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Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith 2020 University of Mississippi

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque 2020 University of Mississippi

Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque

Honors Theses

Exposure to cannabinoids during critical development periods has increased with epileptic children being commonly prescribed CBD for seizures and pregnant women taking it recreationally. Many studies have been done on the possible benefits and drawbacks of cannabinoid exposure on the human brain, but not much is known about how it can affect the developing brain long-term. To see the potential adverse effects of cannabinoid exposure during critical stages of development and discover potential developmental origins of disease in consuming cannabinoids during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos (6-96 hours post fertilization) were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD (0.02, 0.1, 0 ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Patterns Of Avian Net Avoidance, Kate Noah 2020 Georgia College & State University

Patterns Of Avian Net Avoidance, Kate Noah

Georgia College Student Research Events

Mist netting is the most popular field technique used to estimate avian species abundance. It can, however, provide a biased estimate of species abundance as not all birds are equally likely to be captured. This is partially due to net avoidance, the purposeful evasion of mist nets by birds. Net avoidance depends on several factors, including species, net conditions such as light exposure, and environmental conditions such as cloud cover. The purpose of this research is to explore which factors contribute to net avoidance at the bird banding station located at Panola Mountain State Park in Stockbridge, Georgia. I placed ...


Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid 2020 Chapman University

Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Gout is a chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of poorly soluble monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in peripheral joints. Resident macrophages initiate inflammation in response to MSU mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigated the role of CD44, a transmembrane receptor, in mediating MSU phagocytosis by macrophages. We used an antibody that sheds the extracellular domain (ECD) of CD44 to study the role of the receptor and its associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in macrophage activation. We also studied the significance of CD44 in mediating MSU inflammation in-vivo. Cd44−/− BMDMs showed reduced MSU phagocytosis, LDH ...


The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek

UCARE Research Products

Cigarette butts are the most littered item in the world and contain over 4,000 chemicals, including the organic compound nicotine (Slaughter et al. 2011). Billions of cigarette butts are littered each year which may wash into bodies of water, impacting the local wildlife. To determine how introduced chemicals impact the environment, it is important to study its effects on indicator species. Amphibians, such as Lithobates catebeianus, act as indicator species due to their extreme sensitivity to chemical changes in its environment. The purpose of this research project was to obtain data to help determine the impact nicotine accumulation has ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Canine Models Of Inherited Musculoskeletal And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brett D. Story, Matthew E. Miller, Allison M. Bradbury, Emily D. Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J. Beecy, Heather Gray-Edwards 2020 Auburn University

Canine Models Of Inherited Musculoskeletal And Neurodegenerative Diseases, Brett D. Story, Matthew E. Miller, Allison M. Bradbury, Emily D. Million, Dongsheng Duan, Toloo Taghian, Dominik Faissler, Deborah Fernau, Sidney J. Beecy, Heather Gray-Edwards

Open Access Articles

Mouse models of human disease remain the bread and butter of modern biology and therapeutic discovery. Nonetheless, more often than not mouse models do not reproduce the pathophysiology of the human conditions they are designed to mimic. Naturally occurring large animal models have predominantly been found in companion animals or livestock because of their emotional or economic value to modern society and, unlike mice, often recapitulate the human disease state. In particular, numerous models have been discovered in dogs and have a fundamental role in bridging proof of concept studies in mice to human clinical trials. The present article is ...


Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many types of neurons act as multimodal signaling centers. Yet, we have only limited insight into the regulation and functional consequences of neuronal co-transmission. For example, dopamine (DA) neurons, whose degeneration causes motor deficits characteristic of Parkinson’s Diseases (PD), communicate with all their targets by DA but only a selective subset of their targets using GABA, Glutamate, and the secreted cell signaling protein Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). It is unknown whether Levo-dopamine (L-Dopa) induced dyskinesia (LIDs), a severely debilitating side effect of DA supplementation in PD, might appear because DA neuron targets are exposed to high DA- but low Shh- ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell 2020 University of Kentucky

Optimizing Animal Welfare In Commercial Laying Hens Through Novel Management Practices And Farm Manager Evaluation, John R. Brunnquell

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The commercial production of pasture and free-range eggs in the United States is expanding rapidly. According to the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Management Assistance, in May of 2019 there were 2.6M pasture hens and 4.5M free-range hens representing 1.9% of the nation’s laying flock. There is little industry and/or academic experience with this style of production in the United States. Programs such as the European Layer Training Initiative (ELTI), which emerged in 2019, have tried to fill this void but participation from the US was low. The principal sources for guidance of commercial ...


Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows 2019 University of Maine

Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adipose tissue can be characterized as either being a white (energy storing) depot or a brown (energy expending) depot and both have been found to contain dense networks of neural innervation. This adipose nerve supply regulates numerous metabolic functions and likely plays an important role in the function of adipose blood vessels. Recently our lab has shown in the C57BL/6 mouse model that peripheral neuropathy, or the dying back and dysfunction of the nerves in the superficial tissues such as the skin, can extend into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in conditions commonly associated with the neuropathic phenotype (i.e ...


