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Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan

Dissertations

The mitochondria are responsible for the bulk of energy production in eukaryotes. They possess their own genome that works in conjunction with the nuclear genome to accomplish the extraordinarily important task of energy conversion. When species hybridize there will be a mismatch in evolutionary histories between these two genomes. The deleterious interactions of these genomes have been studied in great detail (i.e. hybrid breakdown). However, little work has been conducted to understand the population genetic, and morphological consequences of wide-ranging replacement. The Fundulus notatus complex is comprised of 3 species: F. notatus, F. olivaceus, and F. euryzonus. Within the ...


Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Functional Role Of Tick Antioxidants In Hematophagy And Vector Competence, Deepak Kumar

Dissertations

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and harbor several pathogens which transmit various diseases to humans and their domesticated animals. Host blood- digestion in a tick midgut (MG) generates several reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to essential macromolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins, and lipids) within the cell, resulting in high oxidative stress. Thus, this dissertation focuses on the questions of how tick homeostasis responds to high oxidative stress, and how ticks and their harbored pathogens survive the high surge of oxidative stress during blood digestion. We are specifically interested in the tick-pathogen, Rickettsia parkeri (R. parkeri, Rp), harbored ...


Sequence Annotation & Designing Gene-Specific Qpcr Primers (Computational), Raymond A. Enke 2016 enkera@jmu.edu

Sequence Annotation & Designing Gene-Specific Qpcr Primers (Computational), Raymond A. Enke

Ray Enke Ph.D.

This class tested protocol will guide students through the steps for the following activities:
  • Obtaining and annotating genomic DNA and mRNA sequence information
  • Designing primers for quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of a cDNA library


Qpcr Primer Standard Curve Assay (Wet Lab) + Kegg Pathway Analysis (Computational), Raymond A. Enke 2016 enkera@jmu.edu

Qpcr Primer Standard Curve Assay (Wet Lab) + Kegg Pathway Analysis (Computational), Raymond A. Enke

Ray Enke Ph.D.

This class tested protocol will guide students through the steps for the following activities:
  • analyzing qPCR standard curve data to determine primer efficiency
  • analyzing differential gene expression experimental qPCR data
  • applying KEGG pathway analysis of selected candidates genes


Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes 2016 Universidade do Porto

Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity And Adaptation To Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, Imran Khan, Emanuel Maldonado, Vitor Vasconcelos, Stephen J. O'Brien, Warren E. Johnson, Agostinho Antunes

Stephen O'Brien

Background: Adaptation of mammals to terrestrial life was facilitated by the unique vertebrate trait of body hair, which occurs in a range of morphological patterns. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), the major structural hair shaft proteins, are largely responsible for hair variation.

Results: We exhaustively characterized the KRTAP gene family in 22 mammalian genomes, confirming the existence of 30 KRTAP subfamilies evolving at different rates with varying degrees of diversification and homogenization. Within the two major classes of KRTAPs, the high cysteine (HS) subfamily experienced strong concerted evolution, high rates of gene conversion/recombination and high GC content. In contrast, high ...


General Equations For Natural Selection Under Complete Dominance, Kasthuri Kannan, Adriana Heguy 2016 New York University

General Equations For Natural Selection Under Complete Dominance, Kasthuri Kannan, Adriana Heguy

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Comparative Population Genomics And Speciation Of Snakes Across The North American Deserts, Edward A. Myers 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Comparative Population Genomics And Speciation Of Snakes Across The North American Deserts, Edward A. Myers

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Understanding the process of speciation is of central interest to evolutionary biologists. Speciation can be studied using a phylogeographic approach, by identifying regions that promote lineage divergence, addressing whether speciation has occurred with gene flow, and when extended to multiple taxa, addressing if the same patterns of speciation are shared across codistributed groups with different ecologies. Here I examine the comparative phylogeographic histories and population genomics of thirteen snake taxa that are widely distributed and co-occur across the arid southwest of North America. I first quantify the degree to which these species groups have a shared history of population divergence ...


