Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Genetics and Genomics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

8,664 Full-Text Articles 26,687 Authors 1,569,126 Downloads 272 Institutions

All Articles in Genetics and Genomics

Faceted Search

8,664 full-text articles. Page 6 of 338.

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


The Importance Of Understanding And Developing Identification Techniques In Wildlife Crime, Savannah Nguyen 2022 Duquesne University

The Importance Of Understanding And Developing Identification Techniques In Wildlife Crime, Savannah Nguyen

D.U.Quark

Wildlife crime continues to grow annually and globally, impacting several species and ecosystems. New advancements of technologies and techniques can track criminals and aid the affected victims. Highlighting the complexity of conservation and the development of identification techniques helps tackle this widespread dilemma. New developing techniques in wildlife forensics can differentiate an animal between wild and poached to pave the way for further advancement in understanding wildlife crimes. Hence, though the wildlife forensics field is still new, emphasizing the need for intricate identification techniques can help save threatened species.


G1-Cyclin2 (Cln2) Promotes Chromosome Hypercondensation In Eco1/Ctf7 Rad61 Null Cells During Hyperthermic Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sean Buskirk, Robert V. Skibbens 2022 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

G1-Cyclin2 (Cln2) Promotes Chromosome Hypercondensation In Eco1/Ctf7 Rad61 Null Cells During Hyperthermic Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sean Buskirk, Robert V. Skibbens

Biology Faculty Publications

Eco1/Ctf7 is a highly conserved acetyltransferase that activates cohesin complexes and is critical for sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA damage repair, nucleolar integrity, and gene transcription. Mutations in the human homolog of ECO1 (ESCO2/EFO2), or in genes that encode cohesin subunits, result in severe developmental abnormalities and intellectual disabilities referred to as Roberts syndrome and Cornelia de Lange syndrome, respectively. In yeast, deletion of ECO1 results in cell inviability. Codeletion of RAD61 (WAPL in humans), however, produces viable yeast cells. These eco1 rad61 double mutants, however, exhibit a severe temperature-sensitive growth defect, suggesting that Eco1 or cohesins respond to …


The Effect Of Media And Filtration In Inducing The Oxidative Stress Response In Escherichia Coli, Suzanne Hollingsworth 2022 Portland State University

The Effect Of Media And Filtration In Inducing The Oxidative Stress Response In Escherichia Coli, Suzanne Hollingsworth

University Honors Theses

Escherichia coli grown in complex medium (LB), but not defined medium (DGC), arrest DNA replication when collected on membrane filters and resuspended in fresh media. The arrest is similar to that observed when cells are challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Yet, the reason behind this arrest is unknown.

I hypothesized that the arrest in replication in complex medium after filtering might be due to oxidative shock, and therefore cells grown in complex medium and filtered should induce an oxidative stress response similar to cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. Utilizing the indicator dye H2DCFDA, which fluoresces in response to reactive …


Symmetry-Inspired Analysis Of Biological Networks, Ian Leifer 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Symmetry-Inspired Analysis Of Biological Networks, Ian Leifer

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The description of a complex system like gene regulation of a cell or a brain of an animal in terms of the dynamics of each individual element is an insurmountable task due to the complexity of interactions and the scores of associated parameters. Recent decades brought about the description of these systems that employs network models. In such models the entire system is represented by a graph encapsulating a set of independently functioning objects and their interactions. This creates a level of abstraction that makes the analysis of such large scale system possible. Common practice is to draw conclusions about …


Distribution And Ecological Function Of Pacific Lamprey In The San Luis Obispo Creek Watershed, Parker Kalan 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Distribution And Ecological Function Of Pacific Lamprey In The San Luis Obispo Creek Watershed, Parker Kalan

Master's Theses

Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is an endemic species to coastal watersheds along the Pacific Rim in North America and Asia. The species' geographic distribution is retracting and has not been mapped precisely, and the ability for the species to provide ecosystem services, such as water filtration, for supporting watershed management has not been tested. The San Luis Obispo Creek watershed, California, USA is at the southern end of Pacific lamprey’s retracting distribution, and the San Luis Obispo watershed is impacted by degraded water quality, making investigation of Pacific lamprey in the San Luis Obispo Creek watershed of direct …


Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at …


Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The impact of deforestation on the genetic structure of mouse lemurs is poorly understood. In this project, I assess deforestation of Madagascar’s terrestrial protected regions, quantify genomic wide genetic variation in two sympatric mouse lemurs, and evaluate the role of landscape structure in genetic relatedness patterns within two sympatric mouse lemur species. Overall deforestation rates across the 98 terrestrial protected areas in Madagascar are increasing, resulting in an average annual deforestation rate of 0.68% per year, with approximately 10,600 km2 lost between 2000 and 2019. In a comparison of relatedness patterns between the sympatric gray mouse lemur (Microcebus …


