amirrad, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kiumars Shamloo, Brian S. Muntean, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder affecting multiple organs, including the heart. PKD has been associated with many cardiac abnormalities including the arrhythmogenic remodeling in clinical evaluations. In our current study, we hypothesized that Pkd2 gene mutation results in structural and functional defects in the myocardium. The structural and functional changes of Pkd2 mutant hearts were analyzed in the myocardial-specific Pkd2 knockout (KO) mouse. We further assessed a potential role of TGF-b1 signaling in the pathology of Pkd2-KO hearts. Hearts from age-matched 6-month-old MyH6Pkd2wt/wt (control or wild-type) and MyH6Pkd2flox ...


The Concentration Of Brain Homogenates With The Amicon Ultra Centrifugal Filters, Joshua Yang, Rachita K. Sumbria 2021 Keck Graduate Institute

The Concentration Of Brain Homogenates With The Amicon Ultra Centrifugal Filters, Joshua Yang, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Accurately measuring the brain concentration of a neurotherapeutic is critical in determining its pharmacokinetic profile in vivo. Biologics are potential therapeutics for neurologic diseases and biologics fused to an antibody targeting a transcytosis receptor at the Blood-Brain Barrier, designated as antibody-biologic fusion proteins, are Blood-Brain Barrier penetrating neurotherapeutics. The use of sandwich immunosorbent assays to measure concentrations of antibody-biologic fusion proteins in brain homogenates has become increasingly popular. The raw brain homogenate contains many proteins and other macromolecules that can cause a matrix effect, potentially interfering with the limit of detection of such assays and reduce the overall sample signal ...


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