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Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Smoothened receptor (SMO) is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SMO gene. A systemic mutation in its binding pocket helps predict the sensitivity of mutant proteins to different drugs. Known as a GPCR-like receptor, it is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway; a pathway involved in body patterning and the regulation of adult stem cells. An uncontrolled or inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog pathway drives tumor progression in cancers and a number of birth defects. To achieve these goals, the molecular modeling software MOE was used to build small molecules and drug molecules like Vismodegib and ...


Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined ...


The Role Of Ripk1 Kinase Activity In Regulating Inflammation And Necroptotic Death, Matija Zelic 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of Ripk1 Kinase Activity In Regulating Inflammation And Necroptotic Death, Matija Zelic

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Necroptosis, a type of regulated necrotic cell death, involves cell membrane permeabilization and has been implicated in various acute and chronic pro-inflammatory diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative diseases. By using in vitro reconstitution studies and a chemical inhibitor, the kinase activity of the serine/threonine kinase RIPK1 had been shown to regulate necroptotic signaling downstream of TNF and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). To investigate the contribution of RIPK1 kinase activity to inflammation and necroptosis in vivo, we generated kinase inactive RIPK1 knock-in mice. Utilizing fibroblasts and macrophages from these mice, we demonstrate that RIPK1 kinase activity is required for necroptotic ...


Information Retrieval For Systematic Reviews In Food And Feed Topics: A Narrative Review, Hannah Wood, Annette O'Connor, Jan Sargeant, Julie Glanville 2018 University of York

Information Retrieval For Systematic Reviews In Food And Feed Topics: A Narrative Review, Hannah Wood, Annette O'Connor, Jan Sargeant, Julie Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Introduction Systematic review methods are now being used for reviews of food production, food safety and security, plant health, and animal health and welfare. Information retrieval methods in this context have been informed by human healthcare approaches and ideally should be based on relevant research and experience.

Objective This narrative review seeks to identify and summarise current research-based evidence and experience on information retrieval for systematic reviews in food and feed topics.

Methods MEDLINE (Ovid), Science Citation Index (Web of Science) and ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com/) were searched in 2012 and 2016. We also contacted topic experts and undertook ...


Syllabus: Drinking Water, Sanitation, And Global Development, Emily Kumpel 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Syllabus: Drinking Water, Sanitation, And Global Development, Emily Kumpel

Sustainability Education Resources

Within the past three decades, more than 2.6 billion people have gained access to an improved water source and 2.1 billion have gained access to an improved sanitation facility. However, improved does not always mean people have safe, reliable, accessible, or equitable water and sanitation services. Waterborne diseases continue to cause and estimated 500,000 deaths each year. What causes waterborne diseases, and what is the role of engineered systems in their spread or prevention? How can we evaluate interventions to improve health and well-being? How can research address these challenges?


Study Protocol: Reporting Characteristics Of Intervention Trials Of Animals Published In The Journal Of Dairy Science In 2017, C. B. Winder, K. J. Churchill, J. M. Sargeant, S. J. LeBlanc, A. M. O'Connor, D. L. Renaud 2018 University of Guelph

Study Protocol: Reporting Characteristics Of Intervention Trials Of Animals Published In The Journal Of Dairy Science In 2017, C. B. Winder, K. J. Churchill, J. M. Sargeant, S. J. Leblanc, A. M. O'Connor, D. L. Renaud

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Objectives The scope of this cross-sectional observational study is to evaluate prevalence of reporting the 19 objective items of the REFLECT statement checklist (Sargeant et al., 2010), with the primary outcome being prevalence of sample size calculation, in clinical trials published in the Journal of Dairy Science from January to December of 2017. We will also determine risk of bias in individual studies using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tools for individually randomized, parallel group trials; cluster randomized, parallel group trials; and individually randomized, cross-over trials (Higgins et al., 2016).


Benchmark Evaluation Of True Single Molecular Sequencing To Determine Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiome Diversity, Andrea Hahn, Matthew L. Bendall, Keylie M. Gibson, Hollis Chaney, Iman Sami, Geovanny F. Perez, Anastassios C. Koumbourlis, Timothy A. McCaffrey, Robert J. Freishtat, Keith A Crandall 2018 George Washington University

Benchmark Evaluation Of True Single Molecular Sequencing To Determine Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiome Diversity, Andrea Hahn, Matthew L. Bendall, Keylie M. Gibson, Hollis Chaney, Iman Sami, Geovanny F. Perez, Anastassios C. Koumbourlis, Timothy A. Mccaffrey, Robert J. Freishtat, Keith A Crandall

Computational Biology Institute

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with recurrent lung infections that can lead to morbidity and mortality. The impact of antibiotics for treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations on the CF airway microbiome remains unclear with prior studies giving conflicting results and being limited by their use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Our primary objective was to validate the use of true single molecular sequencing (tSMS) and PathoScope in the analysis of the CF airway microbiome. Three control samples were created with differing amounts of Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Prevotella melaninogenica, three common bacteria found in cystic ...


