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Association Of Structural Variation (Sv) With Cardiometabolic Traits In Finns, Lei Chen 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Association Of Structural Variation (Sv) With Cardiometabolic Traits In Finns, Lei Chen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with a variety of quantitative risk factors such as cholesterol, metabolites, and insulin. Understanding the genetic basis of these quantitative traits can shed light on the etiology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. However most prior trait-mapping studies have focused on single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and Indels, with the contribution of structural variation (SV) remaining unknown. In this thesis, we present the results of a study examining genetic association between SVs and cardiometabolic traits in the Finnish population. In the first chapter, we used sensitive methods to identify and genotype 129,166 ...


Exploring Β-Cell Function And Heterogeneity In Obese Sm/J Mice, Mario Alejandro Miranda 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring Β-Cell Function And Heterogeneity In Obese Sm/J Mice, Mario Alejandro Miranda

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pancreatic β-cells perform glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, a process required to maintain systemic glucose homeostasis. Obesity promotes glycemic and inflammatory stress, causing β-cell death and dysfunction, resulting in diabetes. Efforts to improve β-cell function in obesity have been hampered by observations that β-cells are highly heterogeneous, varying in morphology, function, and gene expression. There is great need to understand the breadth of β-cell heterogeneity in health and obesity to improve diabetic therapies.High fat-fed SM/J mice spontaneously transition from hyperglycemic-obese to normoglycemic-obese with age, providing a unique opportunity to study β-cell adaptation. Here, we show that as they resolve hyperglycemia ...


The Origins And Future Of Sentinel: An Early-Warning System For Pandemic Preemption And Response, Yolanda Botti-Lodovico, Andres Colubri, Pardis C. Sabeti, Christian Happi 2021 Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard

The Origins And Future Of Sentinel: An Early-Warning System For Pandemic Preemption And Response, Yolanda Botti-Lodovico, Andres Colubri, Pardis C. Sabeti, Christian Happi

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

While investigating a signal of adaptive evolution in humans at the gene LARGE, we encountered an intriguing finding by Dr. Stefan Kunz that the gene plays a critical role in Lassa virus binding and entry. This led us to pursue field work to test our hypothesis that natural selection acting on LARGE-detected in the Yoruba population of Nigeria-conferred resistance to Lassa Fever in some West African populations. As we delved further, we conjectured that the "emerging" nature of recently discovered diseases like Lassa fever is related to a newfound capacity for detection, rather than a novel viral presence, and that ...


Artificial Image Objects For Classification Of Schizophrenia With Gwas-Selected Snvs And Convolutional Neural Network, Xiangning Chen, Daniel G. Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Justin Zhan, Changrong Ji, Jingchun Chen 2021 410 AI, LLC

Artificial Image Objects For Classification Of Schizophrenia With Gwas-Selected Snvs And Convolutional Neural Network, Xiangning Chen, Daniel G. Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Justin Zhan, Changrong Ji, Jingchun Chen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

In this article, we propose a new approach to analyze large genomics data. We considered individual genetic variants as pixels in an image and transformed a collection of variants into an artificial image object (AIO), which could be classified as a regular image by CNN algorithms. Using schizophrenia as a case study, we demonstrate the principles and their applications with 3 datasets. With 4,096 SNVs, the CNN models achieved an accuracy of 0.678 ± 0.007 and an AUC of 0.738 ± 0.008 for the diagnosis phenotype. With 44,100 SNVs, the models achieved class-specific accuracies of 0 ...


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that ...


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in ...


You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller 2021 CUNY Guttman Community College

You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller

Open Educational Resources

If these commonly used spices have the ability to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth, could they also potentially inhibit the growth of normal, harmless bacteria that live in your body? In this lab, we will test common bacteria for resistance to food additives.


Complex Feline Disease Mapping Using A Dense Genotyping Array [Preprint], Isabel Hernandez, Jessica J. Hayward, Michelle E. White 2021 Cornell University

Complex Feline Disease Mapping Using A Dense Genotyping Array [Preprint], Isabel Hernandez, Jessica J. Hayward, Michelle E. White

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The current feline genotyping array of 63k single nucleotide polymorphisms has proven its utility within breeds, and its use has led to the identification of variants associated with Mendelian traits in purebred cats. However, compared to single gene disorders, association studies of complex diseases, especially with the inclusion of random bred cats with relatively low linkage disequilibrium, require a denser genotyping array and an increased sample size to provide statistically significant associations. Here, we undertook a multi-breed study of 1,122 cats, most of which were admitted and phenotyped for nine common complex feline diseases at the Cornell University Hospital ...


