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Coping With Environmental Constraints: Geographically Divergent Adaptive Evolution And Germination Plasticity In The Transcontinental Populus Tremuloides, Roos Goessen, Nathalie Isabel, Christian Wehenkel, Nathalie Pavy, Lisa Tischenko, Lyne Touchette, Isabelle Giguère, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Karen E. Mock, Javier Hernández-Velasco, Sergio Leonel Simental-Rodriguez, Jean Bousquet, Ilga M. Porth 2022 Université Laval

Coping With Environmental Constraints: Geographically Divergent Adaptive Evolution And Germination Plasticity In The Transcontinental Populus Tremuloides, Roos Goessen, Nathalie Isabel, Christian Wehenkel, Nathalie Pavy, Lisa Tischenko, Lyne Touchette, Isabelle Giguère, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Karen E. Mock, Javier Hernández-Velasco, Sergio Leonel Simental-Rodriguez, Jean Bousquet, Ilga M. Porth

Aspen Bibliography

Societal Impact Statement

Syntheses clearly show that global warming is affecting ecosystems and biodiversity around the world. New methods and measures are needed to predict the climate resilience of plant species critical to ecosystem stability, to improve ecological management and to support habitat restoration and human well-being. Widespread keystone species such as aspen are important targets in the study of resilience to future climate conditions because they play a crucial role in maintaining various ecosystem functions and may contain genetic material with untapped adaptive potential. Here, we present a new framework in support of climate-resilient revegetation based on comprehensively understood …


The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown 2022 Dartmouth College

The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition, a critical cellular process in development, is frequently co-opted by solid tumors to promote invasion and metastasis. In particular, the hybrid or intermediate EMT state, possessing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, is associated with increased cancer stemness and plasticity. Similarly, intra-tumoral heterogeneity in solid tumors, in particular breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis. We sought to understand the link between the generation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the intermediate EMT state and their impact on tumor progression and patient prognosis. As part of my thesis work, I developed a model …


Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers I: Effects On Dam Hormonal And Metabolic Status, Fetal Tissue And Organ Mass, And Concentration Of Glucose And Fructose In Fetal Fluids At D 83 Of Gestation, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Kacie L. McCathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen 2022 North Dakota State University

Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers I: Effects On Dam Hormonal And Metabolic Status, Fetal Tissue And Organ Mass, And Concentration Of Glucose And Fructose In Fetal Fluids At D 83 Of Gestation, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Kacie L. Mccathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Thirty-five crossbred Angus heifers (initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation [VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) vs. unsupplemented (NoVTM)] and different rates of gain [GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, vs. moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d] during the first 83 d of gestation on dam hormone and metabolic status, fetal tissue and organ mass, and concentration of glucose and fructose in fetal fluids. The VMSUP was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI), allowing time for mineral status of heifers to be …


Breeding Sustainable Beef Cows: Reducing Weight And Increasing Productivity, Warren M. Snelling, R. Mark Thallman, Matthew L. Spangler, Larry A. Kuehn 2022 USDA ARS Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Breeding Sustainable Beef Cows: Reducing Weight And Increasing Productivity, Warren M. Snelling, R. Mark Thallman, Matthew L. Spangler, Larry A. Kuehn

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Programs for sustainable beef production are established, but the specific role of beef cows in these systems is not well defined. This work characterized cows for two traits related to sustainability, cow weight (CW) and cumulative weight weaned (WtW). Cow weight indicates nutrient requirements and enteric methane emissions. Cumulative weight weaned reflects reproductive performance and avoidance of premature culling for characteristics related to animal health, welfare, and worker safety. Both traits were evaluated with random regression models with records from a crossbred population representing 18 breeds that conduct US national cattle evaluations. The genomic REML analyses included additive and dominance …


Statistical Genetic Discoveries Using Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method, Erika Wu 2022 Princess Anne High School, Virginia Beach

Statistical Genetic Discoveries Using Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method, Erika Wu

2022 REYES Proceedings

In statistical genetics, genetic association and genomic prediction become more successful with a highly heritable trait. Identifying highly heritable components of a complex disease can thus advance scientific understanding of the disease and potentially lead to effective prevention and treatments. Using Matlab and existing large-scale genome datasets, we evaluate a restricted maximum likelihood approach to identify highly heritable components of a complex disease as a function of multiple clinical variables.


