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Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were …


Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott 2022 Southern Adventist University

Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott

Faculty Works

The AtPRP4 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to function in several specific parts of the plant’s cell wall. It is shown to be expressed in the seeds, radicles, roots, leaves, inflorescences, and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. These patterns have suggested unique functions for ATPRP4 in determining cell-type-specific wall structure during the development of a plant as well as contributing to defense reactions against physical damage to the plant and pathogen infection within the plant. In this study, a simple DNA prep was performed on the true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed using …


A Genetic Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Dams On Sauger Movement Patterns In The Arkansas River, Emily R. Jonagan 2022 Arkansas Tech University

A Genetic Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Dams On Sauger Movement Patterns In The Arkansas River, Emily R. Jonagan

ATU Theses and Dissertations

Decreased habitat connectivity as a result of damming can lead to genetic isolation in fish communities, especially in highly migratory species. Sauger Sander canadensis is a migratory freshwater species native to the Arkansas River. Sauger are highly sought after by anglers during their annual spawning migration in late winter. In order to investigate the impacts Arkansas River dams on Sauger populations, fin clips were collected in the winters of 2019, 2020, and 2021 below eight dams in the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigational System (MKARNS). Fin clips were also collected from two reservoirs in Kansas to serve as distinct reference populations. …


Assessing The Utility Of The Pmm And Mmc Indices Among Extant Hominoid Genera, Julie A. Strain 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Assessing The Utility Of The Pmm And Mmc Indices Among Extant Hominoid Genera, Julie A. Strain

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis set out to incorporate extant hominoid genera into an analysis of PMM and MMC to assess utility in phylogeny and predicting known taxonomic groups. Based on previous claims, we expect PMM/pmm and MMC/mmc to perform better than M1/m1 shape and size, our baseline for success, but they do not.


Individual Beef Cattle Identification Using Muzzle Images And Deep Learning Techniques, Guoming Li, Galen E. Erickson, Yijie Xiong 2022 Iowa State University

Individual Beef Cattle Identification Using Muzzle Images And Deep Learning Techniques, Guoming Li, Galen E. Erickson, Yijie Xiong

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

The ability to identify individual animals has gained great interest in beef feedlots to allow for animal tracking and all applications for precision management of individuals. This study assessed the feasibility and performance of a total of 59 deep learning models in identifying individual cattle with muzzle images. The best identification accuracy was 98.7%, and the fastest processing speed was 28.3 ms/image. A dataset containing 268 US feedlot cattle and 4923 muzzle images was published along with this article. This study demonstrates the great potential of using deep learning techniques to identify individual cattle using muzzle images and to support …


Mechanisms Of Telomere Maintenance In Trypanosoma Brucei, M A G G. Rabbani 2022 Cleveland State University

Mechanisms Of Telomere Maintenance In Trypanosoma Brucei, M A G G. Rabbani

ETD Archive

Telomeres are a nucleoprotein structure at the end of the chromosome and are essential for genome integrity and chromosome stability. Telomere lengths are primarily maintained by a telomerase-mediated pathway but can be maintained by a homologous recombination-mediated pathway. However, detailed mechanisms of telomere maintenance are still unclear in many eukaryotes, including an important human pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei. Telomeres can be elongated by telomerase in T. brucei, a causative agent of fatal sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle. T. brucei evades host immune response by regularly switching its major surface antigen, variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), a process known as …


Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci

Doctoral Dissertations

Nearly all organisms exist in proximity to microbes. These microbes perform most of the essential metabolic processes necessary for homeostasis, forming the nearly hidden support system of Earth. Microbial symbiosis, which is defined as the long-term physical association between host and microbes, relies on communication between the microbial community and their host organism. These interactions among higher order organisms (such as animals, plants, and fungi) and their bacteria links metabolic processes between interkingdom consortia. Many questions on microbial behavior within a host remain poorly understood, such as the colonization efficiency among different microbial species, or how environmental context changes their …


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing …


Crispr-Cas In The Field Of Dentistry: A Comprehensive Collection Of The Potential Uses Of Crispr-Cas9 In Dental Health Care, Lexi Elaine Bales 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Crispr-Cas In The Field Of Dentistry: A Comprehensive Collection Of The Potential Uses Of Crispr-Cas9 In Dental Health Care, Lexi Elaine Bales