Overcoming Obstacles In Protein Expression In The Yeast Pichia Pastoris: Interviews Of Leaders In The Pichia Field, Zoe Ingram, Abha Patkar, Dahoon Oh, Kevin K. Zhang, Christina Chung, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P. Lin-Cereghino 2021 University of the Pacific

Overcoming Obstacles In Protein Expression In The Yeast Pichia Pastoris: Interviews Of Leaders In The Pichia Field, Zoe Ingram, Abha Patkar, Dahoon Oh, Kevin K. Zhang, Christina Chung, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P. Lin-Cereghino

Pacific Journal of Health

The yeast Pichia pastoris (also known as Komagataella pastoris) has been used for over 30 years to produce thousands of valuable, heterologous proteins, such as insulin to treat diabetes and antibodies to prevent migraine headaches. Despite its success, there are some common, stubborn problems encountered by research scientists when they try to use the yeast to produce their recombinant proteins. In order to provide those working in this field with strategies to overcome these common obstacles, nine experts in P. pastoris protein expression field were interviewed to create a written review and video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1oD6k8CdG8 ...


Effect Of A Trace Mineral Injection On Performance And Trace Mineral Status Of Beef Cows And Calves, Carmen J. Willmore, John B. Hall, Mary E. Drewnoski 2021 University of Idaho

Effect Of A Trace Mineral Injection On Performance And Trace Mineral Status Of Beef Cows And Calves, Carmen J. Willmore, John B. Hall, Mary E. Drewnoski

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The objective was to determine the effects of an injectable trace mineral (TMI; Multimin 90) containing copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) on trace mineral status and the resulting impacts on reproduction of beef cows and the growth of their calves. Beef cows (n = 200) were assigned to receive TMI or no injection (CON) prior to calving and breeding over two consecutive years. Calves born to cows receiving TMI also received TMI at birth in both years and at 49 ± 1.3 days of age in year 1. The TMI increased (p = 0.01) liver Zn and ...


Heterochromatin Diversity Modulates Genome Compartmentalization And Loop Extrusion Barriers [Preprint], George Spracklin, Nezar Abdennur, Maxim Imakaev, Neil Chowdhury, Sriharsa Pradhan, Leonid Mirny, Job Dekker 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Heterochromatin Diversity Modulates Genome Compartmentalization And Loop Extrusion Barriers [Preprint], George Spracklin, Nezar Abdennur, Maxim Imakaev, Neil Chowdhury, Sriharsa Pradhan, Leonid Mirny, Job Dekker

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Two dominant processes organizing chromosomes are loop extrusion and the compartmental segregation of active and inactive chromatin. The molecular players involved in loop extrusion during interphase, cohesin and CTCF, have been extensively studied and experimentally validated. However, neither the molecular determinants nor the functional roles of compartmentalization are well understood. Here, we distinguish three inactive chromatin states using contact frequency profiling, comprising two types of heterochromatin and a previously uncharacterized inactive state exhibiting a neutral interaction preference. We find that heterochromatin marked by long continuous stretches of H3K9me3, HP1α and HP1β correlates with a conserved signature of strong compartmentalization and ...


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity ...


Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh 2021 University of Dayton

Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Numerous imaging modules are utilized to study changes that occur during cellular processes. Besides qualitative (immunohistochemical) or semiquantitative (Western blot) approaches, direct quantitation method(s) for detecting and analyzing signal intensities for disease(s) biomarkers are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop method(s) to quantitate specific signals and eliminate noise during live tissue imaging. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•-) radicals results in oxidative damage of biomolecules, which leads to oxidative stress. This can be detected by dihydroethidium staining in live tissue(s), which does not rely on fixation and helps prevent ...


An Exploration Of The Properties Of Repair Template Dna That Promote Precision Genome Editing, Krishna S. Ghanta 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Exploration Of The Properties Of Repair Template Dna That Promote Precision Genome Editing, Krishna S. Ghanta

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

CRISPR/Cas9 induced DNA breaks can be precisely repaired by cellular homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways using exogenously provided template DNA (donor). However, the full potential of precision editing is hindered in many model systems by low cutting efficiencies, low HDR efficiencies and, cytotoxicity related to Cas9 and donor DNA. In this thesis, I address these challenges and present methods that we developed to increase HDR efficiencies in multiple model organisms.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that by reducing toxicity high editing efficiencies can be achieved with single stranded oligonucleotide (ssODN) donors. We demonstrate that melting dsDNA donors dramatically improves the ...