Beta-Adrenergic Agonists Alter Oxidative Phosphorylation In Primary Myoblasts (Short Communication), Renae Sieck, Leah K. Treffer, Anna M. Fuller, Martonio Ponte Viana, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Ty B. Schmidt, Dustin T. Yates, Jessica Lynn Petersen 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Beta-Adrenergic Agonists Alter Oxidative Phosphorylation In Primary Myoblasts (Short Communication), Renae Sieck, Leah K. Treffer, Anna M. Fuller, Martonio Ponte Viana, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Ty B. Schmidt, Dustin T. Yates, Jessica Lynn Petersen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Beta-adrenergic agonists (β-AAs) are widely used supplements in beef and pork production to improve feed efficiency and increase lean muscle mass, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism by which β-AAs achieve this outcome. Our objective was to identify the influence of ractopamine HCl and zilpaterol HCl on mitochondrial respiratory activity in muscle satellite cells isolated from crossbred beef steers (N = 5), crossbred barrows (N = 2), Yorkshire-cross gilts (N = 3), and commercial weather lambs (N = 5). Real-time measurements of oxygen con­sumption rates (OCRs) were recorded using extracellular …


Diversity In Darkness: Shedding Light On Cryptic Species In The Cave Beetle Genus Darlingtonea Valentine Using 3rad Sequencing And Consequences Of Climate Change Based On Thermal Tolerance And Dehydration Resistance, Athanasios S. Apostolopoulos 2022 Western Kentucky University

Diversity In Darkness: Shedding Light On Cryptic Species In The Cave Beetle Genus Darlingtonea Valentine Using 3rad Sequencing And Consequences Of Climate Change Based On Thermal Tolerance And Dehydration Resistance, Athanasios S. Apostolopoulos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationship between geographic distribution and phylogeny is pronounced in patchy, discontinuous habitats that limit gene flow, such as cave ecosystems. The isolating nature and selective pressures of cave environments can result in relatively high levels of endemism and cryptic speciation in cave faunas. Cryptic speciation exhibited in cave faunas is poorly studied, though it is an integral aspect to consider when discussing conservation efforts.

Our study employed the 3RAD genomic sequencing technique and robust population sampling across the distribution of a monotypic genus of cave beetle, Darlingtonea Valentine, that inhabits karst systems in a nearly 200 square mile range …


Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John MacMicking, Sheng Yang He 2022 Duke University

Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John Macmicking, Sheng Yang He

Biology Faculty Publications

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates (GDACs) …


Metaphylactic Antimicrobial Effects On Occurrences Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Salmonella Enterica, Escherichia Coli And Enterococcus Spp. Measured Longitudinally From Feedlot Arrival To Harvest In High-Risk Beef Cattle, Nathan S. Long, James E. Wells, Elaine D. Berry, Jerrad F. Legako, Dale R. Woerner, Guy H. Loneragan, Paul R. Broadway, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Samodha C. Fernando, Carley M. Bacon, Cory L. Helmuth, Taylor M. Smock, Jeff L. Manahan, Ashley A. Hoffman, Kristin E. Hales 2022 Texas Tech University

Metaphylactic Antimicrobial Effects On Occurrences Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Salmonella Enterica, Escherichia Coli And Enterococcus Spp. Measured Longitudinally From Feedlot Arrival To Harvest In High-Risk Beef Cattle, Nathan S. Long, James E. Wells, Elaine D. Berry, Jerrad F. Legako, Dale R. Woerner, Guy H. Loneragan, Paul R. Broadway, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Samodha C. Fernando, Carley M. Bacon, Cory L. Helmuth, Taylor M. Smock, Jeff L. Manahan, Ashley A. Hoffman, Kristin E. Hales

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Aims: Our objective was to determine how injectable antimicrobials affected populations of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in feedlot cattle.

Methods and Results: Two arrival date blocks of high-risk crossbred beef cattle (n = 249; mean BW = 244 kg) were randomly assigned one of four antimicrobial treatments administered on day 0: sterile saline control (CON), tulathromycin (TUL), ceftiofur (CEF) or florfenicol (FLR). Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 28, 56, 112, 182 and study end (day 252 for block 1 and day 242 for block 2). Hide swabs and subiliac …


Etiology Of Sterile Intra-Amniotic Inflammation: An Exploratory Study, Zoe M. Taylor 2022 University of South Florida

Etiology Of Sterile Intra-Amniotic Inflammation: An Exploratory Study, Zoe M. Taylor

