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Full-Text Articles in Research Methods in Life Sciences

Pathogenesis Of Dry Eye In Graft Versus Host Disease (Gvhd): Role Of Ocular Mucins And Conjunctival Fibrosis, Kiumars Shamloo May 2021

Pathogenesis Of Dry Eye In Graft Versus Host Disease (Gvhd): Role Of Ocular Mucins And Conjunctival Fibrosis, Kiumars Shamloo

Pharmaceutical Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a procedure that offers a possible cure for hematologic cancers and other hematologic disorders. Unfortunately, despite the increasing survival rate of patients, the quality of their life is adversely affected by the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation’s major side effect i.e Graft vs. Host Disease (GVHD). GVHD is a complex, multi-organ disease resulting from an immunological attack by donor engrafted immune cells to host organs, including the eye surface. Mostly based on the time of disease onset after transplantation, GVHD is divided into the acute and chronic phase. The eyes may be involved ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader May 2021

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Responses To Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Exposures In Two Wild-Type Zebrafish Strains, Connor Necaise May 2021

Responses To Fine Particulate Matter (Pm2.5) Exposures In Two Wild-Type Zebrafish Strains, Connor Necaise

Honors Theses

Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure poses great health risks across the globe, causing both acute and chronic illnesses in humans. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms in which PM2.5 induces these adverse health effects is urgently needed. Oxidative stress due to PAHs and other common components of PM2.5 is a proposed mechanism for its adverse health effects. However, little is known about the actual mechanisms of PM2.5 damage in humans. This study aimed to distinguish behavioral differences in two lines of zebrafish (AB & 5D) as a result of developmental ...


Particle Tracking Reveals Pelagic Red Crabs As Indicators Of Climate-Driven Range Expansion In The California Current, Elizabeth Saraf May 2021

Particle Tracking Reveals Pelagic Red Crabs As Indicators Of Climate-Driven Range Expansion In The California Current, Elizabeth Saraf

Senior Honors Projects

Since their first recorded occurrence in 1859, Pelagic Red Crabs (PRC; Pleuroncodes planipes) have experienced increased frequency of episodic mass stranding events in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. PRC’s are transported over 1,000 km northward of their central domain from the coast of central Baja California, Mexico. They have been reported by the thousands on the beaches of central and southern California. Their presence influences the surrounding ecosystem and commercial fisheries because they are nutritional prey items and large predators change their diet to incorporate PRC’s when they are available. Seasonal coastal currents and the California Undercurrent transport ...


The Evolution Of Mimicry; The Doublesex Gene, Aisha Hill Apr 2021

The Evolution Of Mimicry; The Doublesex Gene, Aisha Hill

Thinking Matters Symposium

Many butterfly species use mimicry in order to increase their chance of survival. In Batesian mimicry, non toxic butterflies mimic the wing patterns, colors, and shapes of another species that is toxic to predators. Swallowtail butterflies (Papilio polytes) are well-known Batesian mimics, and also display sexual dimorphism with distinct differences between the sexes. Sex limited mimicry is common. The female butterfly may mimic an inedible red-bodied swallowtail, such as the common rose (Pachliopta aristolochiae), or she may be non-mimetic. The male butterfly is non-mimetic. This is a review of recent research into the origin and evolution of gene(s) responsible ...


Validation Of A Novel Trpm8 Knockout Mouse Model, Bilan Mohamed Apr 2021

Validation Of A Novel Trpm8 Knockout Mouse Model, Bilan Mohamed

Thinking Matters Symposium

Recent studies suggest that the use of thermoregulatory treatments that affect brown fat may help curb obesity. However it is unknown how these treatments may affect bone homeostasis. Our work has focused on the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM8) protein, which is responsible for detecting colder temperatures in sensory neurons. Previous work within the Motyl laboratory has found that Trpm8 plays a role in bone acquisition. Mice with a global deletion of the Trpm8 gene have reduced trabecular bone volume fraction due to reduced bone formation by osteoblasts. However, it is unclear whether sensory neuron or osteoblast-mediated expression of Trpm8 ...


