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Properties Of A Genetically Unique Mycobacteriophage, Amanda K. Staples 2019 Western Kentucky University

Properties Of A Genetically Unique Mycobacteriophage, Amanda K. Staples

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bacteriophage MooMoo is a temperate phage that was isolated and propagated on Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smeg). It typically produces turbid plaques, however spontaneous clear plaque mutants can be readily isolated. Both turbid (MooMoo-T) and clear plaque (MooMoo-C) formers can establish stable lysogens, but the parental turbid plaque forming phage has a higher lysogenic frequency. The phage repressor protein typically plays the central role in regulating the lysis/lysogeny decision. Therefore, we expected that the mutation responsible for the clear plaque phenotype would be located in the repressor gene. Remarkably, whole genome sequencing detected a single base pair mutation in the minor …


Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago

Doctoral Dissertations

Transcriptional regulation of most phospholipid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated by inositol and choline. Inositol affects phosphatidic acid (PA) intracellular levels. Opi1p interacts physically with PA and is the main repressor of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound to the ER membrane protein Scs2p. When PA levels drop, Opi1p is translocated into the nucleus repressing most phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The OPI1 locus was identified in a screen looking for overproduction and excretion of inositol (Opi-). Opi- mutants are generally associated with a defect in …


Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers

Master's Theses

In a large agricultural operation, such as the one at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, disposal of deceased animals is an immense issue. The cost of transporting and rendering every dead animal is inhibitory to the general function of the agricultural operations and their thin budget. Therefore, we propose that composting mortalities could be an economical alternative. Composting is a recognized method for taking animal waste products along with carbon waste and turning it into a pathogen-free, nutrient-rich topsoil. Carcass composting is in fact performed in other countries and states to varying degrees of success. However, the California EPA limits …


Comparative Characteristics Of Antibacterial Activity Of Plants Growing In The Central Part Of The Republic Of Tajikistan., Saidbeg Satorov, F. Mirzoeva, Sh. Satorov, M. Vakhidova, Vyacheslav Dushenkov 2019 Аvicenna Tajik State Medical University

Comparative Characteristics Of Antibacterial Activity Of Plants Growing In The Central Part Of The Republic Of Tajikistan., Saidbeg Satorov, F. Mirzoeva, Sh. Satorov, M. Vakhidova, Vyacheslav Dushenkov

Publications and Research

Objective: To evaluate the spectrum of antibacterial activity of plants growing in the central part of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Methods: The antibacterial properties of 18 plant species from the 14 families were studied. The extract samples on dry filter discs were prepared according to the method developed at Rutgers University. Screens-to-Nature (STN) and disc diffusion (DD) methods were used to assess antimicrobial properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was determined against four types of pathogenic standard museum strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as …


Enhancement Of Immune Response Against Bordetella Spp. By Disrupting Immunomodulation, Monica C. Gestal, Laura K. Howard, Kalyan Dewan, Hannah M. Johnson, Mariette Barbier, Clare Bryant, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Israel Rivera, Bodo Lina, Uriel Blas-Machado, Eric T. Harvill 2019 University of Georgia

Enhancement Of Immune Response Against Bordetella Spp. By Disrupting Immunomodulation, Monica C. Gestal, Laura K. Howard, Kalyan Dewan, Hannah M. Johnson, Mariette Barbier, Clare Bryant, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Israel Rivera, Bodo Lina, Uriel Blas-Machado, Eric T. Harvill

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Well-adapted pathogens must evade clearance by the host immune system and the study of how they do this has revealed myriad complex strategies and mechanisms. Classical bordetellae are very closely related subspecies that are known to modulate adaptive immunity in a variety of ways, permitting them to either persist for life or repeatedly infect the same host. Exploring the hypothesis that exposure to immune cells would cause bordetellae to induce expression of important immunomodulatory mechanisms, we identified a putative regulator of an immunomodulatory pathway. The deletion of btrS in B. bronchiseptica did not affect colonization or initial growth in the …


Effects Of 5��-Dihydrotestosterone (Dht) On Mouse Gut Microbiome– A Study Of Sex Differences And Hormonal Effects On Gut Microbiome Composition, Bikesh Shrestha 2019 Central Washington University

Effects Of 5��-Dihydrotestosterone (Dht) On Mouse Gut Microbiome– A Study Of Sex Differences And Hormonal Effects On Gut Microbiome Composition, Bikesh Shrestha

All Master's Theses

Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a polygenic and multifactorial disease, traditionally attributed to genetic susceptibility and diet. Over the past decade, novel studies have placed a higher significance on the role of gut microbiome in T1D pathogenesis. Furthermore, diabetic mouse models have shown higher incidence of T1D in females compared to males, attributed to the differences in gut microbial community structure. Interestingly, female mouse models elicit male-like protection from T1D when transplanted with the male gut microbiome. In a previous study, we observed that female Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice implanted with slow release 5��-Dihydrotestosterone(DHT) for 90 days showed improved glucose …


