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Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Natural History Study Of Glycan Accumulation In Large Animal Models Of Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Catlyn Cavender, Linley Mangini, Jeremy L. Van Vleet, Carley Corado, Emma McCullagh, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Douglas R. Martin, Brett E. Crawford, Roger Lawrence 2020 BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.

Natural History Study Of Glycan Accumulation In Large Animal Models Of Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Catlyn Cavender, Linley Mangini, Jeremy L. Van Vleet, Carley Corado, Emma Mccullagh, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Douglas R. Martin, Brett E. Crawford, Roger Lawrence

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

beta-hexosaminidase is an enzyme responsible for the degradation of gangliosides, glycans, and other glycoconjugates containing beta-linked hexosamines that enter the lysosome. GM2 gangliosidoses, such as Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff, are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by beta-hexosaminidase deficiency and subsequent lysosomal accumulation of its substrate metabolites. These two diseases result in neurodegeneration and early mortality in children. A significant difference between these two disorders is the accumulation in Sandhoff disease of soluble oligosaccharide metabolites that derive from N- and O-linked glycans. In this paper we describe our results from a longitudinal biochemical study of a feline model of Sandhoff disease and an ...


Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the relationship between multiple temperature variables, to include annual and pre-lay date temperatures with first-egg and mean first-egg lay dates of the eastern bluebird at the Warner Parks in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Data is collected by citizen scientists for the Eastern Bluebird Nesting Box Project while visiting artificial nest boxes throughout the park and recording observations made during the breeding season. Temperature data is retrieved from the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering’s Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) Climate Group, based at Oregon State University. The analyses showed no correlation between annual or ...


Wireless ‘Under The Skull’ Epidural Eeg And Behavior In Piglets During Nitrous Oxide Or Carbon Dioxide Gas Euthanasia, Jean-Loup Rault, Alan Lai, Lauren Hemsworth, Matthias Le Chevoir, Sebastien Bauquier, Richard S. Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr. 2020 University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

Wireless ‘Under The Skull’ Epidural Eeg And Behavior In Piglets During Nitrous Oxide Or Carbon Dioxide Gas Euthanasia, Jean-Loup Rault, Alan Lai, Lauren Hemsworth, Matthias Le Chevoir, Sebastien Bauquier, Richard S. Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr.

Animal Science Publications

Consciousness is central to animal welfare concerns. Its assessment is most often conducted based on behavior, with a poor understanding of the correspondence between behavior and the neurobiological processes that underlie the subjective experience of consciousness. Recording of brain electrical activity using electrodes placed under the skull improves EEG recording by minimizing artifacts from muscular or cardiac activities, and it can now be combined with wireless recording in free-moving animals. This experiment investigated the correspondence between wireless ‘under the skull’ epidural EEG and the behavior of 18 five-week-old female piglets undergoing nitrous oxide (N2O) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gradual fill ...


Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring

Theses and Dissertations

Use of organic waste material by ruminant animals from food processing operations potentially reduces costs and reduces environmental issues from disposal of these residues. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the storage and feeding value of residual from edamame soybean processing for ruminant animals. Two types of waste streams, waste during harvest time and waste from processing stored material, were ensiled (on a laboratory scale) using various methods and effects on post-ensiling nutritive value were examined. Material from both waste streams were ensiled either without wilting or after wilting; each moisture level was ensiled with and without an inoculant ...


Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft

Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the fate and dissemination of Salmonella Reading (SR) in market-age turkeys using an oral gavage challenge model. One hundred twenty-eight-week-old commercial turkey hens were moved from commercial production to research facilities. Upon arrival, a combination of enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg, and florfenicol, 20 mg/kg, were orally administered sequentially before comingled placement on fresh pine shavings. Turkeys were challenged with 108 cfu SR by oral gavage on days 4 and 7 post-placement. Subsets were subjected to simulated commercial processing on days 14 (n=40), 21 (n=40) and 28 (n=32) post-placement (corresponding to 10 ...


Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague

Theses and Dissertations

Bacillus spp. are ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore forming bacteria that are commonly recovered from the environment and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of poultry. These spores are capable of withstanding harsh condition such as feed pelletization, which facilitates inclusion in poultry feeds. Once ingested by the bird, spores germinate into metabolically active vegetative cells which can produce extracellular enzymes which can hydrolyze otherwise indigestible components of the feed. Soybean meal (SBM) is the gold standard vegetable protein source for non-ruminant animals worldwide and is included in practically all poultry diets in the United States at levels ranging from 10 to more than 30 ...


