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Critical Evaluation Of The Use Of Dogs In Biomedical Research And Testing In Europe, Nina Hasiwa, Jarrod Bailey, Peter Clausing, Mardas Daneshian, Sándor Farkas, István Gyertyán, Robert Hubrecht, Werner Kobel, Goran Krummenacher, Marcel Leist, Hannes Lohi, Adám Miklósi, Frauke Ohl, Klaus Olejniczak, Georg Schmitt, Patrick Sinnett-Smith, David Smith, Kristina Wagner, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung 2019 University of Konstanz

Critical Evaluation Of The Use Of Dogs In Biomedical Research And Testing In Europe, Nina Hasiwa, Jarrod Bailey, Peter Clausing, Mardas Daneshian, Sándor Farkas, István Gyertyán, Robert Hubrecht, Werner Kobel, Goran Krummenacher, Marcel Leist, Hannes Lohi, Adám Miklósi, Frauke Ohl, Klaus Olejniczak, Georg Schmitt, Patrick Sinnett-Smith, David Smith, Kristina Wagner, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Thomas Hartung

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Dogs are sometimes referred to as “man’s best friend” and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea that the intrinsic value of all animals is the same, and that also several other animal species are used in biomedical research and toxicology. This aspect and many others are discussed in an introductory chapter dealing with ethical considerations on the use ...


Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Background: Even after several decades of human drug development, there remains an absence of published, substantial, comprehensive data to validate the use of animals in preclinical drug testing, and to point to their predictive nature with regard to human safety/toxicity and efficacy. Two recent papers, authored by pharmaceutical industry scientists, added to the few substantive publications that exist. In this brief article, we discuss both these papers, as well as our own series of three papers on the subject, and also various views and criticisms of lobby groups that advocate the animal testing of new drugs.

Main text: We ...


Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Julie K. DeMartini, Rebecca L. Stearns, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh 2019 University of Connecticut

Heat Exposure And Hypohydration Exacerbate Physiological Strain During Load Carrying, Elizabeth L. Adams, Douglas J. Casa, Robert A. Huggins, Julie K. Demartini, Rebecca L. Stearns, Rachel M. Kennedy, Lindsay J. Distefano, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh

All PTHMS Faculty Publications

Heat exposure and hypohydration induce physiological and psychological strain during exercise; however, it is unknown if the separate effects of heat exposure and hypohydration are synergistic when co-occurring during loaded exercise. This study compared separate and combined effects of heat exposure and hypohydration on physiological strain, mood state, and visual vigilance during loaded exercise. Twelve males (mean±SD; age, 20±2 years; body mass, 74.0±8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 57.0±6.0 mLkg-1min-1) completed 4 trials under the following conditions: euhydrated temperate (EUT), hypohydrated temperate (HYT), euhydrated hot (EUH), and hypohydrated hot (HYH). Exercise was 90 ...


Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey 2019 Cruelty Free International

Recent Efforts To Elucidate The Scientific Validity Of Animal-Based Drug Tests By The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pro-Testing Lobby Groups, And Animal Welfare Organisations, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation Collection

Background: Even after several decades of human drug development, there remains an absence of published, substantial, comprehensive data to validate the use of animals in preclinical drug testing, and to point to their predictive nature with regard to human safety/toxicity and efficacy. Two recent papers, authored by pharmaceutical industry scientists, added to the few substantive publications that exist. In this brief article, we discuss both these papers, as well as our own series of three papers on the subject, and also various views and criticisms of lobby groups that advocate the animal testing of new drugs.

Main text: We ...


Life Line - February 2019, Otterbein University 2019 Otterbein University

Life Line - February 2019, Otterbein University

Life Line - The Biology Department Newsletter

Curricular Changes, Dr. Young's Sabbatical, Coal, Gas & Oil - Geology trip to eastern Ohio, Rebekah Perry is engaging the community in natural history, Student Research, Fem in STEM, Zoo students on Belize Trip, Scientific Art


No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

No Detection Of Cd4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoproteins In Brain Tissue Of Patients With Or Without Neurological Complications, Briana Quitadamo, Paul J. Peters, Matthew Koch, Katherine Luzuriaga, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Paul R. Clapham, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez

Open Access Articles

Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4. Since SHIV envelope proteins (Envs) are derived from HIV-1, we tested more than 100 HIV-1 clade B Envs for infection of CD4-negative, CCR5(+) Cf2Th/CCR5 cells. However, no infection was ...


Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins 2019 Central Washington University

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel ...


Cold Tolerance, Temperature Mediated Discontinuous Gas Exchange, And Emergence Of The Blue Orchard Mason Bee (Osmia Lignaria), Logan Kral 2019 Central Washington University

Cold Tolerance, Temperature Mediated Discontinuous Gas Exchange, And Emergence Of The Blue Orchard Mason Bee (Osmia Lignaria), Logan Kral

All Master's Theses

The relationship between low temperatures, emergence and supercooling point of Osmia lignaria were the subject of this study. One hundred sixty-eight bees were subjected to 5 pre-wintering temperature treatments (two constant temperature controls - 22oC, 14oC, one of which with and one without a 12h photoperiod, and three 12h:12h thermoperiod treatments – 14:10oC, 14:5oC, and 14:0oC) and were then evaluated in terms of emergence time and post-emergence vigor. An additional 70 bees were tested for metabolic rate and discontinuous gas exchange in response to test temperature conditions. An ...