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Genetic Variation And Timescale On Diatom Salinity Stress Response, Kala M. Downey 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Genetic Variation And Timescale On Diatom Salinity Stress Response, Kala M. Downey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Natural environments are dynamic, and organisms must sense and respond to changing conditions. One common way organisms deal with stressful environments is through gene expression changes, allowing for stress acclimation and resistance which occurs over varying time spans in different species. The recent evolutionary history of populations could greatly influence their ability to respond successfully. An evolutionary history in disturbed or fluctuating conditions could promote increased resistance or a more rapid response to these environmental stressors. To understand the impact of genotypic variation and timescales on response and acclimation to salinity changes, we have been exploiting the abilities of euryhaline …


Development Of A Long-Read Sequencing Protocol To Assess The Precision And Efficacy Of Gene Editing For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Landon Andrew Burcham 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of A Long-Read Sequencing Protocol To Assess The Precision And Efficacy Of Gene Editing For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Landon Andrew Burcham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work establishes a method for assessing on-target precision due to CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, especially within the context of exon skipping therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The proposed method utilizes an Oxford nanopore long-read sequencing approach to sequence amplified regions of DNA that have been edited using CRISPR-Cas9. NIH3T3 and C2C12 cell lines were treated with a dual-guide CRISPR-Cas9 system, that targets and deletes exon 23 from the DMD gene in mouse samples. Deletion PCR revealed deletion of exon 23 in both DNA and cDNA samples. Additionally, sequencing using Oxford Nanopore revealed targeted exon 23 deletion as the most prevalent …


Comparative Analyses Of De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Pipelines For Diploid Wheat, Natasha Pavlovikj 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Analyses Of De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Pipelines For Diploid Wheat, Natasha Pavlovikj

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Gene expression and transcriptome analysis are currently one of the main focuses of research for a great number of scientists. However, the assembly of raw sequence data to obtain a draft transcriptome of an organism is a complex multi-stage process usually composed of pre-processing, assembling, and post-processing. Each of these stages includes multiple steps such as data cleaning, error correction and assembly validation. Different combinations of steps, as well as different computational methods for the same step, generate transcriptome assemblies with different accuracy. Thus, using a combination that generates more accurate assemblies is crucial for any novel biological discoveries. Implementing …


The Role Of Ccaat Binding Factor In The Regulation Of Catalase Gene Expression In Candida Albicans, Zahra Al-Rumaih 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Role Of Ccaat Binding Factor In The Regulation Of Catalase Gene Expression In Candida Albicans, Zahra Al-Rumaih

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Candida albicans is a fungal opportunistic human pathogen. Its infections range from surficial infections like skin rash to fatal systemic infections. Filamentation growth mode is associated with C. albicans virulence because it helps penetration of the host’s epithelial cells. The CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) is a conserved heterooligomeric transcription factor found in 30% of eukaryotes genes. In C. albicans it is composed of 4 major subunits, including Hap2, Hap3, Hap4, and Hap5. Hap2 and Hap5 are essential for DNA binding and function. Hap4 has 3 homologous subunits: Hap41 and Hap42 are putative subunits of CBP. Hap43 is the only Hap4 subunit …


Repeated Targets Of Natural Selection During Ecological Transitions Of Fish Across Salinity Boundaries, Jonathan P. Velotta, Stephen D. McCormick, Andrew Whitehead, Catherine S. Durso, Eric T. Schultz 2022 University of Denver

Repeated Targets Of Natural Selection During Ecological Transitions Of Fish Across Salinity Boundaries, Jonathan P. Velotta, Stephen D. Mccormick, Andrew Whitehead, Catherine S. Durso, Eric T. Schultz

EEB Articles

Ecological transitions across salinity boundaries have led to some of the most important diversification events in the animal kingdom, especially among fishes. Adaptations accompanying such transitions include changes in morphology, diet, whole-organism performance, and osmoregulatory function, which may be particularly prominent since divergent salinity regimes make opposing demands on systems that maintain ion and water balance. Research in the last decade has focused on the genetic targets underlying such adaptations, most notably by comparing populations of species that are distributed across salinity boundaries. Here, we synthesize research on the targets of natural selection using whole-genome approaches, with a particular emphasis …