Trials And Tribulations Of Humanizing Mice For Cancer Research, Brittney Ruedlinger, Steven Warsof, Eric Feliberti, Mary Beth Hughes, Ayobami ‘Edwin’ Oshin, Chunqi Jiang, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe Apr 2021

Trials And Tribulations Of Humanizing Mice For Cancer Research, Brittney Ruedlinger, Steven Warsof, Eric Feliberti, Mary Beth Hughes, Ayobami ‘Edwin’ Oshin, Chunqi Jiang, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe

The Graduate School Posters

Cancers are aggressive, evasive, and ruthless killers, claiming millions of lives every year. Cancers are heterogeneous and there is often no single, clearly defined problem as they harness and manipulate a multitude of fundamental mechanisms at the very essence of life. To investigate these mechanisms and vet potential interventive therapies, humanized mice offer a unique model as a prelude to the use of nanosecond pulse stimulation (NPS), a pulse power technology applying nanosecond duration, high electric field pulses, to ablate human tumors. Immunodeficient mouse strains, NSG and NSG-SGM3, were engrafted with human immune cells and human tumors, which would allow ...


A Comparison Of The Release Of Phosphorus By A Phytase Enzyme In Pigs Fed Diets Deficient Or Adequate In Phosphorus Content, Kristin M. Olsen, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience Apr 2021

A Comparison Of The Release Of Phosphorus By A Phytase Enzyme In Pigs Fed Diets Deficient Or Adequate In Phosphorus Content, Kristin M. Olsen, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Previous research indicated that phytase may release less phosphorus (P) from phytate when it is evaluated using diets with P levels above requirement as compared with diets below requirement. The objectives of this experiment were to further test the hypothesis that the P release values determined for phytase are higher when pigs are fed diets that are deficient (DE) in P compared with when they are fed diets that are adequate (AD) in P, and that phytase will increase the digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), nitrogen (N), and calcium (Ca) independent of dietary P status. Twenty-four barrows ...


Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger Mar 2021

Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger

Scholars Week

Life history morph, sex, and body condition are traits that may influence stress within salamander populations because of differences in physiology and environmental conditions. Given widespread declines and the effects chronic stress can have on amphibian health, it is important to understand within-population drivers of stress and how population level variation may influence population viability. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess how corticosterone varies within the Arizona tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum) population at the Mexican Cut Nature Preserve. We used a non-invasive skin swabbing method to collect baseline and elevated corticosterone from paedomorph (aquatic morph; N ...


Impact Of Cria Protection Strategy On Post-Natal Survival And Growth Of Alpacas (Vicugna Pacos), Santiago Valenzuela, Ruth M. Benites, Juan E. Moscoso-Muñoz, Curtis R. Youngs, Oscar E. Gómez-Quispe Mar 2021

Impact Of Cria Protection Strategy On Post-Natal Survival And Growth Of Alpacas (Vicugna Pacos), Santiago Valenzuela, Ruth M. Benites, Juan E. Moscoso-Muñoz, Curtis R. Youngs, Oscar E. Gómez-Quispe

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different management systems on the postnatal survival and growth of alpaca crias. The study was conducted during the alpaca calving season in the Peruvian Andes. Animals were fed on native pastures; during the day they went out to graze, but at night they were brought into a corral. A total of 150 alpaca singleton neonates were randomly assigned to one of three cria protection strategies immediately after consuming colostrum. The first group consisted of 50 crias who slept in an open-corral (OC) without shelter. The second group was comprised ...


How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler Feb 2021

How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler

Grawemeyer Colloquium Papers

Across the world, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people live near water sources “impaired” for use or contact. Standards for human-interaction are established by international organizations such as the WHO, and legislative bodies from national to local levels with jurisdiction over the quality of our waterways to ensure public & environmental health. Standards are often assessed from “grab-samples” taken from a waterbody at a certain time, with a minimum number analyzed. Water-quality standards in the United States are enforced under the Clean Water Act (CWA) via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), applying to “waters of the United States” (WOTUS ...


Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma Feb 2021

Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to measure a proxy of neural activity in vivo with high spatial specificity. One subject can be followed for a long period of time to assess changes in functional brain organization. However, fMRI is extremely sensitive to motion. The challenges of training non-human primates to reduce motion in an MRI scanner motivate the study of anesthesia which is commonly used to substitute for this training. In this thesis, I compare three different commonly used anesthetic protocols: isoflurane, propofol-fentanyl in combination, and fentanyl alone, to test which of ...


Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Optic Fissure Fusion During Zebrafish Eye Development, Megan Weaver Jan 2021

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Optic Fissure Fusion During Zebrafish Eye Development, Megan Weaver

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Vertebrate retinal development requires timely and precise fusion of the optic fissure. Failure of this event leads to congenital vision impairment in the form of coloboma. Recent studies have suggested hyaloid vasculature to be involved in OF fusion. In order to examine this link, we analyzed optic fissure fusion and hyaloid vasculogenesis in the zebrafish pax2a noi mutant line. We first determined that pax2a-/- embryos fail to accumulate F-actin in the optic fissure prior to basement membrane (BM) degradation. Furthermore, using 3D and live imaging we observed reduced OF hyaloid vascularization in pax2a-/- embryos. When examining the connection between pax2a ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Differential Diagnosis Of Abnormal Muscle Gross Anatomy Of A Male Cadaver, Audrey V. Broffman, Carley R. Carpenter Jan 2021

Differential Diagnosis Of Abnormal Muscle Gross Anatomy Of A Male Cadaver, Audrey V. Broffman, Carley R. Carpenter

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The ability of healthcare providers to carefully consider all presentations of illness and injury, draw upon research and knowledge to develop a list of potential diagnoses, and further investigate systems expected to be impacted by these diagnoses, is crucial for accurate identification of a condition and subsequent treatment plans to improve the welfare of patients. In order to determine a possible cause for unusual anatomic changes in multiple regions of the male cadaver used in the University of Montana’s Anatomy and Physiology lab, we performed a differential diagnosis.This research is exempt from IRB approval because the individual is ...


Heart Health: Lifestyle Factors That Influence Cardiovascular Well-Being, Holly K. Sawyer Jan 2021

Heart Health: Lifestyle Factors That Influence Cardiovascular Well-Being, Holly K. Sawyer

Honors College Theses

Each year, one in every four deaths in the United States is a result of heart disease. As the leading cause of death among women and men from various ethnicities, heart disease may be overlooked when making everyday life decisions. As a group of genetic and behavioral conditions, heart disease is the number one killer of Americans. This may be due to the typical Western diet and daily life choices such as drinking alcohol or smoking tobacco. Heart diseases including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease kill ten times more women than breast cancer (Lewis, et al., 2017). White men have ...


Soil Response Of Helicopter Liming In The Monongahela National Forest, Jarrett Douglas Fowler Jan 2021

Soil Response Of Helicopter Liming In The Monongahela National Forest, Jarrett Douglas Fowler

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Soils in the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) are acidic due to sandstone parent material, acid deposition, uptake of base cations by vegetation, and release of organic acids by organic matter (OM) decomposition. Increases in soil acidity have caused declines in forest health and changed species composition and nutrient status. Liming can neutralize soil acidity, but no large-scale liming projects have been done on acid forest soils in the USA. In anticipation of acquiring funding for a proposed liming project in the MNF, in 2007 and 2009 10 sites were selected to sample and analyze soils before lime was applied. In ...


Rigor And Reproducibility Training For First Year Medical Students In Research Pathways, Kate L. Lapane, Catherine E. Dube Dec 2020

Rigor And Reproducibility Training For First Year Medical Students In Research Pathways, Kate L. Lapane, Catherine E. Dube

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In the Spring of 2020, we launched a rigor and reproducibility curriculum for medical students in research training programs. This required class consisted of eight, two-hour sessions which transitioned to remote learning in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. The class was graded as Pass/Fail. Flipped classroom techniques, with multiple hands-on exercises, were developed for first year medical students (MD/PhD (n=9), Clinical and Translational Research Pathway students (n=9)). Four focus groups (n=13 students) and individual interviews with the two instructors were conducted in May 2020. From individual interviews with instructors and focus groups with medical students ...


The Physiological Interaction Of Sleep Deprivation And Zoledronate On Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch, Oliver Lopez Dec 2020

The Physiological Interaction Of Sleep Deprivation And Zoledronate On Distal Femur Trabecular Thickness Of Ovariectomized Rats, Erin Nolte, Frank Frisch, Oliver Lopez

Health Sciences and Kinesiology Faculty Articles

Osteoporosis, a disease resulting in an increased risk of fracture due to compromised bone, affects 1 in 3 postmenopausal women. Discontinuities in the microarchitecture of bone, such as trabeculae, are seen in postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate how sleep deprivation affects the distal femur trabecular thickness of estrogen-deficient rats treated with Zoledronate. 29 ovariectomized Wistar female rats were separated into 4 groups. The control group (C) was housed in standard housing with a 12-hour light/dark cycle and was given an intravenous injection of 0.45 mL of 0.9% saline. The Zoledronate group (Z) were also housed ...