Establishing An Ideal Inclusion Rate Of Fermented Soybean Meal And Sodium Butyrate On Growth Performance, Complete Blood Cell Count, And Nutrient Utilization In Nursery Pigs, Kristopher A. Bottoms 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Establishing An Ideal Inclusion Rate Of Fermented Soybean Meal And Sodium Butyrate On Growth Performance, Complete Blood Cell Count, And Nutrient Utilization In Nursery Pigs, Kristopher A. Bottoms

Theses and Dissertations

To evaluate increasing levels of sodium butyrate (SB) in nursery diets on growth performance (Experiment 1 & 2), complete blood cell count (Experiment 2), and the optimal level of fermented soybean meal for maximum performance in weanling pigs (Experiment 3), weaned pigs were blocked with initial body weight (BW) and allotted to dietary treatments. Treatments were: 1) Control (C) moderately complex corn-soybean-meal based supplemented with 0.05% benzoic acid (BA), but devoid of SB; C diet supplemented with 0.05%, 0.10%, or 0.15% SB (Experiment 1). Treatments in experiment 2 consisted of 1) a moderately complex corn-soybean-meal based diet devoid of SB and BA (NC), 2) The NC diet supplemented with 0.5% BA, 3, 4 and 5) NC diet supplemented with 0.5% BA and 0.05%, 0.10% or 0.15% SB, respectively. Treatments in experiment 3 consisted of 1) a fermented soybean protein-poultry by-product diet (C), 2, 3, and 4) C diet was ...


Estimation Of Genetic Components Related To Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Susceptibility In Angus And Angus Derived Cattle Produced In The Southern United States, Eric Oxford 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimation Of Genetic Components Related To Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Susceptibility In Angus And Angus Derived Cattle Produced In The Southern United States, Eric Oxford

Theses and Dissertations

The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been documented in many parts of the world. Many researchers have observed that prevention of this disease is very difficult given current methodologies. This is primarily due to the multifactorial nature of this disease. The objective of this dissertation was to determine the impact of IBK on calf performance and estimate genetic parameters, heritability and estimated breeding values for IBK susceptibility. Data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS; while genetic parameters were estimated using a linear animal model for both single- and two-traits through MTDFREML. Additional evaluations calculated heritability using ...


Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel

Masters Theses

In order to ascertain the degree of compatibility in developmental restructuring and behavioral plasticity between two fish species frequently made subject of laboratory research (Metriaclima zebra & Danio rerio), alternative trophic niche exposure experiments utilizing novel three-prong feeding treatments were conducted to obtain morphometric data, which demonstrated both species do bear some degree of plasticity. The results are somewhat complicated by differences in locality of detectable restructuring, which may be due to disparity in the form-function relationship for each species’ lineage. Each is notable in the manner of respective species’ jaw protrusion, as it is driven by anterior kinethmoid rotation in ...


Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg 2019 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg

Attitudes Toward Animal Research Collection

Research using animals is controversial. To develop sound public outreach and policy about this issue, we need information about both the underlying science and people’s attitudes and knowledge. To identify attitudes toward this subject at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we developed and administered a survey to undergraduate students and faculty. The survey asked respondents about the importance of, their confidence in their knowledge about, and who they trusted to provide information on animal research. Findings indicated attitudes varied by academic discipline, especially among faculty. Faculty in the biological sciences, particularly those who had participated in an animal research project ...


Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson 2019 William and Mary

Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and functional biology of the skull.


Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Birds And Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species, Libesha Anparasan 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Birds And Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species, Libesha Anparasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using stable isotope measurements of inert tissues to determine origins and migratory patterns is well established. However, isotopically determining nutritional origins of lipids, the primary fuel of migration, has not been attempted. I explored isotopic links between diet and stored lipids in captive White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and true armyworm moths (Mythimna unipuncta) using δ13C and δ2H measurements. Isotopic discrimination between body lipids and diet was established as linear calibration functions. Isotopic uptake following a diet switch in moths was used to trace lipid accumulation over time. Isotopic correlations between breath metabolic by-products of fed and ...


Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John DeLong 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Predicting how organisms respond to climate change requires that we understand the temperature dependence of fitness in relevant ecological contexts (e.g., with or without predation risk). Predation risk often induces changes to life history traits that are themselves temperature dependent. We explore how perceived predation risk and temperature interact to determine fitness (indicated by the intrinsic rate of increase, r) through changes to its underlying components (net reproductive rate, generation time, and survival) in Daphnia magna. We exposed Daphnia to predation cues from dragonfly naiads early, late, or throughout their ontogeny. Predation risk increased r differentially across temperatures and ...


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