The Gut Microbiome: Is Fecal Matter Microbial Composition A Proxy For Intestinal Microbial Composition In Studies Of The Microbiome, Enique Reyes 2019 Central Washington University

The Gut Microbiome: Is Fecal Matter Microbial Composition A Proxy For Intestinal Microbial Composition In Studies Of The Microbiome, Enique Reyes

All Master's Theses

As many health phenomena seem to be affected directly and indirectly by the microbiome, gut microbiome research has increased in the last decade. Issues such as allergies, cancer, obesity, and other health complications have been shown to be influenced by the microbiome. Most of gut microbiome research is done by collecting and sequencing the DNA of the microbiome of the fecal matter from model organisms or human subjects. Studies that use this method of sample collection and analysis assume that fecal matter microbiomes are similar to intestinal microbiomes, and that it can be used as a proxy. At present, no …


A Comparative Study Of Equine Gut Microbiomes Using 16s And 18s Rrna Sequencing, Jillian Jorgenson 2019 Otterbein University

A Comparative Study Of Equine Gut Microbiomes Using 16s And 18s Rrna Sequencing, Jillian Jorgenson

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Projects

The gut microbiome of domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus) can be broken down into two primary divisions of interest: (1) prokaryotic composition, consisting of bacteria and archaea and (2) fungal composition. Within the gut, there are also eukaryotic parasite communities that may interact with the microbiome. While each has been the subject of various scientific explorations, in this study we analyze the potential interconnectedness of these categories. To determine the extent to which each component of the gut microbiome/parasitic communities influences the other, DNA was extracted and amplified from the fecal samples of eight horses. A combination of …


Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba and the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), was utilized to determine the presence or absence of classically conserved Golgi molecules featured in the expression of a Golgi apparatus. Previous studies concluded no Golgi expression via light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, but a recent report on Naegleria gruberi indicated the presence of dispersed Golgi tubules. Non-pathogenic species of the Naegleria genus such as Naegleria gruberi 30540 and Naegleria lovaniensis 30569 were utilized in Western immunoblot analysis compared to reduced whole-cell lysate proteins of two strains of N. fowleri and …


Phenotypic And Transcriptomic Characterization Of Colonial Phase Variation In The Cholera Pathogen Reveals A Novel Smooth Biofilm-Defective Form, Bliss Nicole Lambert 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Phenotypic And Transcriptomic Characterization Of Colonial Phase Variation In The Cholera Pathogen Reveals A Novel Smooth Biofilm-Defective Form, Bliss Nicole Lambert

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Biofilm formation, through the production of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS), greatly enhances the environmental fitness and pathogenic success of Vibrio cholerae. As a result of phase variation, V. cholerae can switch from a smooth form to rugose, whose cells produce excess VPS, resulting in highly structured biofilms and greater resistance to stress. To further characterize the reversible process of phase variation, we isolated three colonial lineages. Each lineage began with a smooth parent, N16961, and contained a rugose variant derived from the parent, N16961R, as well as a smooth revertant of the rugose, N16961SD. We found clear phenotypic and transcriptomic …


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial …


Engineering Yeast To Evaluate Human Proteins Involved In Selective Rna Packaging During Hiv Particle Production, Ryan M. Bitter 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Engineering Yeast To Evaluate Human Proteins Involved In Selective Rna Packaging During Hiv Particle Production, Ryan M. Bitter

Master's Theses

Despite recent advances in antiretroviral therapy, nearly 37 million people continue to live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Basic and applied research on the assembly of HIV could be enhanced by using a genetically tractable organism, such as yeast, rather than mammalian cells. While previous studies showed that expression of the HIV Gag polyprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae spheroplasts resulted in the production of virus-like particles (VLPs), many questions regarding the utility of yeast in HIV assembly remain uninvestigated. Here, we report use of S. cerevisiae for both the production of VLPs with selectively packaged RNA and to evaluate the human …


Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis

Masters Theses

Double strand breaks (DSB) are a common source of DNA damage in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. If they are not repaired or are repaired incorrectly, they can lead to cell death (bacteria) or cancer (humans). In Escherichia coli, repair of DSB are typically accomplished via homologous recombination and mediated by RecA. This repair pathway, among others, is associated with activation of the SOS response. DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam) mutants have an increased number of DSB and, therefore, are notorious for being RecA-dependent for viability. Here, we show that the synthetic lethality of Δdam/ΔrecA is suppressed when clpP is removed, suggesting …


Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Recombination and mutagenesis are elevated by high levels of transcription. The correlation between transcription and genome instability is largely explained by the topological and structural changes in DNA and the associated physical obstacles generated by the transcription machinery. However, such explanation does not directly account for the unique types of mutations originating from the non-canonical residues such as uracil, which are also elevated at highly transcribed regions. Apurinic/Apyrimic or Abasic (AP) sites derived from uracil excision, accumulate at a higher rate in actively transcribed regions of the genome in S. cerevisiae and are primarily repaired by base excision repair (BER) …


Exploring The Microbiome: Diversity Of The Microbial Community Of Three Foam Nesting Frogs, Genus: Polypedates, Across A Developmental Gradient, Sarah McGrath 2018 James Madison University

Exploring The Microbiome: Diversity Of The Microbial Community Of Three Foam Nesting Frogs, Genus: Polypedates, Across A Developmental Gradient, Sarah Mcgrath

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Characterization of microbial biodiversity, including that of the amphibian skin-associated microbiome, is a frontier of research recently made accessible through advances in sequencing technology. Microbial interaction with a host has been determined to have profound influences on host health across a wide range of macroscopic organisms. For amphibians, the influence of the skin-associated microbiome has been found to have particular importance, as amphibians are currently one of the fastest disappearing vertebrate groups on the planet, largely in part to skin-associated diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. Therefore, it is important to characterize the amphibian skin-associated microbiome, particularly for species with no …


Identification Of “Fhua” Like Genes In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And Its Role In Vicibactin Transport And Investigation Of Heme Bound Iron Uptake System, Sushant Khanal 2018 East Tennessee State University

Identification Of “Fhua” Like Genes In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And Its Role In Vicibactin Transport And Investigation Of Heme Bound Iron Uptake System, Sushant Khanal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Siderophores are low molecular weight, iron chelating compounds produced by many bacteria for uptake of iron in case of iron scarcity. Vicibactin is a trihydroxamate type siderophore produced by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii ATCC 14479. This work focuses on identifying an outer membrane receptor involved in the transport of vicibactin. We have confirmed the presence of the putative fhuA gene in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii ATCC 14479. This bacteria shows mutualistic symbiosis with the red clover plant Trifoliium prantense. Leghemoglobin, with its cofactor heme is present in the plant root nodules that surrounds the infecting organism present in the nodules. …


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee

Honors Program Projects

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too …


Impacts Of Genome And Nuclear Architecture On Molecular Evolution In Eukaryotes, Xyrus Maurer-Alcalá 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Impacts Of Genome And Nuclear Architecture On Molecular Evolution In Eukaryotes, Xyrus Maurer-Alcalá

Doctoral Dissertations

The traditional view of genomes suggests that they are static entities changing slowly in sequence and structure through time (e.g. evolving over geological time-scales). This outdated view has been challenged as our understanding of the dynamic nature of genomes has increased. Changes in DNA content (i.e. polyploidy) are common to specific life-cycle stages in a variety of eukaryotes, as are changes in genome content itself. These dramatic genomic changes include chromosomal deletions (i.e. paternal chromosome deletion in insects; Goday and Esteban 2001; Ross, et al. 2010), developmentally regulated genome rearrangements (e.g. the V(D)J system in adaptive immunity in mammals; Schatz …


Factors Affecting The Parasitism Of Gregarine Species In Grasshoppers In Western Nebraska, Alexandra Creigh, Kristin McLarty, Scott Lyell Gardner 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Factors Affecting The Parasitism Of Gregarine Species In Grasshoppers In Western Nebraska, Alexandra Creigh, Kristin Mclarty, Scott Lyell Gardner

Honors Theses

We conducted a survey of the species of parasites found in grasshoppers around the area of Dunwoody’s Pond to investigate whether there were any species specific parasitic relationships occurring there. We collected grasshoppers from several areas around Dunwoody’s Pond totaling 15 species including Melanoplus bivittatus (Say 1825) , Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius, 1798) , Melanoplus differentialis (Thomas 1865), and Melanoplus femurrubrum (De Geer 1773), along with others (Seymour et al., 2009) and compared the parasites found in them. This study is similar to one conducted in South America by Lloyd in 1951, and we hoped to find connections between species to …


Evolution And Niche Specialization Of Microbial Taxa In Vaginal Infection And Pregnancy, Abigail L. Glascock 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Evolution And Niche Specialization Of Microbial Taxa In Vaginal Infection And Pregnancy, Abigail L. Glascock

Theses and Dissertations

The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in reproductive health and pregnancy. It has coevolved with humans and has direct effects on reproductive success, rendering selective pressure more pronounced at this site. Herein, we probe coevolution of the vaginal microbiome using a systems-level approach. In Chapter 2, we examine the evolutionary trajectory of two vaginal Veillonellaceae phylotypes evolved from an ancestral gastrointestinal lineage to inhabit the vaginal niche. We present evidence of their divergence and subniche specification and describe their differential associations with vaginal infection and pregnancy. In Chapter 3, we identify ten bacterial taxa, predicted to contribute to the …


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