Birth Of A Live Cria After Transfer Of A Vitrified-Warmed Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos) Preimplantation Embryo, Jennifer C. Lutz, Susan L. Johnson, Kimberly J. Duprey, Paul J. Taylor, Henry William Vivanco-Mackie, Daniel Ponce-Salazar, Marlene Miguel-Gonzales, Curtis R. Youngs 2020 Cas-Cad-Nac Farm

Birth Of A Live Cria After Transfer Of A Vitrified-Warmed Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos) Preimplantation Embryo, Jennifer C. Lutz, Susan L. Johnson, Kimberly J. Duprey, Paul J. Taylor, Henry William Vivanco-Mackie, Daniel Ponce-Salazar, Marlene Miguel-Gonzales, Curtis R. Youngs

Animal Science Publications

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is an important species for the production of fiber and food. Genetic improvement programs for alpacas have been hindered, however, by the lack of field-practical techniques for artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In particular, successful techniques for the cryopreservation of alpaca preimplantation embryos have not been reported previously. The objective of this study was to develop a field-practical and efficacious technique for cryopreservation of alpaca preimplantation embryos using a modification of a vitrification protocol originally devised for horses and adapted for dromedary camels. Four naturally cycling non-superovulated Huacaya females serving as embryo donors were mated to ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Characterization Of A Recombinant Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Containing A Complete Genome, Husam Taher, Xiaofei E, Timothy F. Kowalik, Daniel Malouli 2020 Oregon Health and Science University

In Vitro And In Vivo Characterization Of A Recombinant Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Containing A Complete Genome, Husam Taher, Xiaofei E, Timothy F. Kowalik, Daniel Malouli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are highly adapted to their host species resulting in strict species specificity. Hence, in vivo examination of all aspects of CMV biology employs animal models using host-specific CMVs. Infection of rhesus macaques (RM) with rhesus CMV (RhCMV) has been established as a representative model for infection of humans with HCMV due to the close evolutionary relationships of both host and virus. However, the only available RhCMV clone that permits genetic modifications is based on the 68-1 strain which has been passaged in fibroblasts for decades resulting in multiple genomic changes due to tissue culture adaptations. As a result ...


Flowers Are Essential To Maintain High Beetle Diversity (Coleoptera) In A Neotropical Rainforest Canopy, Susan Kirmse, Caroline S. Chaboo 2020 Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Museum of Entomology

Flowers Are Essential To Maintain High Beetle Diversity (Coleoptera) In A Neotropical Rainforest Canopy, Susan Kirmse, Caroline S. Chaboo

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the megadiversity of angiosperms and insects. Flowers and their pollinators represent the most common terrestrial mutualistic interaction today and this is thought to have driven the evolution of angiosperms and their visitors. Within the framework of that interaction, this paper develops and tests two new hypotheses: 1) megadiversity of canopy beetles in tropical rainforests is largely based on flower resources, and 2) the majority of adult canopy beetles are adapted to visit flowers. To test hypothesis 1, the beetle fauna associated with 23 canopy tree species (13 families, 45 individuals) in a 1 ...


Fundamental Shifts In Research, Ethics And Peer Review In The Era Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Edward Barroga, Janet B. Matanguihan 2020 Messiah University

Fundamental Shifts In Research, Ethics And Peer Review In The Era Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Edward Barroga, Janet B. Matanguihan

Biology Educator Scholarship

The era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to fundamental shifts in research, ethics, and peer review including reframing of the research design, adapting methodologies to the study type, transitioning of research mechanics, changing research methodologies, overcoming data collection and standardization constraints, upholding research standards and ethics, maintaining informativeness and social value, and providing guarded peer review flexibility. Indeed, the COVID-19 crisis, despite disrupting research worldwide to an unprecedented degree, has also become a catalyst to develop strategies of adaptation to this disruption. As the COVID-19 pandemic continuous to evolve, new, cost-effective, and highly flexible research models ...


Estimation In Meta-Analyses Of Response Ratios, Ilyas Bakbergenuly, David C. Hoaglin, Elena Kulinskaya 2020 University of East Anglia

Estimation In Meta-Analyses Of Response Ratios, Ilyas Bakbergenuly, David C. Hoaglin, Elena Kulinskaya

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: For outcomes that studies report as the means in the treatment and control groups, some medical applications and nearly half of meta-analyses in ecology express the effect as the ratio of means (RoM), also called the response ratio (RR), analyzed in the logarithmic scale as the log-response-ratio, LRR.