Optimization Of Primary Cilia Detection In Musculoskeletal Tissue, Ragen Engel 2019 The University of Akron

Optimization Of Primary Cilia Detection In Musculoskeletal Tissue, Ragen Engel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The objective of this research project was to optimize a laboratory technique for visualizing primary cilia in musculoskeletal tissue of young swine, specifically the growth plate of long bones. This was accomplished through varying fixation procedures, antigen retrieval methods, antibody concentrations, and incubation times. By varying these parameters, a reproducible procedure was developed to examine the primary cilia in multiple tissues including ligament, fascia, and growth plate. This experiment introduced variances in fixation methods, with methanol or formalin. Paraffin and frozen embedding techniques were also varied for comparison with regards to cilia visualization. Results from the acetylated alpha tubulin (aTUB ...


Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Molecular Targets Of Psychedelics And Their Role In Behavioral Models Of Hallucinogenic Action, Hiba Z. Vohra

Theses and Dissertations

Psychedelics are a subset of hallucinogenic drugs that exert their characteristic effects through agonist activity at the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A). In this study, I aimed to characterize the modulatory role of the metabotropic glutamate subtype 2 receptor (mGluR2) in the 5-HT2A-specific rodent model of hallucinogenic action, head-twitch response (HTR). Secondly, I aimed to explore if 5-HT2A agonist-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, an additional model of hallucinogenic action, could be produced in mice. Though 5-HT2A agonist-induced PPI deficits, which represent interruptions in normal sensorimotor gating, have been described in both ...


Probability Discounting Of Lewis And Fischer 344 Rats: Strain Comparisons At Baseline And Following Acute Administration Of D-Amphetamine, Jenny E. Ozga 2019 West Virginia University

Probability Discounting Of Lewis And Fischer 344 Rats: Strain Comparisons At Baseline And Following Acute Administration Of D-Amphetamine, Jenny E. Ozga

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Risky choice can be defined as choice for a larger, uncertain reinforcer over a smaller, certain reinforcer when choosing the smaller alternative maximizes reinforcement. Risky choice is studied using various procedures in the animal laboratory; one such procedure is called probability discounting. There are many variables that contribute to risky decision-making, including biological and pharmacological determinants. The present study assessed both of these variables by evaluating dose-response effects of d-amphetamine on risky choice of Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The probability-discounting procedure included discrete-trials choices between one food pellet delivered 100% of the time and three food ...


Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente 2019 University of Lisbon, Portugal

Ethical And Scientific Pitfalls Concerning Laboratory Research With Non-Human Primates, And Possible Solutions, Constança Carvalho, Augusta Gaspar, Andrew Knight, Luís Vicente

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

Basic and applied laboratory research, whenever intrusive or invasive, presents substantial ethical challenges for ethical committees, be it with human beings or with non-human animals. In this paper we discuss the use of non-human primates (NHPs), mostly as animal models, in laboratory based research. We examine the two ethical frameworks that support current legislation and guidelines: deontology and utilitarianism. While human based research is regulated under deontological principles, guidelines for laboratory animal research rely on utilitarianism. We argue that the utilitarian framework is inadequate for this purpose: on the one hand, it is almost impossible to accurately predict the benefits ...


The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: Ii. Offspring Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Dietary Supplementation Of Arginine During Gestation In A Commercial Swine Herd: Ii. Offspring Performance, Elizabeth A. Hines, Matthew R. Romoser, Zoë E. Kiefer, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jarad Niemi, Benjamin Haberl, Noel H. Williams, Brian J. Kerr, Kevin J. Touchette, Jason W. Ross

Animal Science Publications

Arginine (Arg) is an important amino acid of pig fetal development; however, whether Arg improves postnatal performance is ill-defined. Therefore, the influence of Arg supplementation at different gestational stages on offspring performance was evaluated in a commercial swine herd. Sows (n = 548) were allocated into 4, diet by stage of gestation treatments: Control (n = 143; 0% suppl. Arg), or dietary treatments supplemented with 1% L-Arg (free-base; Ajinomoto Animal Nutrition North America, Inc., Chicago, IL): from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); 15 d of gestation to farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); and from day 85 of gestation to ...


Invited Review: Completeness Of Reporting Of Experiments: Reflecting On A Year Of Animal Trials In The Journal Of Dairy Science, Charlotte B. Winder, Katheryn J. Churchill, Jan M. Sargeant, Stephen J. LeBlanc, Annette M. O'Connor, David L. Renaud 2019 University of Guelph

Invited Review: Completeness Of Reporting Of Experiments: Reflecting On A Year Of Animal Trials In The Journal Of Dairy Science, Charlotte B. Winder, Katheryn J. Churchill, Jan M. Sargeant, Stephen J. Leblanc, Annette M. O'Connor, David L. Renaud

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Reproducibility is an essential element of the scientific process, and it requires clear and complete reporting of study design, conduct, and analysis. In the human and animal health literature, incomplete reporting is associated with biased effect estimates. Moreover, incomplete reporting precludes knowledge synthesis and undervalues the resources allocated to the primary research. The Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety (REFLECT) statement, published in 2010, is a checklist developed by expert consensus to provide guidance on what study elements should be reported in any intervention trial (designed experiment) involving livestock. The Journal of Dairy Science (JDS ...