Classifying Ingestive Behavior Of Dairy Cows Via Automatic Sound Recognition, Guoming Li, Yijie Xiong, Qian Du, Zhengxiang Shi, Richard S. Gates 2021 Iowa State University

Classifying Ingestive Behavior Of Dairy Cows Via Automatic Sound Recognition, Guoming Li, Yijie Xiong, Qian Du, Zhengxiang Shi, Richard S. Gates

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Determining ingestive behaviors of dairy cows is critical to evaluate their productivity and health status. The objectives of this research were to (1) develop the relationship between forage species/heights and sound characteristics of three different ingestive behaviors (bites, chews, and chew-bites); (2) comparatively evaluate three deep learning models and optimization strategies for classifying the three behaviors; and (3) examine the ability of deep learning modeling for classifying the three ingestive behaviors under various forage characteristics. The results show that the amplitude and duration of the bite, chew, and chew-bite sounds were mostly larger for tall forages (tall fescue and ...


Development Of High Value Oil Traits Using The Model Oilseed Crop Camelina Sativa, Evan Updike 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Development Of High Value Oil Traits Using The Model Oilseed Crop Camelina Sativa, Evan Updike

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Plant oils are an important source of food, fuel, and feed in our society today. The oil found in the seeds of plants is composed almost entirely of triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules, which consist of three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone. As crude oil supplies decline, vegetable oils are gaining traction as a renewable substitute to petroleum-based materials in fuels, lubricants, and specialty oleochemicals. However, as it currently stands vegetable oils do not possess the properties necessary to fill the void of a petroleum free world.

To address this problem, plant biotechnologists have done extensive work on genetic engineering ...


Characterization Of The Growth Factor Receptor Network Oncogenes In Lung Cancer, Ashley Duche 2021 Chapman University

Characterization Of The Growth Factor Receptor Network Oncogenes In Lung Cancer, Ashley Duche

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide, reportedly contributing to 1.8 million of the 10.0 million mortalities documented in the year 2020. Although advancements have been made in therapeutics and diagnostic methods, formulation of effective treatments and development of drug resistance continues to be a challenge. These challenges arise from our lack of understanding of intricate signaling pathways, such as the Growth Factor Receptor Network (GFRN), which contributes to complex lung tumor heterogeneity allowing for drug resistance development. In this study, gene expression signatures of six GFRN oncogenes overexpressed in human mammary epithelial cells ...


Understanding The Role Of Arglu1 In Interferon Signaling Activation In Breast Cancer, Phuoc Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Understanding The Role Of Arglu1 In Interferon Signaling Activation In Breast Cancer, Phuoc Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In the U.S., the highest number of new cancer cases belongs to breast cancer in women, and this cancer also bears the second-highest death rate in women. Despite significant progress in breast cancer treatment that has been made in the past several decades, innovative and efficient therapies are still needed to eradicate this deadly disease. Novel cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) could induce long-lasting responses and improve survival in hard-to-treat malignancies. Regrettably, only a fraction of breast cancer patients respond to this highly promising strategy. To improving ICB therapy in breast cancer treatment, IFN signaling induction is ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Breed And Heterotic Effects For Mature Weight In Beef Cattle, Madeline J. Zimmermann, Larry A. Kuehn, Matthew L. Spangler, R. M. Thallman, Warren M. Snelling, Ronald M. Lewis 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Breed And Heterotic Effects For Mature Weight In Beef Cattle, Madeline J. Zimmermann, Larry A. Kuehn, Matthew L. Spangler, R. M. Thallman, Warren M. Snelling, Ronald M. Lewis

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Cow mature weight (MWT) is heritable and affects the costs and efficiency of a breeding operation. Cow weight is also influenced by the environment, and the relationship between the size and profitability of a cow varies depending on production system. Producers, therefore, need tools to incorporate MWT in their selection of cattle breeds and herd replacements. The objective of this study was to estimate breed and heterotic effects for MWT using weight-age data on crossbred cows. Cow's MWT at 6 yr was predicted from the estimated parameter values-asymptotic weight and maturation constant (k)-from the fit of the Brody ...


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