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Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Background: Even after several decades of human drug development, there remains an absence of published, substantial, comprehensive data to validate the use of animals in preclinical drug testing, and to point to their predictive nature with regard to human safety/toxicity and efficacy. Two recent papers, authored by pharmaceutical industry scientists, added to the few substantive publications that exist. In this brief article, we discuss both these papers, as well as our own series of three papers on the subject, and also various views and criticisms of lobby groups that advocate the animal testing of new drugs.

Main text: We ...


Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

Background: Even after several decades of human drug development, there remains an absence of published, substantial, comprehensive data to validate the use of animals in preclinical drug testing, and to point to their predictive nature with regard to human safety/toxicity and efficacy. Two recent papers, authored by pharmaceutical industry scientists, added to the few substantive publications that exist. In this brief article, we discuss both these papers, as well as our own series of three papers on the subject, and also various views and criticisms of lobby groups that advocate the animal testing of new drugs.

Main text: We ...


Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Julie K. DeMartini, Rebecca L. Stearns, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh 2019 University of Connecticut

Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Julie K. Demartini, Rebecca L. Stearns, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. Distefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh

All PTHMS Faculty Publications

Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH). Exercise was 90 ...


Exogenous Carbohydrases Added To A Starter Diet Reduced Markers Of Systemic Immune Activation And Decreased Lactobacillus In Weaned Pigs, Qingyun Li, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Crystal L. Loving, Nicholas K. Gabler, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience 2019 Iowa State University

Exogenous Carbohydrases Added To A Starter Diet Reduced Markers Of Systemic Immune Activation And Decreased Lactobacillus In Weaned Pigs, Qingyun Li, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Crystal L. Loving, Nicholas K. Gabler, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Although the impact of carbohydrases on performance and nutrient utilization has been well studied, their effects on immune status and intestinal microbiota are less known in pigs. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of xylanase (X) and a carbohydrase enzyme blend (EB; cellulase, ß-glucanase, and xylanase) on the immune profile of the intestine and peripheral system as well as intestinal microbes and microbial metabolites of weaned pigs fed higher fiber diets. Pigs (n = 460; 6.43 ± 0.06 kg BW; F25 × 6.0 Genetiporc) were blocked by initial BW. Pens (n = 48; 12 per treatment; 9 or 10 pigs ...


Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon 2019 University of Liverpool

Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon

Experimental Research and Animal Welfare Collection

The ability to assess welfare is an important refinement that will ensure the good condition of animals used in experimentation. The present study investigated the impact of invasive procedures on the patterns of movement of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Recordings were made before and after fin clipping, PIT tagging and a standard pain test and these were compared with control and sham handled zebrafish. The fractal dimension (FD) from the 3D trajectories was calculated to determine the effect of these treatments on the complexity of movement patterns. While the FD of zebrafish trajectories did not differ over time in either the ...


No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez

Open Access Articles

Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4. Since SHIV envelope proteins (Envs) are derived from HIV-1, we tested more than 100 HIV-1 clade B Envs for infection of CD4-negative, CCR5(+) Cf2Th/CCR5 cells. However, no infection was ...


Life Line - February 2019, Otterbein Biology and Earth Science Department 2019 Otterbein University

Life Line - February 2019, Otterbein Biology And Earth Science Department

Life Line - The Biology Department Newsletter

Curricular Changes, Dr. Young's Sabbatical, Coal, Gas & Oil - Geology trip to eastern Ohio, Rebekah Perry is engaging the community in natural history, Student Research, Fem in STEM, Zoo students on Belize Trip, Scientific Art


Fluoxetine-Induced Alteration Of Murine Gut Microbial Community Structure: Evidence For A Microbial Endocrinology-Based Mechanism Of Action Responsible For Fluoxetine-Induced Side Effects, Mark Lyte, Karrie M. Daniels, Stephan Schmitz-Esser 2019 Iowa State University

Fluoxetine-Induced Alteration Of Murine Gut Microbial Community Structure: Evidence For A Microbial Endocrinology-Based Mechanism Of Action Responsible For Fluoxetine-Induced Side Effects, Mark Lyte, Karrie M. Daniels, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

Background. Depression and major depressive disorder affect 25% of the population. First line treatment utilizing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have met with limited success due to well-recognized negative side effects which include weight gain or loss. This inability to control unwanted side effects often result in patients stopping their antidepressant medications. The mechanisms underlying the failure of SSRIs are incompletely understood.

