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A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman

Dissertations

The developing brain is susceptible to extensive neurotoxicity following exposure to sedative/anesthetic drugs (SADs). Every year hundreds of thousands of children around the world are exposed to SADs with no viable non-neurotoxic agents approved for clinical use. Allopregnanolone (AlloP) has well-established sedative effects in adults and neonates. AlloP and many SADs produce sedation/anesthesia through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors, which is one of two principal mechanisms behind SAD-induced neurotoxicity. Evidence suggests AlloP has the unique capacity to regulate key apoptotic factors in adults and is widely involved with critical stages of neurodevelopment, indicating this neurosteroid might serve ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Don't You Know That You're Toxic?, Mumina Mohamud 2020 Concordia University, St. Paul

Don't You Know That You're Toxic?, Mumina Mohamud

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The excitatory effects of superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus on the immune system.


A Deeper Meaning For Shallow-Level Phylogenomic Studies: Nested Anchored Hybrid Enrichment Offers Great Promise For Resolving The Tiger Moth Tree Of Life (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), Nicolas J. Dowdy, Shannon Keating, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon, William E. Conner, Clare H. Scott Chialvo, Susan Weller, Rebecca B. Simmons, Melissa S. Sisson, Jennifer M. Zaspel 2020 Milwaukee Public Museum

A Deeper Meaning For Shallow-Level Phylogenomic Studies: Nested Anchored Hybrid Enrichment Offers Great Promise For Resolving The Tiger Moth Tree Of Life (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), Nicolas J. Dowdy, Shannon Keating, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon, William E. Conner, Clare H. Scott Chialvo, Susan Weller, Rebecca B. Simmons, Melissa S. Sisson, Jennifer M. Zaspel

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

Anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) has emerged as a powerful tool for uncovering the evolutionary relationships within many taxonomic groups. AHE probe sets have been developed for a variety of insect groups, though none have yet been shown to be capable of simultaneously resolving deep and very shallow (e.g., intraspecific) divergences. In this study, we present NOC1, a new AHE probe set (730 loci) for Lepidoptera specialized for tiger moths and assess its ability to deliver phylogenetic utility at all taxonomic levels. We test the NOC1 probe set with 142 individuals from 116 species sampled from all the major lineages ...


Patterns Of Avian Net Avoidance, Kate Noah 2020 Georgia College & State University

Patterns Of Avian Net Avoidance, Kate Noah

Georgia College Student Research Events

Mist netting is the most popular field technique used to estimate avian species abundance. It can, however, provide a biased estimate of species abundance as not all birds are equally likely to be captured. This is partially due to net avoidance, the purposeful evasion of mist nets by birds. Net avoidance depends on several factors, including species, net conditions such as light exposure, and environmental conditions such as cloud cover. The purpose of this research is to explore which factors contribute to net avoidance at the bird banding station located at Panola Mountain State Park in Stockbridge, Georgia. I placed ...


Nearshore Vertical Distribution Of Barnacle Cyprids: Temporal Patterns And Hydrographic Variability, Gabriela Yamhure 2020 University of San Diego

Nearshore Vertical Distribution Of Barnacle Cyprids: Temporal Patterns And Hydrographic Variability, Gabriela Yamhure

Theses

Most benthic organisms living in the intertidal zone have planktonic larvae that reside temporarily in the water column before settling in their adult habitats. Larvae aggregate in offshore larval pools, and transport horizontally and vertically in the water to remain in the nearshore and during their pelagic life. While some horizontal transport of larvae can be attributed to advection, behavioral responses, like vertical swimming and buoyancy control, allow larvae to position themselves at depths where flow direction can be exploited. Thus, knowledge on how vertical larval distribution relates to physical processes can be fundamental to better understand larval transport. These ...


It’S Not Cuul To Juul: Nicotine Addiction, The Rise Of E-Cigarette Usage, And How Zebrafish Can Help, Anna Pearson 2020 DePauw University

It’S Not Cuul To Juul: Nicotine Addiction, The Rise Of E-Cigarette Usage, And How Zebrafish Can Help, Anna Pearson

Honor Scholar Theses

No abstract provided.


