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Impact Of Increasing The Levels Of Insoluble Fiber And On The Method Of Diet Formulation Measures Of Energy And Nutrient Digestibility In Growing Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, Hans S. Stein, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Impact Of Increasing The Levels Of Insoluble Fiber And On The Method Of Diet Formulation Measures Of Energy And Nutrient Digestibility In Growing Pigs, Jesus A. Acosta, Hans S. Stein, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in response to distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) level under constant nutrient or floating nutrient concentrations. A total of 21 ileal-cannulated gilts (33.1 ± 0.4 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to one of seven dietary treatments in a 3-period incomplete Latin square design (n = 9). Treatments consisted of a 0% DDGS basal diet, plus diets containing 15%, 30%, or 45% DDGS. Diets were formulated using one of two different formulation methods: 1) constant nutrient (CNU) where nutrients were held equal to the basal diet or 2) constant ...


From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and one of few cancers with a growing incidence. A thorough understanding of its pathogenesis is fundamental to developing new strategies to combat mortality and morbidity. Zebrafish-due in large part to their tractable genetics, conserved pathways, and optical properties-have emerged as an excellent system to model melanoma. Zebrafish have been used to study melanoma from a single tumor initiating cell, through metastasis, remission, and finally into relapse. In this review, we examine seminal zebrafish studies that have advanced our understanding of melanoma.


Nutritional Approaches To Reduce Growth Rates And Feed Intake, Nicholas Gabler, John Patience, Laura Greiner, Jason Ross 2020 Iowa State University

Nutritional Approaches To Reduce Growth Rates And Feed Intake, Nicholas Gabler, John Patience, Laura Greiner, Jason Ross

Animal Science Publications

In recent weeks, the COVID-19 pandemic has created massive direct and indirect fall-out for U.S. pork producers. Primarily, this has been a consequence of supply chain disruptions and the loss of packing plant capacity. As such, producers are having to adjust pig flows and growth of finishing pigs to accommodate altered marketing strategies. Typically, producers aim to optimize grow-finish pig growth rates and feed intake to maximize pig performance and profitability.


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith 2020 University of Mississippi

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque 2020 University of Mississippi

Impacts Of Embryonic Exposure To Cannabidiol Or ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Frailty In F0 And F1 Generations, Anika Faruque

Honors Theses

Exposure to cannabinoids during critical development periods has increased with epileptic children being commonly prescribed CBD for seizures and pregnant women taking it recreationally. Many studies have been done on the possible benefits and drawbacks of cannabinoid exposure on the human brain, but not much is known about how it can affect the developing brain long-term. To see the potential adverse effects of cannabinoid exposure during critical stages of development and discover potential developmental origins of disease in consuming cannabinoids during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos (6-96 hours post fertilization) were exposed to varying concentrations of CBD (0.02, 0.1, 0 ...


Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgically Instrumented Sprague-Dawley Rats, Gianna Mangone 2020 James Madison University

Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgically Instrumented Sprague-Dawley Rats, Gianna Mangone

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Based on current guidelines for housing rodents after surgical instrumentation, rodents may be housed at temperatures that hinder surgical recovery and cause thermal stress– room temperature (21°C) being one of them. Rodents are often housed at room temperature since this temperature is easy for humans to be caring for them. However, if recovering rodents are thermally stressed, experimental results will be confounded. To address this issue, Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically instrumented with radiotelemtry thermoprobes (Data Sciences, #TA-10F40) to monitor their core temperatures, then housed at one of five temperatures to assess the effect ambient temperature had on multiple aspects ...


The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman 2020 Bowling Green State University

The Ability Of Thaumoctopus Mimicus To Be Operantly Conditioned To A Sound Stimulus, Stephanie Wittman

Honors Projects

This paper focuses on the ability of the mimic octopus Thaumoctopus mimicus to be operantly conditioned to an auditory stimulus. The octopus is known to be the most advanced of the invertebrates and has learning abilities that are comparable to vertebrates in spite of their differences in brain structure. These animals have been shown to react to visual and tactile stimuli and can be operantly conditioned to perform behaviors to obtain a food reward. The goal of this experiment is to determine whether the octopus can be operantly conditioned to swim into a box on the side of its tank ...


Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna 2020 University of Connecticut

Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna

Honors Scholar Theses

Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...


Amplification And Potential Transformation Of Human Syntaxin-17 Into Model E. Coli, Taylor H. Gore 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Amplification And Potential Transformation Of Human Syntaxin-17 Into Model E. Coli, Taylor H. Gore

Honors Theses

Membrane fusion is key to organism homeostasis and occurs when a transport vesicle fuses with a target compartment, merging the two membranes into one while releasing the contents of the transport vesicle into the target compartment. This process is controlled by SNARE proteins. Syntaxin-17 protein plays a crucial role in the fusion of the autophagosome membrane with the lysosome membrane, allowing for degradation of misfolded intracellular components and pathogens. Intriguingly, Syntaxin 17 has been identified as a target of herpesvirus tegument proteins, although the pathological significance of the Syntaxin 17 and tegument protein interaction is unclear. As a first step ...