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Preterm birth is the event of spontaneous birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation. In the United States, 1 in 10 babies are born prematurely. Low gestational age has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. Preterm birth is multifactorial, where a myriad of contributors have been identified to include inflammation, chorioamnionitis, and inflammatory conditions to include hypertension and diabetes. To further explore the role inflammation plays in low gestational age, a literature review was done using PubMed. Two classes of inflammation quickly emerged: Pathogen born intra-amniotic inflammation and Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation. The latter form of inflammation has no identifiable …


Astronauts Plasma-Derived Exosomes Induced Aberrant Ezh2-Mediated H3k27me3 Epigenetic Regulation Of The Vitamin D Receptor, Malik Bisserier, Agnieszka Brojakowska, Nathaniel Saffran, Amit Kumar Rai, Brooke Lee, Matthew Coleman, Aimy Sebastian, Angela Evans, Paul J Mills, Sankar Addya, Arsen Arakelyan, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Lahouaria Hadri, David A Goukassian 2022 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Astronauts Plasma-Derived Exosomes Induced Aberrant Ezh2-Mediated H3k27me3 Epigenetic Regulation Of The Vitamin D Receptor, Malik Bisserier, Agnieszka Brojakowska, Nathaniel Saffran, Amit Kumar Rai, Brooke Lee, Matthew Coleman, Aimy Sebastian, Angela Evans, Paul J Mills, Sankar Addya, Arsen Arakelyan, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, Lahouaria Hadri, David A Goukassian

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

There are unique stressors in the spaceflight environment. Exposure to such stressors may be associated with adverse effects on astronauts' health, including increased cancer and cardiovascular disease risks. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs, i.e., exosomes) play a vital role in intercellular communication and regulate various biological processes contributing to their role in disease pathogenesis. To assess whether spaceflight alters sEVs transcriptome profile, sEVs were isolated from the blood plasma of 3 astronauts at two different time points: 10 days before launch (L-10) and 3 days after return (R+3) from the Shuttle mission. AC16 cells (human cardiomyocyte cell line) were treated with …


Knowledge And Attitudes Of Pharmacogenetics Among Canadian Nurses: Implications For Nursing Education, Noopur Swadas, Sarah Dewell, Sandra J. Davidson 2022 University of Calgary

Knowledge And Attitudes Of Pharmacogenetics Among Canadian Nurses: Implications For Nursing Education, Noopur Swadas, Sarah Dewell, Sandra J. Davidson

Quality Advancement in Nursing Education - Avancées en formation infirmière

Pharmacogenetic testing is used to tailor medication recommendations based on an individual's genetic makeup. Increased precision in prescribing medication through the use of genetics leads to a reduction in adverse drug reactions resulting in decreased morbidity and mortality. Due to the noted benefits to patient health outcomes and reduction in healthcare costs, a growing number of Canadian health centers and community pharmacies are beginning to offer pharmacogenetic testing. Previous studies indicate that Canadian nurses have minimal education in genomics; however, there has been an increase in attention to nursing roles in the implementation of genomic health practices in recent years. …


Clearing The Air Between Methane And Commercial Beef Cattle In Ireland, Clodagh V. Ryan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Clearing The Air Between Methane And Commercial Beef Cattle In Ireland, Clodagh V. Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Rumen methanogenesis is the single most significant source of anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions. This research aimed to analyse CH4 data recorded by GreenFeed systems by assessing the repeatability of such phenotypic measures, estimating the heritability of CH4, and generating CH4 estimated breeding values (EBVs) for inclusion in the national breeding index.

Methods

CH4 measurements were recorded on 979 cattle for 20 to 83 days using GreenFeed machines, resulting in 211,136 individual CH4 observations. The phenotypic repeatability of CH4 was estimated for six different averaging periods using a linear mixed …


Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Variations In The Myostatin Gene Among Irish Cattle Breeds, Cliona Ann Ryan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

No abstract provided.


Re-Assessing The Importance Of Linear Type Traits In Predicting Genetic Merit For Survival In An Aging Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cow Population., Maeve Williams 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark, Cork, Ireland

Re-Assessing The Importance Of Linear Type Traits In Predicting Genetic Merit For Survival In An Aging Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cow Population., Maeve Williams

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Linear type traits were originally scored as a means of predicting functionality manifesting itself as greater cow longevity. Existing studies relating linear type traits to dairy cow longevity were generally restricted to young cows. Improved reproductive performance, however, is contributing to an aging cow population. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate if the genetic correlations between linear type traits and survival in each parity changes as cows age.

