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Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale 2022 University of Maine

Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abnormal pain affects ~50 million adults nationwide. With many of the current treatment options for chronic pain, such as opioid analgesics, carrying side effects such as the threat for addiction, research into safer and more effective options for chronic pain relief is crucial. Abnormal alterations in nociceptive sensitivity, which is the sensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli, can underlie, and perpetuate chronic pain. However, much is still unknown about the mechanism of how these abnormal alterations in sensitivity occur. To help elucidate genetic components controlling nociceptive sensitivity, the Drosophila melanogaster larval nociception model has been used …


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


My Summer Working With Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Renée A. Smith 2022 Western University

My Summer Working With Two-Spotted Spider Mites, Renée A. Smith

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Two-spotted spider mites are a polyphagous pest, capable of eating a magnitude of food crops which causes a large problem for Canadian agriculture. Their ability to consume various crops stems from their ability to adapt to various chemical defence mechanisms. This ability allows them to acquire resistance to many commonly used pesticides. This has resulted in large infections in Canadian farms with few options to prevent the pests from affecting crop yields. Take a look at my project if you'd like to see how the Grbic lab is working to combat this issue using genetic engineering techniques!


Rna-Interference As A Topical Pesticide, eleanor khochaba 2022 Western University

Rna-Interference As A Topical Pesticide, Eleanor Khochaba

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Tetranychus urticae are a species of pests that are very problematic in agricultural environments, as they cause lots of damage to a wide variety of crops. One step in figuring out a solution to this problem is through the use of RNA interference. After synchronizing the spider mites, they are treated with the dsRNA solution. The dsRNA is cleavage inside the mite, and the siRNA fragments then bind to a target gene in hopes of homologous sequence recognition leading to knockout/deregulation of the target gene. After treatment, the mites are observed for multiple variables, primarily fecundity and survival. If a …


Examining The Effect Of Knocking Down Dopamine Receptors In Fruitless Sexually Dimorphic Neurons On Social Spacing, Avneet A. Sahota 2022 Western University

Examining The Effect Of Knocking Down Dopamine Receptors In Fruitless Sexually Dimorphic Neurons On Social Spacing, Avneet A. Sahota

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Social behaviour is an individual's response to others within a group. From humans to mice to even fruit flies, social behaviour involves interactions with others and their ability to exchange information. Social spacing is a type of social behaviour which measures the distance between two organisms. It is a balance of attractive and repulsive cues which are influenced by genetics and by the external environment. However, individuals with disorders such as autism spectrum or Williams syndrome display abnormal social spacing as they are unable to understand social and non-social cues. Also, dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is a contributing factor …


Investigating The Biological Function Of Female-Specific Fruitless Transcripts, Liam McFarlane 2022 Western University

Investigating The Biological Function Of Female-Specific Fruitless Transcripts, Liam Mcfarlane

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In Drosophila, the fruitless (fru) gene encodes an array of alternatively spliced transcription factors, some of which are sex-specifically spliced. The male-specific transcript (fruM) has been previously determined to be involved in male courtship behaviours. The female counterpart (fruF) however, has been assumed to have no function due to the incorporation of a stop codon near the 5' end of the transcript. Interestingly, RNAseq data shows that expression levels of fruF in females exceeds that of fruM in males in the brain and thoracoabdominal ganglion, bringing to …


Novel Signal Sequences And Fusion Partners For Paratransgenesis In Asaia, Christina Grogan 2022 Duquesne University

Novel Signal Sequences And Fusion Partners For Paratransgenesis In Asaia, Christina Grogan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mosquitoes transmit many pathogens that cause human disease. One such disease, malaria, is caused by parasites in the genus Plasmodium, infecting over 200 million people and killing over 600,000 per year. Current strategies to control vector-transmitted diseases are increasingly undermined by mosquito and pathogen resistance. Research has turned to additional and novel methods of control, such as altering the microbiota of the vectors. In this method, called paratransgenesis, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified to affect the mosquito’s phenotype by engineering them to deliver antiplasmodial molecules into the midgut to kill parasites. These molecules must be released by the …


Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler 2022 Duquesne University

Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities contain densely packed cells where competition for space and resources are fierce. These communities are generally referred to as biofilms and provide advantages to individual cells against immunological and antimicrobial intervention, dehydration, and predation. High intracellular pools of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) cause cells to aggregate during biofilm formation through the production of diverse extracellular polymers. Genes that encode c-di-GMP catalytic enzymes are commonly mutated during chronic infections where opportunists display enhanced resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Our lab uses an emergent multicellular trait in the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to study the emergence of c-di-GMP mutations …


Type 2 Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy In Quarter Horses Is A Novel Glycogen Storage Disease Causing Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, Stephanie J. Valberg, Zoë J. Williams, Carrie J. Finno, Abigail Schultz, Deborah Velez-Irizarry, Marisa L. Henry, Keri Gardner, Jessica Lynn Petersen 2022 Michigan State University

Type 2 Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy In Quarter Horses Is A Novel Glycogen Storage Disease Causing Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, Stephanie J. Valberg, Zoë J. Williams, Carrie J. Finno, Abigail Schultz, Deborah Velez-Irizarry, Marisa L. Henry, Keri Gardner, Jessica Lynn Petersen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Background: Both type 1 (PSSM1) and type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM2) are characterised by aggregates of abnormal polysaccharide in skeletal muscle. Whereas the genetic basis for PSSM1 is known (R309H GYS1), the cause of PSSM2 in Quarter Horses (PSSM2-QH) is unknown and glycogen concentrations not defined.

Objectives: To characterise the histopathological and biochemical features of PSSM2-QH and determine if an associated monogenic variant exists in genes known to cause glycogenosis.

Study design: Retrospective case control.

Methods: Sixty-four PSSM2-QH, 30 PSSM1-QH and 185 control-QH were identified from a biopsy repository and clinical data, histopathology scores …


Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical African pangolin species are threatened throughout their range due to habitat loss and illegal take. Limited knowledge on distribution has rendered conservation efforts challenging. Methods commonly used for other wildlife species need to be tested for each pangolin species as each has variable ecologies requiring specific detection and monitoring techniques. This thesis evaluates the efficacy of two non-invasive environmental methods for detecting tropical African pangolin species, and consists of two complementary studies; a proof of concept study using soil sourced eDNA from a white-bellied pangolin enclosure in the Columbus Zoo, Ohio, to detect the species, and a field study …


Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell 2022 Mississippi State University

Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell

Theses and Dissertations

Multi -omics data analysis and integration facilitates hypothesis building toward an understanding of genes and pathway responses driven by environments. Methods designed to estimate and analyze gene expression, with regard to treatments or conditions, can be leveraged to understand gene-level responses in the cell. However, genes often interact and signal within larger structures such as pathways and networks. Complex studies guided toward describing dynamic genetic pathways and networks require algorithms or methods designed for inference based on gene interactions and related topologies. Classes of algorithms and methods may be integrated into generalized workflows for comparative genomics studies, as multi -omics …


A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens

Dissertations

Effective management and conservation of marine pelagic fishes is heavily dependent on a robust understanding of their population structure, their evolutionary history, and the delineation of appropriate management units. The Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the Blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) are two exploited epipelagic marine species with overlapping ranges in the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean. This work analyzed genome-wide genetic variation of both species in the Atlantic basin to investigate the occurrence of population subdivision and adaptive variation. A de novo assembly of the Blackfin tuna genome was generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing data and …


Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge 2022 University of South Alabama

Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Genome Evolution In The Salicaceae: Genetic Novelty, Horizontal Gene Transfer, And Comparative Genomics, Timothy Yates 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genome Evolution In The Salicaceae: Genetic Novelty, Horizontal Gene Transfer, And Comparative Genomics, Timothy Yates

Doctoral Dissertations

Genome evolution is a powerful force which shapes genomes over time through processes like mutation, horizontal transfer, and sexual reproduction. Although questions which aim to explore genome evolution are broad, they are all understood through the discovery and comparison of genetic variation. For example, genetic diversity may explain differences in phenotypes, etiology of disease, and is essential for phylogenomic analysis. Recently, the democratization of next generation and third generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed for genomics to produce large amounts of sequence data. This has facilitated the capture of genetic variation at species and population scales.