Young Forests And Fire: Using Lidar–Imagery Fusion To Explore Fuels And Burn Severity In A Subalpine Forest Reburn, Kristin H. Braziunas, Diane C. Abendroth, Monica G. Turner 2022 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Young Forests And Fire: Using Lidar–Imagery Fusion To Explore Fuels And Burn Severity In A Subalpine Forest Reburn, Kristin H. Braziunas, Diane C. Abendroth, Monica G. Turner

Aspen Bibliography

Anticipating fire behavior as climate change and fire activity accelerate is an increasingly pressing management challenge in fire-prone landscapes. In subalpine forests adapted to infrequent, stand-replacing fire, self-limitation of burn severity in short-interval fire is incompletely understood. Spatially explicit fuels data can support assessments of landscape-scale fire risk and fuel feedbacks on burn severity. For a ~1450-km2 largely forested landscape in the US Northern Rocky Mountains, we used airborne lidar and imagery to predict and map canopy and surface fuels. In a fire that burned mature (>125-year-old) and also reburned young (~30-year-old) subalpine forest, we then asked: (1) …


Low Site-Specific Genomic Variability Is Consistent With The History(S) Of Fragmentation Of The Riparian Biota Of The Arid Southwest, Manuela Londono-Gaviria 2022 University of New Mexico

Low Site-Specific Genomic Variability Is Consistent With The History(S) Of Fragmentation Of The Riparian Biota Of The Arid Southwest, Manuela Londono-Gaviria

Biology ETDs

Persistently low population sizes, when coupled with reduced interpopulation connectivity, can impede the long-term viability of species in fragmented landscapes. Riparian-associated species in the arid American Southwest now face a series of threats due to fragmented populations and changing environmental conditions. During the last century, riparian habitats have deteriorated due to the synergistic effects of livestock grazing, increasing incidence of fire, and other anthropogenic impacts potentially have made local populations smaller, less demographically stable, and susceptible to the negative impacts of genetic drift and stochastic events. We evaluated genomic variation within and across geographic areas (i.e., mountain ranges and river …


Using Pooled Data For Genomic Prediction In A Bivariate Framework With Missing Data, Johnna L. Baller, Stephen D. Kachman, Larry A. Kuehn, Matthew L. Spangler 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using Pooled Data For Genomic Prediction In A Bivariate Framework With Missing Data, Johnna L. Baller, Stephen D. Kachman, Larry A. Kuehn, Matthew L. Spangler

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Pooling samples to derive group genotypes can enable the economically efficient use of commercial animals within genetic evaluations. To test a multivariate framework for genetic evaluations using pooled data, simulation was used to mimic a beef cattle population including two moderately heritable traits with varying genetic correlations, genotypes and pedigree data. There were 15 generations (n = 32,000; random selection and mating), and the last generation was subjected to genotyping through pooling. Missing records were induced in two ways: (a) sequential culling and (b) random missing records. Gaps in genotyping were also explored whereby genotyping occurred through generation 13 …


Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams 2022 Georgia Gwinnett College

Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams

Georgia Journal of Science

As one of the most widely distributed bacterial cytoplasmic symbionts on earth, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig serves as a model organism for the understanding of host-symbiont interactions. Many mosquito species are infected with Wolbachia strains that induce a form of reproductive manipulation called cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which infected females gain a reproductive advantage over uninfected females in mixed infection populations. The selective advantage of cytoplasmic incompatibility often results in a population sweep of Wolbachia and co-transmitted mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial evolution and phylogenetic inferences drawn from mitochondrial gene sequences are thus potentially compromised by reproductive manipulating symbionts, like Wolbachia. Our initial …


Investigation Into The Genetic Basis Of Capsaicin Production In Peppers Using Next Generation Rna Sequencing And Synthetic Biology Approaches, Ryan Patrick Calhoun 2022 Rowan University

Investigation Into The Genetic Basis Of Capsaicin Production In Peppers Using Next Generation Rna Sequencing And Synthetic Biology Approaches, Ryan Patrick Calhoun

Theses and Dissertations

Capsaicin, a molecule synthesized by plants in the Capsicum genus, is popular for its ability to produce a sensation of burning in any tissue it encounters. The synthesis of capsaicin molecules is achieved through the capsaicin biosynthesis pathway. In this dual study, our goal was to insert two crucial genes, pun1 and pAMT, into a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to allow capsaicin synthesis and perform Illumina RNA sequencing on seven pepper species of increasing pungency to identify other key or novel genes needed or related to capsaicin synthesis. We implemented a golden gate cloning strategy to insert our genes of …