Halodash: The Deep And Shallow History Of Aquatic Life's Passages Between Marine And Freshwater Habitats, Eric T. Schultz, Lisa Park Boush 2022 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Halodash: The Deep And Shallow History Of Aquatic Life's Passages Between Marine And Freshwater Habitats, Eric T. Schultz, Lisa Park Boush

EEB Articles

This series of papers highlights research into how biological exchanges between salty and freshwater habitats have transformed the biosphere. Life in the ocean and in freshwaters have long been intertwined; multiple major branches of the tree of life originated in the oceans and then adapted to and diversified in freshwaters. Similar exchanges continue to this day, including some species that continually migrate between marine and fresh waters. The series addresses key themes of transitions, transformations, and current threats with a series of questions: When did major colonizations of fresh waters happen? What physiographic changes facilitated transitions? What organismal characteristics facilitate …


Mutations In The N-Terminus Of The Mod(Mdg4) Btb Domain Reveal An Unexpected Role Of Mod(Mdg4) In Chromosome Segregation In Female Meiosis, Gwyneth D E Walker, Bruce D. McKee 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mutations In The N-Terminus Of The Mod(Mdg4) Btb Domain Reveal An Unexpected Role Of Mod(Mdg4) In Chromosome Segregation In Female Meiosis, Gwyneth D E Walker, Bruce D. Mckee

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha 2022 University of Connecticut

When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha

University Scholar Projects

While we often perceive disease as negative, there is potential to engineer seemingly negative biological phenomena into therapeutics to treat a variety of human illnesses. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disorder involving uncontrolled, widespread, extraskeletal bone growth, or heterotopic ossification (HO). In FOP patients, stem cells called fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) follow an abnormal, osteogenic pathway. In the present study, we investigate whether we can adapt these Acvr1 mutant FAPs, which are exceptional at producing bone, to repair bone fractures in otherwise normal patients. The primary aims of this study are (1) to devise and optimize a novel method …


Characterization Of A Potential Glucose Transporter In Trypanosoma Brucei, Matthew Morgan 2022 Clemson University

Characterization Of A Potential Glucose Transporter In Trypanosoma Brucei, Matthew Morgan

All Theses

Trypanosoma brucei, the African trypanosome, is an organism heavily dependent on glucose for ATP production during the infectious stage of its life cycle. Here, we have explored the role of an uncharacterized protein designated “novel glucose transporter” (NGT) as a potential glucose transporter. Sequence analyses suggests that NGT shares similarities (either at the primary sequence level or structurally) with Trypanosome Hexose Transporters 1 (TbTHT1), and human GLUT3, both of which are membrane sugar transporters. NGT was localized by fluorescence microscopy to subcellular structures consistent with lysosomes. Silencing NGT expression with RNA interference in parasites resulted in a growth defect …


Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The development of complex structures and organs by multicellular organisms relies on the ability of epithelial cells to self-organize. Epithelia are sheets of connected cells, and compartment boundaries are formed between certain epithelial cells to create distinct tissue compartments. Compartment boundaries are specialized cell-cell interfaces that are enriched for the cytoskeletal proteins actin and myosin, leading to straight cell edges under relatively high tension that act as fences keep cells from moving between compartments. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), compartment boundaries in the early embryo are established in response to the non-uniform striped expression of the cell-surface …


Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Sunrise/Sunset Lighting On Corticosterone Levels In Coturnix Quail (Coturnix Coturnix), Hannah Feuerborn

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Both genetics and environment play an important role in the growth, performance and overall welfare of poultry species. Current commercial production practices typically do not mimic the natural environmental conditions of ancestral poultry species, specifically lighting requirements. In nature, poultry species are subjected to natural day length and the slow rising and setting of the sun. This is compared to commercial conditions in which lights are sudden on/off, not mimicking the natural trajectory of the sun in terms of light intensity and exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetics and the effect of sunrise/sunset lighting on …


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