Using Global Positioning System Technology To Manage Human-Black Bear Incidents At Yosemite National Park, Rachel L. Mazur, Ryan M. Leahy, Caitlin J. Lee-Roney, Kathleen E. Patrick 2018 Yosemite National Park

Using Global Positioning System Technology To Manage Human-Black Bear Incidents At Yosemite National Park, Rachel L. Mazur, Ryan M. Leahy, Caitlin J. Lee-Roney, Kathleen E. Patrick

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Managing human–bear (Ursus spp.) incidents is a top management priority in national parks inhabited by bears. Yosemite National Park (Yosemite), located in the Sierra Nevada in California, USA, receives up to 5 million visitors annually. It is also home to 300–500 black bears (U. americanus). Yosemite has an extensive history of black bear research, educational programs, and innovative solutions for reducing human–bear incidents. Despite this, human–bear incidents peaked in 1998 at 1,584. The resulting political fallout led to Yosemite receiving funds to expand its bear management program, including increasing its staffing and garbage pick-up, and ...


Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, AhRam Han, Da-eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae 2018 Ewha Womans University

Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, Ahram Han, Da-Eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, Seungjin Bae

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

Animal experiments have been widely conducted in the life sciences for more than a century, and have long been a subject of ethical and societal controversy due to the deliberate infliction of harm upon sentient animals. However, the harmful use of animals may also negatively impact the mental health of researchers themselves. We sought to evaluate the anxiety level of researchers engaged in animal use to analyse the mental stress from animal testing. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate how researchers feel when they conduct animal, as opposed to non-animal, based experiments ...


Disarming “Nature” As A Weapon: A Queer Ecosemiotic Reimagining Of Futurity And Environmental Ethics Through Memoir, Sam Lauer 2018 Bucknell University

Disarming “Nature” As A Weapon: A Queer Ecosemiotic Reimagining Of Futurity And Environmental Ethics Through Memoir, Sam Lauer

Master’s Theses

In this thesis, I posit that the need for an active, conscious, and radical queering of ecocriticism as a literary and cultural theory has arisen in light of the postmodern problematization of “nature” and the “natural,” along with the queerness of society, culture, and science. The way we understand “nature” (in life and in texts), whether of physical environments, inherent selfhood, or normalcy, begs to be appropriately informed by discourses and realities of queerness in order for both social and environmental healing to take place. I have analyzed three works of queer creative nonfiction—memoirs—to illuminate the ways in ...


Evaluation Of A Small Molecule Agonist Of Epha2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase And Copalic Acid Analogs As Prostate Cancer Therapeutics, Nethrie Idippily 2018 Cleveland State University

Evaluation Of A Small Molecule Agonist Of Epha2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase And Copalic Acid Analogs As Prostate Cancer Therapeutics, Nethrie Idippily

ETD Archive

Project I: Chemotherapeutic drugs have many side effects that are undesirable and are highly toxic. Therefore, there is a growing need for the development of drugs with enhanced efficacy, specificity, and potency to provide cancer patients with a better prognosis. It was discovered that a member of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase family, EphA2, may prove to be a viable target in developing anti-cancer agents. In the presence of its ligand, EphA2 receptor is responsible for apoptotic and anti-migratory activity. However, in the absence of ligand, EphA2 is able to stimulate cell migration and therefore tumorigenic activity. These conflicting roles of ...


Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clinical research studies show that chronic pain is a prevalent, difficult affliction to manage. The most common management for chronic pain is opioids, which research is showing to paradoxically induce persistent, worsened pain states as well as potentially having negative effects on memory. The necessity for understanding chronic pain and drug management options is apparent, and research is aiming to do just that. Exercise is one potential preventative measure or post hoc treatment possibility for chronic pain, as abundant research has shown. Knowledge of the interactions between exercise, morphine dosing, and peripheral nerve injury is nonexistent. As such, we desired ...