Lipid Source And Peroxidation Status Alter Immune Cell Recruitment In Broiler Chicken Ileum, Krysten A. Fries-Craft, Meaghan M. Meyer, Stephanie C. Lindblom, Brain J. Kerr, Elizabeth A. Bobeck Dec 2020

Lipid Source And Peroxidation Status Alter Immune Cell Recruitment In Broiler Chicken Ileum, Krysten A. Fries-Craft, Meaghan M. Meyer, Stephanie C. Lindblom, Brain J. Kerr, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Background: Restaurant oil in poultry diets increases energy content, reduces production costs, and promotes sustainability within the food supply chain. However, variable oil composition and heating temperatures among restaurant oil sources can impact broiler chicken health due to heat-induced lipid modifications.

Objectives: A 21-d experiment was conducted to evaluate ileal morphology, liver cytokine gene expression, and ileal immune cell populations in broilers fed control or peroxidized lipids with varying chain and saturation characteristics.

Methods: Day-old broilers were housed in battery cages (5 birds per cage) and fed diets containing 5% control or peroxidized oils. Eight diets were randomly assigned in ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi Dec 2020

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


Natural History Study Of Glycan Accumulation In Large Animal Models Of Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Catlyn Cavender, Linley Mangini, Jeremy L. Van Vleet, Carley Corado, Emma Mccullagh, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Douglas R. Martin, Brett E. Crawford, Roger Lawrence Dec 2020

Natural History Study Of Glycan Accumulation In Large Animal Models Of Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Catlyn Cavender, Linley Mangini, Jeremy L. Van Vleet, Carley Corado, Emma Mccullagh, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Douglas R. Martin, Brett E. Crawford, Roger Lawrence

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

beta-hexosaminidase is an enzyme responsible for the degradation of gangliosides, glycans, and other glycoconjugates containing beta-linked hexosamines that enter the lysosome. GM2 gangliosidoses, such as Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff, are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by beta-hexosaminidase deficiency and subsequent lysosomal accumulation of its substrate metabolites. These two diseases result in neurodegeneration and early mortality in children. A significant difference between these two disorders is the accumulation in Sandhoff disease of soluble oligosaccharide metabolites that derive from N- and O-linked glycans. In this paper we describe our results from a longitudinal biochemical study of a feline model of Sandhoff disease and an ...


Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman Dec 2020

Effects Of Long-Term Variation In Temperature On Reproductive Phenology In A Population Of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Paul Pleiman

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the relationship between multiple temperature variables, to include annual and pre-lay date temperatures with first-egg and mean first-egg lay dates of the eastern bluebird at the Warner Parks in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Data is collected by citizen scientists for the Eastern Bluebird Nesting Box Project while visiting artificial nest boxes throughout the park and recording observations made during the breeding season. Temperature data is retrieved from the Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering’s Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) Climate Group, based at Oregon State University. The analyses showed no correlation between annual or ...


Wireless ‘Under The Skull’ Epidural Eeg And Behavior In Piglets During Nitrous Oxide Or Carbon Dioxide Gas Euthanasia, Jean-Loup Rault, Alan Lai, Lauren Hemsworth, Matthias Le Chevoir, Sebastien Bauquier, Richard S. Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr. Dec 2020

Wireless ‘Under The Skull’ Epidural Eeg And Behavior In Piglets During Nitrous Oxide Or Carbon Dioxide Gas Euthanasia, Jean-Loup Rault, Alan Lai, Lauren Hemsworth, Matthias Le Chevoir, Sebastien Bauquier, Richard S. Gates, Donald C. Lay Jr.

Animal Science Publications

Consciousness is central to animal welfare concerns. Its assessment is most often conducted based on behavior, with a poor understanding of the correspondence between behavior and the neurobiological processes that underlie the subjective experience of consciousness. Recording of brain electrical activity using electrodes placed under the skull improves EEG recording by minimizing artifacts from muscular or cardiac activities, and it can now be combined with wireless recording in free-moving animals. This experiment investigated the correspondence between wireless ‘under the skull’ epidural EEG and the behavior of 18 five-week-old female piglets undergoing nitrous oxide (N2O) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gradual fill ...


Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring Dec 2020

Evaluation Of Different Ensiling Methods On Storage And Feeding Value Of The Residual Material From Edamame Soybean Processing, Ellen Herring

Theses and Dissertations

Use of organic waste material by ruminant animals from food processing operations potentially reduces costs and reduces environmental issues from disposal of these residues. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the storage and feeding value of residual from edamame soybean processing for ruminant animals. Two types of waste streams, waste during harvest time and waste from processing stored material, were ensiled (on a laboratory scale) using various methods and effects on post-ensiling nutritive value were examined. Material from both waste streams were ensiled either without wilting or after wilting; each moisture level was ensiled with and without an inoculant ...


Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft Dec 2020

Fate And Dissemination Of Salmonella Reading In Market-Age Turkeys At Processing Using Oral Gavage Challenge Model, Aaron Ashcraft

Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the fate and dissemination of Salmonella Reading (SR) in market-age turkeys using an oral gavage challenge model. One hundred twenty-eight-week-old commercial turkey hens were moved from commercial production to research facilities. Upon arrival, a combination of enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg, and florfenicol, 20 mg/kg, were orally administered sequentially before comingled placement on fresh pine shavings. Turkeys were challenged with 108 cfu SR by oral gavage on days 4 and 7 post-placement. Subsets were subjected to simulated commercial processing on days 14 (n=40), 21 (n=40) and 28 (n=32) post-placement (corresponding to 10 ...


Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague Dec 2020

Evaluation Of Selected Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial Candidates In Reduced Energy Diets On Live Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Foot Pad Dermatitis, Kyle Teague

Theses and Dissertations

Bacillus spp. are ubiquitous, Gram-positive, spore forming bacteria that are commonly recovered from the environment and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of poultry. These spores are capable of withstanding harsh condition such as feed pelletization, which facilitates inclusion in poultry feeds. Once ingested by the bird, spores germinate into metabolically active vegetative cells which can produce extracellular enzymes which can hydrolyze otherwise indigestible components of the feed. Soybean meal (SBM) is the gold standard vegetable protein source for non-ruminant animals worldwide and is included in practically all poultry diets in the United States at levels ranging from 10 to more than 30 ...


Birth Of A Live Cria After Transfer Of A Vitrified-Warmed Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos) Preimplantation Embryo, Jennifer C. Lutz, Susan L. Johnson, Kimberly J. Duprey, Paul J. Taylor, Henry William Vivanco-Mackie, Daniel Ponce-Salazar, Marlene Miguel-Gonzales, Curtis R. Youngs Dec 2020

Birth Of A Live Cria After Transfer Of A Vitrified-Warmed Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos) Preimplantation Embryo, Jennifer C. Lutz, Susan L. Johnson, Kimberly J. Duprey, Paul J. Taylor, Henry William Vivanco-Mackie, Daniel Ponce-Salazar, Marlene Miguel-Gonzales, Curtis R. Youngs

Animal Science Publications

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is an important species for the production of fiber and food. Genetic improvement programs for alpacas have been hindered, however, by the lack of field-practical techniques for artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In particular, successful techniques for the cryopreservation of alpaca preimplantation embryos have not been reported previously. The objective of this study was to develop a field-practical and efficacious technique for cryopreservation of alpaca preimplantation embryos using a modification of a vitrification protocol originally devised for horses and adapted for dromedary camels. Four naturally cycling non-superovulated Huacaya females serving as embryo donors were mated to ...


In Vitro And In Vivo Characterization Of A Recombinant Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Containing A Complete Genome, Husam Taher, Xiaofei E, Timothy F. Kowalik, Daniel Malouli Nov 2020

In Vitro And In Vivo Characterization Of A Recombinant Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Containing A Complete Genome, Husam Taher, Xiaofei E, Timothy F. Kowalik, Daniel Malouli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are highly adapted to their host species resulting in strict species specificity. Hence, in vivo examination of all aspects of CMV biology employs animal models using host-specific CMVs. Infection of rhesus macaques (RM) with rhesus CMV (RhCMV) has been established as a representative model for infection of humans with HCMV due to the close evolutionary relationships of both host and virus. However, the only available RhCMV clone that permits genetic modifications is based on the 68-1 strain which has been passaged in fibroblasts for decades resulting in multiple genomic changes due to tissue culture adaptations. As a result ...


Flowers Are Essential To Maintain High Beetle Diversity (Coleoptera) In A Neotropical Rainforest Canopy, Susan Kirmse, Caroline S. Chaboo Nov 2020

Flowers Are Essential To Maintain High Beetle Diversity (Coleoptera) In A Neotropical Rainforest Canopy, Susan Kirmse, Caroline S. Chaboo

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the megadiversity of angiosperms and insects. Flowers and their pollinators represent the most common terrestrial mutualistic interaction today and this is thought to have driven the evolution of angiosperms and their visitors. Within the framework of that interaction, this paper develops and tests two new hypotheses: 1) megadiversity of canopy beetles in tropical rainforests is largely based on flower resources, and 2) the majority of adult canopy beetles are adapted to visit flowers. To test hypothesis 1, the beetle fauna associated with 23 canopy tree species (13 families, 45 individuals) in a 1 ...