An Apex Predator In Peril In The Western Lowlands Of Ecuador: Mapping The Population Distribution Of Harpy Eagles (Harpia Harpyja) In A Highly Deforested Region, Samuel Zhang 2020 SIT Study Abroad

An Apex Predator In Peril In The Western Lowlands Of Ecuador: Mapping The Population Distribution Of Harpy Eagles (Harpia Harpyja) In A Highly Deforested Region, Samuel Zhang

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a highly threatened bird of prey in Ecuador. While they are already elusive in the Ecuadorian Amazon, they are even lesser known in the coastal lowlands, and their existence is threatened by rapid deforestation. This study mapped their potential distribution by examining satellite images to find intact humid forest, their ideal habitat. Habitat areas were quantified using ImageJ. The only sites found to be adequate for sustaining Harpy Eagle populations were the primary forests in the vicinities of Reserva Ecológica Mache Chindul and Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi Cayapas. The two reserves are expected to be ...


The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Impact Of Nicotine Accumulation Exposure On Lithobates Catebeianus Larvae Mortality, Luke Micek

UCARE Research Products

Cigarette butts are the most littered item in the world and contain over 4,000 chemicals, including the organic compound nicotine (Slaughter et al. 2011). Billions of cigarette butts are littered each year which may wash into bodies of water, impacting the local wildlife. To determine how introduced chemicals impact the environment, it is important to study its effects on indicator species. Amphibians, such as Lithobates catebeianus, act as indicator species due to their extreme sensitivity to chemical changes in its environment. The purpose of this research project was to obtain data to help determine the impact nicotine accumulation has ...


Surviving Under The Reign Of El Niño Southern Oscillation: An Analysis Of The Effects Of Extreme El Niño Events On The Oceanographic And Biological Environment Of The Galápagos Islands, Ava McIlvaine 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Surviving Under The Reign Of El Niño Southern Oscillation: An Analysis Of The Effects Of Extreme El Niño Events On The Oceanographic And Biological Environment Of The Galápagos Islands, Ava Mcilvaine

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is commonly known as the atmospheric and oceanographic powerhouse of the Southern Pacific Ocean. From phytoplankton to apex predators, ENSO controls the stability of species’ populations within this biodiverse ocean environment. El Niño’s 9-15 month alteration of the heat storage in the tropical Pacific drastically shifts the temperature, nutrient, and circulation gradient its marine life is accustomed to. A single degree change in the ocean’s surface layer temperature can have large consequences for marine species, and El Niño is commonly associated with Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies (SSTAs) between 2°- 6° Celsius. The potential ...


Using Stable Isotopes And Diet Analysis To Assess The Potential For Competition And Coexistence Among Coyotes (Canis Latransl, Red Foxes (Vulpes Vulpes), And Gray Foxes (Urocyon Cinereoargenteus) In Maine, Henry M. Masters 2020 University of Southern Maine

Using Stable Isotopes And Diet Analysis To Assess The Potential For Competition And Coexistence Among Coyotes (Canis Latransl, Red Foxes (Vulpes Vulpes), And Gray Foxes (Urocyon Cinereoargenteus) In Maine, Henry M. Masters

Student Scholarship

When two species compete for food, one species typically outcompetes the other. Subordinate species can alleviate costs of competition by reducing diet overlap, promoting coexistence. Non-native coyotes (Canis latrans) and historically native gray foxes (Urocyon cineroargenteus) have expanded their range in Maine and may compete with native red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). To investigate competition, I analyzed stable isotopes and stomach contents to determine if coyotes, red foxes, and gray foxes differed in use of anthropogenic foods and trophic position. I predicted that coyotes utilize anthropogenic foods the least (lowest δ13C), and red foxes utilize anthropogenic foods the most (highest δ13C ...


The Current State Of Research On The Global Amphibian Epidemic, Chytridiomycosis: A Systematic Literature Review And View Into The Future Of The Field, Emily DeAlto 2020 SIT Study Abroad

The Current State Of Research On The Global Amphibian Epidemic, Chytridiomycosis: A Systematic Literature Review And View Into The Future Of The Field, Emily Dealto

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Recent years have shown a rapid decline in global frog populations. Among other issues, one main cause of these declines has been linked to chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd. The discovery of this fungus is relatively recent in the field of herpetology, and thus there is much still unknown about the disease such as its distribution and what causes certain areas and species to be more susceptible to it. A systematic literature review was conducted to see where the state of the research is currently, in order to gain a better view of the ...