The Nature Of Phenotypes: Provoking And Measuring The Dynamic Processes Of Swarm Expansion, Predation, And Antibiotic Resistance In Myxococcus Xanthus, Linnea Judith Ritchie 2022 Syracuse University

The Nature Of Phenotypes: Provoking And Measuring The Dynamic Processes Of Swarm Expansion, Predation, And Antibiotic Resistance In Myxococcus Xanthus, Linnea Judith Ritchie

Dissertations - ALL

The question of how genotype affects phenotype has fascinated and puzzled scientists for generations. Regardless of organism, the correlation between observation and underlying condition is necessary for scientists to understand the world around us. Myxococcus xanthus, a fascinating organism with a large genome (7,314 genes), is known for complex social behaviors and is an excellent model system for the study of this relationship. Upon starvation, M. xanthus cells condense into large multicellular aggregates to await renewed nutrient availability. M. xanthus cells swarm together on surfaces as a predatory biofilm, lysing and killing prey as a singular unit. During predation, swarms …


Understanding The Role Of Involucrin In Skin Inflammation, Alina Schmidt 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Understanding The Role Of Involucrin In Skin Inflammation, Alina Schmidt

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Terminally differentiated keratinocytes are essential for skin barrier function and are surrounded by an involucrin (IVL)-rich cornified envelope. Increased IVL expression in the epidermis is associated with recent positive selection in European populations, yet the functional significance of this finding is unclear. An upstream enhancer of IVL, the 923 enhancer, regulates IVL expression, and the impact of IVL enhancer variants on involucrin expression in modifying the penetrance of filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function variants associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been explored. I hypothesize involucrin to modulate the environmentally sensitive Vitamin D receptor (Vdr) activity in the epidermis and involucrin enhancer …


Defining The Role Of Rare Genetic Variants That Drive Risk And Pathogenesis Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Matthew James Rosene 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Defining The Role Of Rare Genetic Variants That Drive Risk And Pathogenesis Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Matthew James Rosene

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and is pathologically defined by the aggregation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Rare heritable mutations within the genes for amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) cause early onset AD and account for approximately 1% of AD cases. While the majority of AD cases are late-onset (LOAD), which is defined by a markedly more complex genetic architecture that is comprised of many genetic risk factors that influence AD through multiple cellular pathways. The advent of deep sequencing analyses have allowed for the identification …


Identification Of Pneumococcal Membrane Proteins Involved In Colonization/Biofilm Formation And Cognate Host Cellular Receptors, Yoonsung Hu 2022 Mississippi State University

Identification Of Pneumococcal Membrane Proteins Involved In Colonization/Biofilm Formation And Cognate Host Cellular Receptors, Yoonsung Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Colonization is prerequisite for infection and transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Currently available pneumococcal conjugate and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines can provide protection against a limited number of capsular serotypes. Implementation of vaccines has decreased the frequency of invasive pneumococcal disease and their colonization rates, but only in a serotype-dependent manner. This has led to serotype replacement in pneumococcal ecology and increased invasive disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes. Development of conserved protein-based vaccine that can provide protection against all pneumococcal serotypes is needed. Numerous surface proteins are conserved in all serotypes, and some are known to be involved in …


Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford

Master's Theses

The genus Perlesta Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) consists of 35 species, 33 native to the United States and Canada and two native to China. For over a century these small, brown stonefly adults and freckled yellow nymphs have gone by the name of the type species of the genus, Perlesta placida, but taxonomic work in the genus since 1989 has resulted in the recognition of additional species. These species were mostly recognized and described using morphological characteristics, but two areas that are lacking include (1) linking nymphs to adults and (2) phylogenetic analysis of all species occurring in Mississippi …


Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne McPeck, Andrea Castillo 2022 Eastern Washington University

Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne Mcpeck, Andrea Castillo

2022 Symposium

Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial gastric pathogen infecting approximately 50% of the human population, produces gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancers. Colonizing the inhospitable and fluctuating environment in the stomach requires tight genetic control. However, H. pylori lacks many genetic regulatory elements present in other bacteria to control gene expression. Instead, over 200 small RNAs (sRNAs; noncoding RNAs shorter than 300 nucleotides) have been found in this bacterium, but few have been fully characterized. Of those, many are antisense to virulence genes. Characterizing these sRNAs is important in understanding the mechanisms of molecular genetics and potentially supporting medical management of this …


Digital Commons powered by bepress