METHODS: In random-effects meta-analysis of LRR, with normal and lognormal data, we studied the performance of estimators of the between-study variance, tau(2), (measured by bias and coverage) in assessing heterogeneity of study-level effects, and also the performance of related estimators of the overall effect in the log scale, lambda. We ...


More Details On So-Called Corn Diet, Sharon Norton, Katie Betts, Jim Jolli, Chad Pilcher, Matt Ritter, Jim Erickson, Brian Ramer, Cale Parson, Nicholas Gabler, John F. Patience 2020 Provimi/Cargill Inc.

More Details On So-Called Corn Diet, Sharon Norton, Katie Betts, Jim Jolli, Chad Pilcher, Matt Ritter, Jim Erickson, Brian Ramer, Cale Parson, Nicholas Gabler, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The question of holding diets came about when the flow of market-ready animals was disrupted by the novel coronavirus earlier this year. At that time, recommendations were made on what producers could do to slow the growth of their pigs until the opportunity arose to send them to harvest. Nick Gabler, an Iowa State University Animal Science professor, quickly initiated a study to evaluate various dietary options to reduce growth rates.


Network Meta-Analysis Of Ulcerative Colitis Pharmacotherapies: Carryover Effects From Induction And Bias Of The Results, Dominik Naessens, Chris Cameron, David C. Hoaglin 2020 Janssen Pharmaceutica NV

Network Meta-Analysis Of Ulcerative Colitis Pharmacotherapies: Carryover Effects From Induction And Bias Of The Results, Dominik Naessens, Chris Cameron, David C. Hoaglin

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Dear Editor, In their network meta-analyses (NMAs) of treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC), Singh et al1 did not take into account a complication associated with studies that re-randomized patients for the maintenance phase: differential carryover effects from induction can bias the results. In those studies, patients who responded to induction were re-randomized to maintenance treatments that included placebo. If, however, carryover effects from induction differ substantially among active treatments, the effects of those treatments, relative to placebo, are not comparable.


Dietary Lysine-To-Energy Ratios For Managing Growth And Pubertal Development In Replacement Gilts, C. A. Lents, C. Supakorn, A. E. DeDecker, C. E. Phillips, R. D. Boyd, J. L. Vallet, G. A. Rohrer, G. R. Foxcroft, W. L. Flowers, N. L. Trottier, J. L. Salak-Johnson, F. F. Bartol, Kenneth J. Stalder 2020 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Dietary Lysine-To-Energy Ratios For Managing Growth And Pubertal Development In Replacement Gilts, C. A. Lents, C. Supakorn, A. E. Dedecker, C. E. Phillips, R. D. Boyd, J. L. Vallet, G. A. Rohrer, G. R. Foxcroft, W. L. Flowers, N. L. Trottier, J. L. Salak-Johnson, F. F. Bartol, Kenneth J. Stalder

Animal Science Publications

Objective: Our objective was to determine growth rates, body composition, and pubertal development of replacement gilts fed diets with different ratios of standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine to ME.

Materials and Methods: Diets with low, medium, and high ratios of SID lysine to ME (grower: 2.3, 2.6, and 2.8; and, finisher; 1.7, 1.9, and 2.1 g/Mcal) were fed from 100 to 200 d of age, after which gilts were moved from the gilt development unit to sow farms. Boar exposure and estrus detection began at 160 d of age and continued until first ...


In Vivo Assessment Of Potential For Ugt-Inhibition-Based Drug-Drug Interaction Between Sorafenib And Tapentadol, Agnieszka Karbownik, Miłosz Miedziaszczyk, Tomasz Grabowski, Joanna Stanisławiak-Rudowicz, Radosław Jaźwiec, Anna Wolc, Edmund Grześkowiak, Edyta Szałek 2020 Poznań University of Medical Sciences

In Vivo Assessment Of Potential For Ugt-Inhibition-Based Drug-Drug Interaction Between Sorafenib And Tapentadol, Agnieszka Karbownik, Miłosz Miedziaszczyk, Tomasz Grabowski, Joanna Stanisławiak-Rudowicz, Radosław Jaźwiec, Anna Wolc, Edmund Grześkowiak, Edyta Szałek

Animal Science Publications

Sorafenib (SR) is one of the most potent UGT (1A1, 1A9) inhibitors (in in vitro tests). The inhibition of UGT1A1 may cause hyperbilirubinaemia, whereas the inhibition of UGT1A9 and 1A1 may result in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Tapentadol (TAP) is a synthetic μ-opioid agonist and is used to treat moderate to severe acute pain. Tapentadol is highly glucuronidated by the UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 isoenzymes. The aim of the study was to assess the DDI between SR and TAP.