Methods. Male CF-1 mice (5 weeks of age, N D 10 per group) were per orally administered fluoxetine (20 mg per kg body weight) or diluent daily for 29 days. During this time fecal specimens were collected at ...


Estudio Retrospectivo Del Diagnóstico Histopatológico De Enfermedades Enterocolíticas En Caninos En El Período 2013 – 2017 De La Empresa Corpavet, Daniela González Pardo, Andrea Guzmán Botia 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Estudio Retrospectivo Del Diagnóstico Histopatológico De Enfermedades Enterocolíticas En Caninos En El Período 2013 – 2017 De La Empresa Corpavet, Daniela González Pardo, Andrea Guzmán Botia

Medicina Veterinaria

Las enfermedades entéricas agudas y crónicas en caninos son comunes en nuestro medio y causan signos clínicos tales como el vómito, diarrea y otros como la anorexia y pérdida de peso los cuales serán evidentes para el propietario y serán el motivo de consulta de nuestros pacientes. (Allenspach et, al 2008, Washabau. et, al, 2010). Sin embargo para la clínica estos signos son poco específicos puesto que hay un gran número de posibilidades a nivel diagnóstico, por lo cual el clínico deberá comenzar a clasificar las características dichos signos. Cuando se trata de encontrar el origen de la diarrea se ...


Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

Basic and applied laboratory research, whenever intrusive or invasive, presents substantial ethical challenges for ethical committees, be it with human beings or with non-human animals. In this paper we discuss the use of non-human primates (NHPs), mostly as animal models, in laboratory based research. We examine the two ethical frameworks that support current legislation and guidelines: deontology and utilitarianism. While human based research is regulated under deontological principles, guidelines for laboratory animal research rely on utilitarianism. We argue that the utilitarian framework is inadequate for this purpose: on the one hand, it is almost impossible to accurately predict the benefits ...


Human Wrongs In Animal Research: A Focus On Moral Injury And Reification, Jane Johnson, Anna Smajdor 2019 University of Sydney

Human Wrongs In Animal Research: A Focus On Moral Injury And Reification, Jane Johnson, Anna Smajdor

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

Using arguments derived from the work of Axel Honneth (2006), we show that animal research involves an institutionalized failure to recognize nonhuman animals that not only reifies animals but the human persons engaged in this process, diminishing the scope of their moral agency and causing moral injury. In this chapter, we begin by briefly articulating the harms to animals in research and the more conventional harms to humans that can arise as a result of animal research, before making a case for the ethical damage wrought by the failures of recognition inherent within the system of animal research. We conclude ...


Beyond Plausibility Checks: A Case For Moral Doubt In Review Processes Of Animal Experimentation, Mara-Daria Cojocaru, Philipp von Gall 2019 Munich School of Philosophy

Beyond Plausibility Checks: A Case For Moral Doubt In Review Processes Of Animal Experimentation, Mara-Daria Cojocaru, Philipp Von Gall

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

The fact that countries all over the world continue to develop new regulations for experimentation on non-human animals testament that this practice raises many doubts. Our aim in this chapter is to show that one important type of doubt should receive more attention: a particular type of moral doubt that could play a pivotal role in the ethical review of animal experiments. We assume that there are a range of emotions that indicate morally complex or problematic situations. When one or all of these emotions are experienced, we say that someone is experiencing moral doubt. To illustrate this point, we ...


Ethics, Efficacy, And Decision-Making In Animal Research, Lawrence A. Hansen, Kori Ann Kosberg 2019 University of California - San Diego

Ethics, Efficacy, And Decision-Making In Animal Research, Lawrence A. Hansen, Kori Ann Kosberg

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

Few would disagree with the ethical contention that if cruelty to animals is not wrong, then nothing is wrong. In fact, it is not only wrong, but in most states in the us, it is a crime, a felony no less. And yet, intentionally inflicting pain and suffering upon animals, which meets Webster’s definition of cruelty, is routinely countenanced when vivisection (from the Latin vivi, to be alive, and secare, to cut) is performed under license for biomedical research. Deciding to embrace, or reject, or limit animal research demands our best ethical judgment; and it is complicated by factual ...


Behavioral Research On Captive Animals: Scientific And Ethical Concerns, Kimberley Jayne, Adam See 2019 Animal Defenders International

Behavioral Research On Captive Animals: Scientific And Ethical Concerns, Kimberley Jayne, Adam See

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

The first half of this chapter focuses exclusively on animals that are used in laboratory behavioral research to model wild behavior, what is typically involved, problems associated with this practice, and how behavioral research has revealed scientific problems in the animal model. The second half of this chapter then addresses the ethical questions of whether scientific curiosity of animal behavior in general provides any justification for carrying out this research in this first place, with specific focus on non-human primates (nhps).