Methods

After edits, 152,894 lactation survival records (1st to 9th parity) were available from 52,447 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, along with linear type trait records from 52,121 Holstein-Friesian dairy …


Mining Of Producer Recorded Data; Using Beef Calf And Cow Live-Weight Data As A Case Study, Shauna Walsh 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc, Moorepark, Cork, Ireland

Mining Of Producer Recorded Data; Using Beef Calf And Cow Live-Weight Data As A Case Study, Shauna Walsh

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Animal live-weight contributes to profitability in beef herds and is a key determinant of overall efficiency of the beef sector. The objective was to develop a novel editing criteria for anomaly detection of beef cow and calf live-weight data. Live-weight data from five sources (i.e., professionally-recorded, owned-scales, borrowed-scales, scales hired from a depot, other) were available from the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation.

A number of alternative methods were used for anomaly detection including: generation of within-herd regression estimates, partial correlations between cow and calf live-weight records and mahalanobis distance. Across each method a value was calculated for each herd based …


Genetic Trends For Carcass Traits Within Breeds In A Multi-Breed Evaluation, Shauna Mulhall 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Genetic Trends For Carcass Traits Within Breeds In A Multi-Breed Evaluation, Shauna Mulhall

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Most genetic evaluations and breeding objectives worldwide for beef traits tend to be on a within breed basis. Ireland is relatively unique in publishing national multi-breed genetic and genomic evaluation for carcass traits. The focus of this research is to determine genetic trends in carcass traits within each of the common sire breeds used in both dairy and beef populations. Estimated breeding values for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat were available on 8,375,561 animals from the national carcass genetic evaluation. The mean of each animal’s sire EBV was estimated for each animal’s birth year for carcass weight, carcass …


A Decade Of Gigascience: A Perspective On Conservation Genetics, Stephen James O'Brien 2022 Nova Southeastern University

A Decade Of Gigascience: A Perspective On Conservation Genetics, Stephen James O'Brien

Biology Faculty Articles

Wide interest in species conservation is young. To many it began early in 1903 when Teddy Roosevelt and John Muir set up a camp under the Grizzly Giant in the Mariposa Grove of California's Yosemite Valley. Over three days they decided to broaden the US National Park footprint across the USA. Conservationists were inspired in the coming decades by the writings of wildlife conservation pioneers—Osa Johnson (I Married Adventure), Karen Blixen (Out of Africa) and Rachel Carson (The Silent Spring). Countless crusaders developed a passion for preserving dwindling species in those early days, yet …


Very Long Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency Diagnosed By Michigan Newborn Screening And Their Cardiac Complications, Lindsay Jenkins, Kara Pappas MD, Shagun Kaur MD, Marissa Younan MS, CGC 2022 Wayne State University

Very Long Chain Acyl-Coa Dehydrogenase Deficiency Diagnosed By Michigan Newborn Screening And Their Cardiac Complications, Lindsay Jenkins, Kara Pappas Md, Shagun Kaur Md, Marissa Younan Ms, Cgc

Medical Student Research Symposium

With the expansion of newborn screening (NBS), there has been an increase in the number of patients diagnosed with genetic and metabolic conditions before the onset of symptoms. Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (VLCADD) is a genetic disorder of fatty acid metabolism that can cause hypoglycemia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrhythmias. VLCADD was included in the Michigan NBS in 2005 and since then, our center has diagnosed 28 patients with VLCADD. We have observed that many of these patients are asymptomatic or have a mild disease presentation. These patients may also have a lower incidence of cardiac complications than …


Compensatory Phenolic Induction Dynamics In Aspen After Aphid Infestation, Rajarshi Kumar Gaur, Ilka Nacif de Abreu, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen 2022 Umeå Plant Science Centre

Compensatory Phenolic Induction Dynamics In Aspen After Aphid Infestation, Rajarshi Kumar Gaur, Ilka Nacif De Abreu, Benedicte Riber Albrectsen

Aspen Bibliography

Condensed tannins (CTs) are polyphenolics and part of the total phenolic (TP) pool that shape resistance in aspen (Populus tremula). CTs are negatively associated with pathogens, but their resistance properties against herbivores are less understood. CTs shape resistance to pathogens and chewing herbivores and could also shape resistance to aphids. Being chemical pools that are highly variable it can further be questioned whether CT-shaped resistance is better described by constitutive levels, by the induced response potential, or by both. Here, aspen genotypes were propagated and selected to represent a range of inherent abilities to produce and store foliar …


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