Wistar rats were divided into three groups, with eight animals in each. The rats were orally treated with SR (100 mg/kg) or ...


Adverse Effects On Growth Performance And Bone Development In Nursery Pigs Fed Diets Marginally Deficient In Phosphorus With Increasing Calcium To Available Phosphorus Ratios, Spenser L. Becker, Stacie A. Gould, Amy L. Petry, Leah M. Kellesvig, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Adverse Effects On Growth Performance And Bone Development In Nursery Pigs Fed Diets Marginally Deficient In Phosphorus With Increasing Calcium To Available Phosphorus Ratios, Spenser L. Becker, Stacie A. Gould, Amy L. Petry, Leah M. Kellesvig, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the growth performance and bone mineral content (BMC) of nursery pigs in response to increasing total calcium (Ca) to available phosphorus (aP) ratios in diets containing phytase (250 FTU/kg; Natuphos E, BASF, Florham Park, NJ). A total of 480 nursery pigs (body weight (BW) = 5.7 ± 0.6 kg) with 10 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment (6 pens fed 2.75:1 diet) were allotted to seven treatments consisting of increasing ratios of calcium to available phosphorus (Ca:aP): 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2 ...


Recent And Rapid Radiation Of The Highly Endangered Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus) Into Central America Inferred From Mitochondrial Dna Sequences, Juan P. Ramirez, Cesar A. Jaramillo, Erik D. Lindquist, Andrew J. Crawford, Roberto Ibanez 2020 Messiah University

Recent And Rapid Radiation Of The Highly Endangered Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus) Into Central America Inferred From Mitochondrial Dna Sequences, Juan P. Ramirez, Cesar A. Jaramillo, Erik D. Lindquist, Andrew J. Crawford, Roberto Ibanez

Biology Educator Scholarship

Populations of amphibians are experiencing severe declines worldwide. One group with the most catastrophic declines is the Neotropical genus Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae). Many species of Atelopus have not been seen for decades and all eight Central American species are considered “Critically Endangered”, three of them very likely extinct. Nonetheless, the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeographic history of Central American Atelopus are still poorly known. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the eight described species in Central America were inferred based on mitochondrial DNA sequences from 103 individuals, including decades-old museum samples and two likely extinct species, plus ten ...


Exploiting The Immunomodulatory Potentials Of Inkt Cells In Sepsis And Cancer., Joshua Choi 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Exploiting The Immunomodulatory Potentials Of Inkt Cells In Sepsis And Cancer., Joshua Choi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique unconventional T cell subset that recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d expressing cells. The prototypical glycolipid agonist of iNKT cells, α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), can induce the rapid release of an arsenal of cytotoxic effector molecules and enormous amounts of immunomodulatory cytokines as early as two hours after activation. In addition to α-GalCer, various glycolipid agonists are available that allow for specific, in vivo targeting of iNKT cells, and can exert divergent T-helper (TH)1 and/or TH2 immune responses. Therefore, the type of response instigated by iNKT cells can profoundly ...


Distributions And Abundances Of The Red Tide Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Catenella In The Eastern Gulf Of Maine And Bay Of Fundy In Relation To Diatoms In June, July And August Of 2019, Kimberly Lina D'Adamo 2020 University of Maine

Distributions And Abundances Of The Red Tide Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Catenella In The Eastern Gulf Of Maine And Bay Of Fundy In Relation To Diatoms In June, July And August Of 2019, Kimberly Lina D'Adamo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A series of three oceanographic survey cruises were conducted in June, July, and August of 2019 in the northeastern Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed for enumerations of cell densities of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in relation to cell densities of diatoms. Hydrographic profiles of temperature, salinity, and nutrients (silicate and nitrate) were also made at each station. Data were analyzed to determine if there was any statistically significant evidence of allelopathic interference imparted by diatoms that impede A. catenella. A. catenella cells were most abundant in June, reaching 6,195 cells ...


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