Macroinvertebrate Community And Temperature Changes In A Michigan Stream, Nyika Campbell 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Macroinvertebrate Community And Temperature Changes In A Michigan Stream, Nyika Campbell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As the climate warms, global biodiversity is plummeting and extinction rates are rising (Jenkins, 2003). Freshwater ecosystems specifically are experiencing huge losses in diversity (Jenkins, 2003; Ormerod et al., 2010; Collier et al., 2016). Conservation of invertebrates is particularly urgent because they are foundational to the trophic systems in streams and lakes, comprising 95% of all species on earth (Titley et al., 2017), and over 60% of biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems (Collier et al., 2016). Through analysis of both my own field measurements and historical data I seek to gain a preliminary understanding of temperature and macroinvertebrate community changes that ...


Parásitos Gastrointestinales De Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina, Sarah Martínez 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Parásitos Gastrointestinales De Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina, Sarah Martínez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Este trabajo intentó encontrar helmintos comunes, especialmente compartidos, en cuatro carnívoros patagónicos del sur con distribuciones geográficas superpuestas y dos carnívoros patagónicos del norte, y esbozar el análisis fecal y los métodos de identificación morfológica para futuros investigadores. El estudiante encontró solo un parásito helminto compartido entre cualquier otra especie y la nutria nativa del sur del río, a pesar de una superposición en el hábitat con el visón americano invasivo, pero esto puede deberse a un bajo recuento de estudios regionales previos de helmintos en cualquiera de las especies. Se encontraron múltiples parásitos en las cuatro especies hospederas de ...


Two (Or More) Viruses In One Bat: A Systematic Quantitative Literature Review Of Viral Coinfection In Bats, Eli J. Kaufman 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Two (Or More) Viruses In One Bat: A Systematic Quantitative Literature Review Of Viral Coinfection In Bats, Eli J. Kaufman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Viral coinfection is an important topic in pathogen dynamics, and can increase viral shedding and change disease outcomes. As bats are carriers of important zoonoses, such as the SARS coronaviruses, rabies, and other deadly viruses, knowing more about their coinfection dynamics is important. This quantitative systematic literature review sought to show how many papers reported bat viral coinfections, and created three databases. The first database, the SQLR database was based on searches for coinfections. The second database, the Astrovirus database was to determine how much of the literature was being missed by examining a single viral family more in depth ...


Climate Change Effects On Volcanoes In The Tropics: A Review Of The Deglaciation Of Antisana And Its Effects On Subsequent Water Streams And Rivers Over 20 Years, Callie C. Rominger 2020 SIT Study Abroad

Climate Change Effects On Volcanoes In The Tropics: A Review Of The Deglaciation Of Antisana And Its Effects On Subsequent Water Streams And Rivers Over 20 Years, Callie C. Rominger

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Located in the Northern end of Ecuador lies the stunning glacier of Antisana which attracts many tourists and whose runoff provides a significant amount of water supply for Quito. Climate change is posing threats to many ecosystems world wide but will have a more substantial impact on the volcanoes in the tropics because they do not have a seasonally altered climate. Small changes in the air temperature can have larger impacts on these areas that are adapted to constant temperatures with seasonal precipitation changes. Climate change, in recent years, had caused an increase in the glacial retreat of the Antisana ...


Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid 2020 Chapman University

Cd44 Receptor Mediates Urate Crystal Phagocytosis By Macrophages And Regulates Inflammation In A Murine Peritoneal Model Of Acute Gout, Emira Bousoik, Marwa Qadri, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Gout is a chronic arthritis caused by the deposition of poorly soluble monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in peripheral joints. Resident macrophages initiate inflammation in response to MSU mediated by NF-κB nuclear translocation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigated the role of CD44, a transmembrane receptor, in mediating MSU phagocytosis by macrophages. We used an antibody that sheds the extracellular domain (ECD) of CD44 to study the role of the receptor and its associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in macrophage activation. We also studied the significance of CD44 in mediating MSU inflammation in-vivo. Cd44−/− BMDMs showed reduced MSU phagocytosis, LDH ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


The Effect Of Lactose And A Prototype Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product On Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance, And Intestinal Function Of Weaned Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Lactose And A Prototype Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product On Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance, And Intestinal Function Of Weaned Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, Nicholas K. Gabler, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lactose (LA) and a prototype Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product (FP) on growth performance, diet digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and intestinal function of weaned pigs. Twenty-eight newly weaned pigs [approximately 21 d of age; initial body weight (BW) = 5.20 ± 0.15 kg] were housed in metabolism crates and assigned to one of four treatments (n = seven pigs per treatment) corresponding to a 2 × 2 factorial design: with (LA+; 15% inclusion) or without (LA−) LA and with (FP+) or without (FP−) the prototype FP (1 g of FP per kilogram ...


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