Lesioning Of The Nucleus Of The Hippocampal Commissure Followed By Food Deprivation Stress In Birds Demonstrates Simultaneous Involvement In Both The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis And The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Michael Thomas Kidd Jr. 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Lesioning Of The Nucleus Of The Hippocampal Commissure Followed By Food Deprivation Stress In Birds Demonstrates Simultaneous Involvement In Both The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis And The Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Michael Thomas Kidd Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the regulatory system for the neuroendocrine stress response within vertebrates. Within the HPA axis corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a major regulator and driving hormone. A structure named the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC) has been found to contain CRH neurons and also these neurons respond to early food deprivation stress significantly prior to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the major driving nucleus of the classic neuroendocrine HPA axis. The objective of this study was to perform a knock down of the NHpC via electrolytic lesioning, thus eliminating a significant portion of its population of ...


Effects Of Lasalocid And Energy Supplementation On Forage Intake, Energy Metabolism, And Performance Of Cattle Grazing Wheat Pasture, Autumn Tayler Pickett 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Lasalocid And Energy Supplementation On Forage Intake, Energy Metabolism, And Performance Of Cattle Grazing Wheat Pasture, Autumn Tayler Pickett

Theses and Dissertations

Cattle grazing wheat pasture have the potential to gain BW exceptionally well, but excessive nitrogen intake results in increased excretion and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Supplemental concentrates with the addition of an ionophore given to ruminants grazing wheat is a potential practice for producers to increase nitrogen efficiency while decreasing GHG emissions. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of energy (2.95 kg/d) and lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d) supplementation on nutrient intake, energy metabolism, respiratory gas fluxes, and performance of grazing cattle. Methane emissions were not affected (P = 0.58) by treatment ...


Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Therapies In A Fall Calving Beef Cowherd, Laine Zammit 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Therapies In A Fall Calving Beef Cowherd, Laine Zammit

Theses and Dissertations

Internal parasitism inevitability prompts economic loss in beef cattle production by decreasing growth performance and reproductive traits. Today, the most widely used class of anthelmintic used to treat parasitism, is the macrocyclic lactone. Many studies have conflicting results on the efficacy of macrocyclic lactones (ML) efficacy against internal parasitism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of moxidectin and eprinomectin, two of the MLs, on cow performance. Multiparous fall calving, crossbred beef cows (n = 106) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 anthelmintic treatments: 1) Negative control (CON), in which cows did not receive an anthelmintic, 2 ...


Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page

Theses and Dissertations

Reproductive performance is crucial for sustained financial success in the beef cattle industry. This dissertation includes a population study that quantified the incidence of Neospora caninum infections in the central region of the United States and tested its relationship with reproductive performance in beef cattle. Trial one of that study concluded that 6.9% of open, replacement heifers (n = 1306) tested seropositive. The second trial in that project found that 9.6% of the breeding age females (n = 500) tested were seropositive for Neospora caninum; and that state in which the cattle lived and age impacted (P < 0.05) infection rate. Breed composition, number of farm dogs on the ranch, and use of total mixed rations were not associated (P > 0.1) with ...


A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin J. Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Rui Chen, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. McGuinness, Alexander S. Banks 2020 Harvard Medical School

A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin J. Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Rui Chen, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. Mcguinness, Alexander S. Banks

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Maintaining a healthy body weight requires an exquisite balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. To understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the regulation of body weight, an important first step is to establish the normal range of metabolic values and primary sources contributing to variability. Energy metabolism is measured by powerful and sensitive indirect calorimetry devices. Analysis of nearly 10,000 wild-type mice from two large-scale experiments revealed that the largest variation in energy expenditure is due to body composition, ambient temperature, and institutional site of experimentation. We also analyze variation in 2329 knockout strains and ...


Evaluation Of Microbiome On Chicken Necrotic Enteritis And Growth Performance, Mussie Abraha 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Microbiome On Chicken Necrotic Enteritis And Growth Performance, Mussie Abraha

Theses and Dissertations

Necrotic enteritis (NE) has re-emerged following restriction of antimicrobial usage and costs $6 billion every year worldwide. The primary objective of the studies was to evaluate prevention and treatment of NE using a microbiota metabolic product, secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), in drinking water. Day-old birds were tagged and placed in floor pens. In experiments 1 and 2, the birds were infected with Eimeria maxima (Em) at d 18 and C. perfringens at d 23 and 24 and the birds were euthanized at d 26. In experiment 3, birds were infected with Eimeria at d 20 and C. perfringens ...


Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K (Hnrnp K) Overexpression And Its Interaction With Runx1 Rna In Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Marisa Aitken 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K (Hnrnp K) Overexpression And Its Interaction With Runx1 Rna In Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Marisa Aitken

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an often devastating hematologic malignancy with 5-year overall survival lingering near 20%. Acquiring a deeper understanding of molecular underpinnings of leukemogenesis will provide a basis for developing more effective therapeutic strategies for patients with AML.

Here, we identified overexpression of hnRNP K as a recurrent abnormality in a subset (~20%) of AML patients. High levels of this RNA-binding protein associated with inferior clinical outcomes in de novo AML. Thus, to evaluate its putative oncogenic capacity in myeloid disease, we overexpressed hnRNP K in murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells isolated from fetal liver cells (FLCs ...


Behavioral Response Of Weaned Pigs During Gas Euthanasia With Co2, Co2 With Butorphanol, Or Nitrous Oxide, Enver Çavuşoğlu, Jean-Loup Rault, Richard Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr. 2020 Bursa Uludag University

Behavioral Response Of Weaned Pigs During Gas Euthanasia With Co2, Co2 With Butorphanol, Or Nitrous Oxide, Enver Çavuşoğlu, Jean-Loup Rault, Richard Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr.

Animal Science Publications

The swine industry is often forced to euthanize pigs in the first few weeks of life due to injuries, hernias, or unthriftiness. The majority of pigs are euthanized using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas asphyxiation but concerns as to the humaneness of CO2 are increasing. This study compared the euthanasia of weaned pigs using N2O (N2O; n = 9) or CO2 (n = 9), at 50% and 25% min−1 exchange rate, respectively. In addition, we administered an analgesic prior to euthanasia with CO2 (CO2B) exposure as a third treatment (n = 9) to ...


Dietary Soluble And Insoluble Fiber With Or Without Enzymes Altered The Intestinal Microbiota In Weaned Pigs Challenged With Enterotoxigenic E. Coli F18, Qingyun Li, Xiyu Peng, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Stacie A. Gould, Nicholas K. Gabler, Crystal L. Loving, Karin Dorman, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Dietary Soluble And Insoluble Fiber With Or Without Enzymes Altered The Intestinal Microbiota In Weaned Pigs Challenged With Enterotoxigenic E. Coli F18, Qingyun Li, Xiyu Peng, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Stacie A. Gould, Nicholas K. Gabler, Crystal L. Loving, Karin Dorman, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Post-weaning diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) causes significant economic losses for pig producers. This study was to test the hypotheses that an ETEC challenge disrupts intestinal microbial homeostasis and the inclusion of dietary soluble (10% sugar beet pulp) or insoluble fiber (15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles) with or without exogenous carbohydrases will protect or restore the gut microbial homeostasis in weaned pigs. Sixty crossbred piglets (6.9 ± 0.1 kg) were blocked by body weight and randomly assigned to one of six treatments (n = 10), including a non-challenged control (NC), ETEC F18-challenged positive control (PC), ETEC-challenged ...


Ctrp3 And Alcoholic Liver Disease In Female Mice, Callie Root 2020 East Tennessee State University

Ctrp3 And Alcoholic Liver Disease In Female Mice, Callie Root

Undergraduate Honors Theses

C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3), is a cytokine that is primarily secreted from adipose tissue, which classifies it as an adipokine. Our previous research has shown that CTRP3 prevents alcoholic fatty liver disease (ALD) in male mice. However, even when accounting for confounding factors such as absolute and relative alcohol intake, females are more sensitive to the effects of consumption compared to male mice. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine whether CTRP3 prevented ALD in female mice. Methods: Female wild type (WT) and female CTRP3 transgenic over expressing (Tg) mice were fed an ethanol containing liquid ...


Effects Of An F18 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Challenge On Growth Performance, Immunological Status, And Gastrointestinal Structure Of Weaned Pigs And The Potential Protective Effect Of Direct-Fed Microbial Blends, Spenser L. Becker, Qingyun Li, Eric R. Burrough, Danielle Kenne, Orhan Sahin, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience 2020 Iowa State University

Effects Of An F18 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Challenge On Growth Performance, Immunological Status, And Gastrointestinal Structure Of Weaned Pigs And The Potential Protective Effect Of Direct-Fed Microbial Blends, Spenser L. Becker, Qingyun Li, Eric R. Burrough, Danielle Kenne, Orhan Sahin, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the impact of an F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge on growth performance, aspects of intestinal function, and selected immune responses of piglets, as well as to evaluate potential protective effects of direct-fed microbial (DFM) blends. Seventy-two weaned piglets (6.4 ± 0.2 kg body weight [BW]; ~21 d of age) were assigned to one of four treatments: 1) NC: Nonchallenged (n = 10), 2) positive challenged control (PC): F18 ETEC-challenged (n = 10), 3) PC + DFM1 (n = 8; three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; 7.5 × 105 colony-forming units [cfu]/g), or 4) PC ...


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