Genomic Insights Into The Ixodes Scapularis Tick Vector Of Lyme Disease, Monika Gulia-Nuss,, Daniel R. Caffrey, Neal S. Silverman, Adam R. Wespiser, Catherine A. Hill 2016 Purdue University

Genomic Insights Into The Ixodes Scapularis Tick Vector Of Lyme Disease, Monika Gulia-Nuss,, Daniel R. Caffrey, Neal S. Silverman, Adam R. Wespiser, Catherine A. Hill

Neal Silverman

Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing approximately 57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick-host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host 'questing ...


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. McCool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots 2016 California State University, Chico

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...


Development Of Genomic Resources For The Evaluation Of Red Snapper, An Emerging Species Candidate For Marine Aquaculture And Stock Enhancement, Adrienne Elise Norrell 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Genomic Resources For The Evaluation Of Red Snapper, An Emerging Species Candidate For Marine Aquaculture And Stock Enhancement, Adrienne Elise Norrell

Master's Theses

The northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is a highly targeted reef fish candidate for marine aquaculture and stock enhancement in the southern United States. This work aimed to develop genomic resources for the genetic management of aquaculture programs and to investigate population structure using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Eighty-four new microsatellite markers were developed through screening of Illumina paired-end sequencing reads. Microsatellite loci and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) generated through Restriction Site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing were assayed in 5 outbred full-sib families to construct a high-density linkage map of the red snapper genome. The map consists of 7,964 markers ...


End Sequence Analysis Toolkit (Esat) Expands The Extractable From Single Cell Rna-Seq Experiments, Alan G. Derr, Chaoxing Yang, Rapolas Zilionis, Alexey Sergushichev, David Blodgett, Sambra D. Redick, Rita Bortell, Jeremy Luban, David Harlan, Sebastian Kadener, Dale L. Greiner, Allon Klein, Maxim Artyomov, Manuel Garber 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

End Sequence Analysis Toolkit (Esat) Expands The Extractable From Single Cell Rna-Seq Experiments, Alan G. Derr, Chaoxing Yang, Rapolas Zilionis, Alexey Sergushichev, David Blodgett, Sambra D. Redick, Rita Bortell, Jeremy Luban, David Harlan, Sebastian Kadener, Dale L. Greiner, Allon Klein, Maxim Artyomov, Manuel Garber

Open Access Articles

RNA-seq protocols that focus on transcript termini are well-suited for applications in which template quantity is limiting. Here we show that, when applied to end-sequencing data, analytical methods designed for global RNA-seq produce computational artifacts. To remedy this we created the End Sequence Analysis Toolkit (ESAT). As a test, we first compared end-sequencing and bulk RNA-seq using RNA from dendritic cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As predicted by the telescripting model for transcriptional bursts, ESAT detected an LPS-stimulated shift to shorter 3'-isoforms that was not evident by conventional computational methods. Then, droplet-based microfluidics was used to generate 1,000 ...


Integrative Analysis Of The Caenorhabditis Elegans Genome By The Modencode Project, Sarah Petersen, et al. 2016 Kenyon College

Integrative Analysis Of The Caenorhabditis Elegans Genome By The Modencode Project, Sarah Petersen, Et Al.

Sarah Petersen

We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematodeCaenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor–binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor–binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with ...


A Spatial And Temporal Map Of C. Elegans Gene Expression., Sarah Petersen, et al. 2016 Selected Works

A Spatial And Temporal Map Of C. Elegans Gene Expression., Sarah Petersen, Et Al.

Sarah Petersen

The C. elegans genome has been completely sequenced, and the developmental anatomy of this model organism is described at single-cell resolution. Here we utilize strategies that exploit this precisely defined architecture to link gene expression to cell type. We obtained RNAs from specific cells and from each developmental stage using tissue-specific promoters to mark cells for isolation by FACS or for mRNA extraction by the mRNA-tagging method. We then generated gene expression profiles of more than 30 different cells and developmental stages using tiling arrays. Machine-learning-based analysis detected transcripts corresponding to established gene models and revealed novel transcriptionally active regions ...


Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of De Novo Genome Assemblies Of Streptomyces Aureofaciens Atcc 10762, Julien S. Gradnigo 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of De Novo Genome Assemblies Of Streptomyces Aureofaciens Atcc 10762, Julien S. Gradnigo

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Streptomyces aureofaciens is a Gram-positive Actinomycete used for commercial antibiotic production. Although it has been the subject of many biochemical studies, no public genome resource was available prior to this project. To address this need, the genome of S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762 was sequenced using a combination of sequencing platforms (Illumina and 454-shotgun). Multiple de novo assembly methods (SGA, IDBA, Trinity, SOAPdenovo2, MIRA, Velvet and SPAdes) as well as combinations of these methods were assessed to determine which provided the most robust assembly. Combination strategies led to a consistent overestimation of the total genome size. Empirical data from targeted PCR ...


Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparative Genomics, Transcriptomics, And Physiology Distinguish Symbiotic From Free-Living Chlorella Strains, Cristian F. Quispe, Olivia Sonderman, Maya Khasin, Wayne R. Riekhof, James Van Etten, Kenneth Nickerson

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Most animal–microbe symbiotic interactions must be advantageous to the host and provide nutritional benefits to the endosymbiont. When the host provides nutrients, it can gain the capacity to control the interaction, promote self-growth, and increase its fitness. Chlorella-like green algae engage in symbiotic relationships with certain protozoans, a partnership that significantly impacts the physiology of both organisms. Consequently, it is often challenging to grow axenic Chlorella cultures after isolation from the host because they are nutrient fastidious and often susceptible to virus infection. We hypothesize that the establishment of a symbiotic relationship resulted in natural selection for nutritional and ...


Distribution Of Genomic Variation In The Usda Soybean Germplasm Collection And Relationship With Phenotypic Variation, Nonoy Batiller Bandillo 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Distribution Of Genomic Variation In The Usda Soybean Germplasm Collection And Relationship With Phenotypic Variation, Nonoy Batiller Bandillo

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection harbors a large stock of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate soybean cultivar development. The extent and nature of favorable alleles contained in the collection are not well known nor is the distribution of genetic variation and how it relates to phenotypic variation. The genotyping of the entire USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection marked the beginning of a systematic exploration of genetic diversity for genetic research and breeding. In this research, we conducted the first comprehensive analysis of population structure on the collection of ~14,400 soybean accessions [Glycine max (L.) Merr. and G. soja Siebold ...


Rna-Seq Analysis In Gills Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Infected With Newly Identified Isav Strains In The Atlantic Canada Region, Francis LeBlanc 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Rna-Seq Analysis In Gills Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Infected With Newly Identified Isav Strains In The Atlantic Canada Region, Francis Leblanc

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. McDougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotopes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. DeJong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Gregory P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull 2016 University of Pittsburgh - Main Campus

Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotopes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. Dejong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Gregory P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull

Gregory J. Boyle

Genomic analysis of a large set of phages infecting the common hostMycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 shows that they span considerable genetic diversity. There are more than 20 distinct types that lack nucleotide similarity with each other, and there is considerable diversity within most of the groups. Three newly isolated temperate mycobacteriophages, Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey, constitute a new group (cluster M), with the closely related phages Bongo and PegLeg forming subcluster M1 and the more distantly related Rey forming subcluster M2. The cluster M mycobacteriophages have siphoviral morphologies with unusually long tails, are homoimmune, and have larger than average ...


Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotopes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. DeJong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Gregory P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull 2016 University of Pittsburgh - Main Campus

Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotopes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. Dejong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Gregory P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull

Gregory J. Boyle

Genomic analysis of a large set of phages infecting the common hostMycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 shows that they span considerable genetic diversity. There are more than 20 distinct types that lack nucleotide similarity with each other, and there is considerable diversity within most of the groups. Three newly isolated temperate mycobacteriophages, Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey, constitute a new group (cluster M), with the closely related phages Bongo and PegLeg forming subcluster M1 and the more distantly related Rey forming subcluster M2. The cluster M mycobacteriophages have siphoviral morphologies with unusually long tails, are homoimmune, and have larger than average genomes (80 ...


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