Characteristics, Functional Properties, And Antioxidant Activities Of Water-Soluble Proteins Extracted From Grasshoppers, Patanga Succincta And Chondracris Roseapbrunner, Niphattha Chatsuwan, Sitthipong Nalinanon, Yuporn Puechkamut, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Praphan Pinsirodom 2018 King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

Characteristics, Functional Properties, And Antioxidant Activities Of Water-Soluble Proteins Extracted From Grasshoppers, Patanga Succincta And Chondracris Roseapbrunner, Niphattha Chatsuwan, Sitthipong Nalinanon, Yuporn Puechkamut, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Praphan Pinsirodom

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Water-soluble proteins extracted from two species of grasshoppers, Patanga succincta (WSPP) and Chondracris roseapbrunner (WSPC), were characterized as well as their functional properties and antioxidant activities were investigated. The extraction yield, on a wet weight basis, was 7.35% and 7.46% for WSPP and WSPC, respectively. The most abundant amino acid in both proteins was glutamic acid, followed by aspartic, alanine, and leucine, in that order. The electrophoretic study revealed that proteins with MW of 29, 42, 50, 69, and 146 kDa were the major protein components in WSPP and WSPC. FTIR analysis showed that those proteins remained their ...


Mtorc1 Plays An Important Role In Osteoblastic Regulation Of B-Lymphopoiesis, Sally K. Martin, Stephen Fitter, Nadia El Khawanky, Randall H. Grose, Carl Walkley, Louise E. Purton, Markus A. Ruegg, Michael N. Hall, Stan Gronthos, Andrew C. W. Zannettino 2018 Australian Catholic University

Mtorc1 Plays An Important Role In Osteoblastic Regulation Of B-Lymphopoiesis, Sally K. Martin, Stephen Fitter, Nadia El Khawanky, Randall H. Grose, Carl Walkley, Louise E. Purton, Markus A. Ruegg, Michael N. Hall, Stan Gronthos, Andrew C. W. Zannettino

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Skeletal osteoblasts are important regulators of B-lymphopoiesis, serving as a rich source of factors such as CXCL12 and IL-7 which are crucial for B-cell development. Recent studies from our laboratory and others have shown that deletion of Rptor, a unique component of the mTORC1 nutrient-sensing complex, early in the osteoblast lineage development results in defective bone development in mice. In this study, we now demonstrate that mTORC1 signalling in pre-osteoblasts is required for normal B-lymphocyte development in mice. Targeted deletion of Rptor in osterix-expressing pre-osteoblasts (Rptorob−/−) leads to a significant reduction in the number of B-cells in the bone marrow ...


Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy 2017 University of New Orleans

Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...


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Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler 2017 Seton Hall University

Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), constituents of crude oil, are implicated as a potent source of adverse toxicological effects on living organisms. To model the effects of PAHs in response to environmental oil spill disasters a species of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was captured and exposed to crude oil in a laboratory-controlled setting. Over a period of 7 days, fish were dosed with crude oil by gavage, culled, and organs were harvested for analysis. Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) of gall bladder tissue homogenates was used to verify exposure. Effects of PAHs on the p53 gene were evaluated as an indicator of genotoxicity ...


Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer

Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic changes resulting from altered hydrology, hurricanes, variable precipitation, and the BP oil spill have all taken their toll on oyster reefs in Mississippi. In response, oyster reef restoration efforts are currently underway within the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand why these efforts succeed or fail, it is crucial to consider predator-prey relationships within the context of the trophic dynamics of oyster reefs. Thus, for this dissertation study I integrated a multidisciplinary approach to understanding key trophic interactions affecting oyster recruitment, growth and survival, comprising field sampling, manipulative lab experiments, and individual-based modeling. Spat settlement ...


Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway

Dissertations

Bottlenose dolphins are an important species of interest because they possess a variety of abilities that are relatively rare in the animal kingdom, one being complex acoustic communication. Signature whistles - distinctive calls that are unique for each individual – are one of the most studied call types, but we know little about how these calls are used in various contexts, such as during an introduction. Looking at the socio-behavioral context in which signature whistles are used is likely the best way of learning how these whistles are used in a particular context (Caldwell, Caldwell, & Tyack, 1990). For this project, the behavior ...


Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang 2017 Chapman University

Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels play essential roles in the regulation of cellular excitability and have been implicated in neurological and cardiovascular diseases through both animal model studies and human genetic association studies. Over the past two decades, positive modulators of SK channels such as NS309 and 1-EBIO have been developed. Our previous structural studies have identified the binding pocket of 1-EBIO and NS309 that is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. In this study, we took advantage of four compounds with potencies varying over three orders of magnitude, including 1-EBIO, NS309, SKS-11 (6-bromo-5-methyl-1H-indole-2 ...


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