The Moral Status Of Animal Research Subjects In Industry: A Stakeholder Analysis, Sarah Kenehan 2019 Marywood University

The Moral Status Of Animal Research Subjects In Industry: A Stakeholder Analysis, Sarah Kenehan

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

The use of non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) in research and testing is a widely accepted practice in many industries. Millions of animals each year are subjected to painful procedures that include everything from physical mutilation to drug addiction. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (usda), over 820,812 animals were experimented on in the United States in 2016 (usda, 2017), though this count does not include rats, mice, or birds, and dubiously relies solely on the self-reporting of laboratories (Humane Society of the United States, 2011; Keen, 2019, Chapter 10 in this Volume). Estimates suggest ...


The Scientific Problems With Using Non-Human Animals To Predict Human Response To Drugs And Disease, Ray Greek, Lisa A. Kramer 2019 Americans For Medical Advancement

The Scientific Problems With Using Non-Human Animals To Predict Human Response To Drugs And Disease, Ray Greek, Lisa A. Kramer

Pharmacology and Animal Models in Research Collection

Every year, and in countries around the world, significant time and resources are devoted to the noble cause of developing drugs to treat and cure human disease. With rare exception, drug interventions cannot reach commercialization without safety and efficacy having first been demonstrated in animal models. The intention of regulations, which require the use of animal models in such contexts, is to ensure that only safe and effective drugs end up being used by patients. Similarly, it is standard practice for researchers to employ animal models in their attempts to understand the way diseases present and progress in humans. Unfortunately ...


Modernizing Biomedical Training: Replacing Live Animal Laboratories With Human Simulation, John Pawlowski, David Feinstein, Marie L. Crandall, Shalin Gala 2019 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Modernizing Biomedical Training: Replacing Live Animal Laboratories With Human Simulation, John Pawlowski, David Feinstein, Marie L. Crandall, Shalin Gala

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research Collection

This chapter reviews the global trend towards a modernization of biomedical education in favor of simulation-based training methods, which studies confirm improve student learning and transference of applied skills to clinical practice, reduce laboratory costs, and spare animals from harmful procedures.


Wasted Money In United States Biomedical And Agricultural Animal Research, Jim Keen 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Wasted Money In United States Biomedical And Agricultural Animal Research, Jim Keen

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research Collection

Biomedical and agricultural animal research uses millions of experimental animals and dozens of animal species each year by choice, precedent, or regulatory mandate in basic and applied life science research and toxicity testing of drugs, chemicals, and consumer products. Animal research is a large component of the international us$270 billion government-subsidized, biomedical industrial ecosystem (Chakma et al., 2014). In the United States (us) and presumably elsewhere, about half of these funds support animal research and testing (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2012). Each year at least 115 million experimental animals (mostly mice and likely a significant underestimate ...


Animal Research For Alzheimer Disease: Failures Of Science And Ethics, John J. Pippin, Sarah E. Cavanaugh, Francesca Pistollato 2019 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Animal Research For Alzheimer Disease: Failures Of Science And Ethics, John J. Pippin, Sarah E. Cavanaugh, Francesca Pistollato

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research Collection

This chapter addresses the epidemiology and current understanding of AD as a scientific and societal challenge, reviews the uses and results of animal research in basic science and drug development, and discusses risk factors and funding. Important follow-up topics, including current and in-development, human-relevant approaches for replacement of the failed animal research paradigm, deserve comparable treatment and hence are not addressed here. The reader is referred to the list of recommended readings at the end of the chapter for further discussion of these topics.


Extrapolation Of Animal Research Data To Humans: An Analysis Of The Evidence, Rebecca Ram 2019 Clinical Data Management and Scientific Research Consultant

Extrapolation Of Animal Research Data To Humans: An Analysis Of The Evidence, Rebecca Ram

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

The ethical arguments against animal experimentation remain ever-strong. In addition, the scientific case against the use of animals in research grows more compelling, with exponential progress in the development of alternative methods and new research technologies. The Dutch authorities recently announced an ambitious, but welcome, proposal to phase out “the use of laboratory animals in regulatory safety testing of chemicals, food ingredients, pesticides and (veterinary) medicines” by 2025, as well as “the use of laboratory animals for the release of biological products, such as vaccines” (Netherlands National Committee for the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, NCad, 2016, p ...


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