Changes In Expression Of The Autophagy-Related Genes Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3Β And Autophagy Related 7 In Skeletal Muscle Of Fattening Japanese Black Cattle: A Pilot Study, Tomonori Nakanishi, Tadaaki Tokunaga, Takafumi Ishida, Ikuo Kobayashi, Yuta Katahama, Azusa Yano, Laurie Erickson, Satoshi Kawahara 2019 Hebrew Theological College

Changes In Expression Of The Autophagy-Related Genes Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3Β And Autophagy Related 7 In Skeletal Muscle Of Fattening Japanese Black Cattle: A Pilot Study, Tomonori Nakanishi, Tadaaki Tokunaga, Takafumi Ishida, Ikuo Kobayashi, Yuta Katahama, Azusa Yano, Laurie Erickson, Satoshi Kawahara

Hebrew Theological College Publications and Research

Objective

Autophagy is a bulk degradation system for intracellular proteins which contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis, according to previous studies in humans and rodents. However, there is a lack of information on the physiological role of autophagy in the skeletal muscle of meat animals. This study was planned as a pilot study to investigate changes in expression of two major autophagy-related genes, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (MAP1LC3B) and autophagy related 7 (ATG7) in fattening beef cattle, and to compare them with skeletal muscle growth.

Methods

Six castrated Japanese Black cattle (initial body weight: 503±20 kg) were enrolled ...


Modified Open-Field Test With Odor Search Stimulus: Anticipated Canine Motivation And Behavioral Outcomes Between Anxious And Non-Anxious Dogs, Savanna Bergeron 2019 Iowa State University

Modified Open-Field Test With Odor Search Stimulus: Anticipated Canine Motivation And Behavioral Outcomes Between Anxious And Non-Anxious Dogs, Savanna Bergeron

Creative Components

Fear is an emotion that is necessary to survive, but when it’s prolonged and frequent, it can cause suffering in both animals and humans. Fear and anxiety are interrelated; therefore, fear can cause anxiety and anxiety can cause fear. Treatments for anxiety behaviors are currently an ongoing process, in order to improve the mental health of the animal. This review is focused on trying to understand anxiety behaviors through the use of a modified open-field test. More specifically, an odor search stimulus is used in conjunction with dogs on L-DOPA treatments. Previous animal models, particularly the mouse and rat ...


Covers, 2019 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Upper Critical Limit Of The Thermoneutral Zone In Laboratory Mice, Teumbo Ngunte 2018 University of Maine

Assessing The Upper Critical Limit Of The Thermoneutral Zone In Laboratory Mice, Teumbo Ngunte

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endothermic organisms such as mammals and birds rely on high energy budgets to regulate body temperature. Many studies have previously investigated the thermo-regulation of mammals under the lower critical temperature of the thermoneutral zone, yet our knowledge in determining the upper critical limits is still scarce. As an endotherm, lab mice (Mus musculus) are perfect models to determine the cost to maintain constant body temperature as ambient temperature increases. The upper critical temperature of the thermoneutral zone of this species has been estimated to be above 32°C and below 34°C. By utilizing different genetic backgrounds of lab mice ...


Characterization And Functional Rescue Of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy With Megaconial Myopathy In A Mouse Model Of The Disease, Ambreen A. Sayed 2018 University of Maine

Characterization And Functional Rescue Of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy With Megaconial Myopathy In A Mouse Model Of The Disease, Ambreen A. Sayed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Congenital muscular dystrophy with megaconial myopathy (MDCMC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Megamitochondria in skeletal muscle biopsies and cognitive impairments in MDCMC patients are observations exclusive to this type of muscular dystrophy. The disease is caused by loss of function mutations in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene which results in dysfunction of the Kennedy pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). A rostro-caudal muscular dystrophy (rmd) mouse with a deletion in the Chkb gene resulting in MDCMC-like symptoms has been reported by our lab. In order to test if the rmd mice ...


Modeling Human Cancer Therapy Response In Patient Derived Xenografts, Joan Malcolm 2018 University of Maine

Modeling Human Cancer Therapy Response In Patient Derived Xenografts, Joan Malcolm

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Patient‐derived xenografts (PDXs) generated by implanting human tumor tissue into a transplant compliant mouse host have been of increasingly importance to preclinical development and have been demonstrated to have advantages compared to cancer cell lines and cell‐line xenografts (CLX) for modeling therapeutic responses in cancer. Nevertheless, many open questions remain regarding the relationship between study design factors and classification of treatment response and the molecular fidelity of tumors passaged in PDXs relative to the original patient tumor(s). The research described in this dissertation addresses both of these significant issues related to the use of PDXs as a ...


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