Populus and Salix are …


Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Weight Gain During The First Trimester Of Gestation In Beef Heifers Alters The Fetal Liver Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, And Energy Profile At Day 83 Of Gestation, Matthew S. Crouse, Kacie L. McCarthy, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen 2022 USDA ARS Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Weight Gain During The First Trimester Of Gestation In Beef Heifers Alters The Fetal Liver Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, And Energy Profile At Day 83 Of Gestation, Matthew S. Crouse, Kacie L. Mccarthy, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding heifers a vitamin and mineral supplement and targeting divergent rates of weight gain during early gestation on the fetal liver amino acid, carbohydrate, and energy profile at d 83 of gestation. Seventy-two crossbred Angus heifers were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four treatments comprising the main effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation (VTM or NOVTM) and feeding to achieve different rates of weight gain (low gain [LG] 0.28 kg/day vs. moderate gain [MG] 0.79 kg/day). Thirty-five gestating heifers with female fetuses …


What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the past decade, single-cell technologies evolved from profiling hundreds of cells to millions of cells, and emerged from a single modality of data to cover multiple views at single-cell resolution, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and so on. With advance of these single-cell technologies, the booming of multimodal single-cell data creates a valuable resource for us to understand cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanism at a comprehensive level. However, the large-scale multimodal single-cell data also presents a huge computational challenge for insightful integrative analysis. Here, I will lay out problems in data integration that single-cell research community is interested in and …


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin 2022 University of New Orleans

Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Polyploidy, a term used to describe organisms with cells having more than two paired sets of chromosomes, is a significant driver of diversification among land plants. Over a century of research has advanced our understanding of polyploidization in some taxa, but polyploid organisms remain understudied. In this dissertation, I investigate chromosome number evolution, phylogeographic structure, genetic differentiation, and the effects of climate change on ploidy level distribution using polyploid plant systems. In the first chapter, I inferred a molecular phylogeny of Allium, an economically important genus that includes cultivated crops and ornamentals, to investigate evolutionary transitions in chromosome number …


Primary Myoblasts From Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep Exhibit Intrinsic Dysfunction Of Proliferation And Differentiation That Coincides With Enrichment Of Inflammatory Cytokine Signaling Pathways, Robert J. Posont, Micah S. Most, Caitlin Cadaret, Eileen Marks-Nelson, Kiristen A. Beede, Sean W. Limesand, Ty B. Schmidt, Jessica L. Petersen, Dustin T. Yates 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Primary Myoblasts From Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep Exhibit Intrinsic Dysfunction Of Proliferation And Differentiation That Coincides With Enrichment Of Inflammatory Cytokine Signaling Pathways, Robert J. Posont, Micah S. Most, Caitlin Cadaret, Eileen Marks-Nelson, Kiristen A. Beede, Sean W. Limesand, Ty B. Schmidt, Jessica L. Petersen, Dustin T. Yates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to lifelong reductions in muscle mass due to intrinsic functional deficits in myoblasts, but the mechanisms underlying these deficits are not known. Our objective was to determine if the deficits were associated with changes in inflammatory and adrenergic regulation of IUGR myoblasts, as was previously observed in IUGR muscle. Primary myoblasts were isolated from IUGR fetal sheep produced by hyperthermia-induced placental insufficiency (PI-IUGR; n = 9) and their controls (n = 9) and from IUGR fetal sheep produced by maternofetal inflammation (MI-IUGR; n = 6) and their …


Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers Ii: Effects On Concentration Of Trace Minerals In Maternal Liver And Fetal Liver, Muscle, Allantoic, And Amniotic Fluids At Day 83 Of Gestation, Kacie L. McCarthy, Ana Clara Ana, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen, Kacie L. McCarthy 2022 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers Ii: Effects On Concentration Of Trace Minerals In Maternal Liver And Fetal Liver, Muscle, Allantoic, And Amniotic Fluids At Day 83 Of Gestation, Kacie L. Mccarthy, Ana Clara Ana, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen, Kacie L. Mccarthy

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

We evaluated the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation (from pre-breeding to day 83 of gestation) and two rates of gain (from breeding to day 83 of gestation) on trace mineral concentrations in maternal and fetal liver, fetal muscle, and allantoic (ALF) and amniotic (AMF) fluids. Crossbred Angus heifers (n = 35; BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two vitamin and mineral supplementation treatments (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) vs. unsupplemented (NoVTM)). The VMSUP factor was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI), allowing time for the mineral status of heifers to be altered …


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