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Comparison Of Multiple Imputation Algorithms And Verification Using Whole-Genome Sequencing In The Cmuh Genetic Biobank, Ting-Yuan Liu, Chih-Fan Lin, Hsing-Tsung Wu, Ya-Lun Wu, Yu-Chia Chen, Chi-Chou Liao, Yu-Pao Chou, Dysan Chao, Hsing-Fang Lu, Ya-Sian Chang, Jan-Gowth Chang, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Fuu‑Jen Tsai 2021 China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan

Comparison Of Multiple Imputation Algorithms And Verification Using Whole-Genome Sequencing In The Cmuh Genetic Biobank, Ting-Yuan Liu, Chih-Fan Lin, Hsing-Tsung Wu, Ya-Lun Wu, Yu-Chia Chen, Chi-Chou Liao, Yu-Pao Chou, Dysan Chao, Hsing-Fang Lu, Ya-Sian Chang, Jan-Gowth Chang, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Fuu‑Jen Tsai

BioMedicine

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be conducted to systematically analyze the contributions of genetic factors to a wide variety of complex diseases. Nevertheless, existing GWASs have provided highly ethnic specific data. Accordingly, to provide data specific to Taiwan, we established a large-scale genetic database in a single medical institution at the China Medical University Hospital. With current technological limitations, microarray analysis can detect only a limited number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency of >1%. Nevertheless, imputation represents a useful alternative means of expanding data. In this study, we compared four imputation algorithms in terms of ...


Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong

Masters Theses

Trypanosoma brucei and related protists are distinguished from all other eukaryotes by an unusual mitochondrial genome known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Replication of this single nucleoid involves a release, replicate, and reattach mechanism for the thousands of catenated minicircles and requires at least three DNA polymerase (POLIB, POLIC and POLID) with similarity to E. coli DNA polymerase I. Like other proofreading replicative DNA polymerases, POLIB has both an annotated polymerase domain and an exonuclease domain. Predictive modelling of POLIB indicates that it has the canonical right hand polymerase structure with ...


Global Gene Expression Analysis Of Systemic Sclerosis Myofibroblasts Demonstrates A Marked Increase In The Expression Of Multiple Nbpf Genes, Giuseppina Abignano, Heidi Hermes, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sankar Addya, Francesco Del Galdo, Sergio A. Jimenez 2021 University of Leeds

Global Gene Expression Analysis Of Systemic Sclerosis Myofibroblasts Demonstrates A Marked Increase In The Expression Of Multiple Nbpf Genes, Giuseppina Abignano, Heidi Hermes, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sankar Addya, Francesco Del Galdo, Sergio A. Jimenez

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Myofibroblasts are the key effector cells responsible for the exaggerated tissue fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Despite their importance to SSc pathogenesis, the specific transcriptome of SSc myofibroblasts has not been described. The purpose of this study was to identify transcriptome differences between SSc myofibroblasts and non-myofibroblastic cells. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expressing myofibroblasts and α-SMA negative cells were isolated employing laser capture microdissection from dermal cell cultures from four patients with diffuse SSc of recent onset. Total mRNA was extracted from both cell populations, amplified and analyzed employing microarrays. Results for specific genes were validated by Western blots ...


Determining The Primary Dna Substrates Of Shld2'S Ob-Fold Domains, Hari Patchigolla 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Determining The Primary Dna Substrates Of Shld2'S Ob-Fold Domains, Hari Patchigolla

Holster Scholar Projects

Failure to repair DNA double-stranded breaks leads to cell death. Radiation therapy is commonly used to kill cancer cells by inducing these breaks. However resistance to radiation therapy, due to a hyperactive DNA double-stranded break repair pathway, is a common occurrence that makes cancer patients more prone to relapse. The Shieldin complex is shown to promote DNA-double stranded break repair by binding to DNA at sites of damage. Thus, the objective of this project is to understand the affinity and type of DNA that Shieldin binds to, through gel-shift assays, for the eventual creation of an inhibitor for this protein ...


Establishment Of A Pesticide Resistance Monitoring Tool For The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus Urticae, Hanna Varonina 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Establishment Of A Pesticide Resistance Monitoring Tool For The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus Urticae, Hanna Varonina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), or Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is a major agriculture pest known for its rapid development of resistance to pesticides. The analysis of spider mites’ pesticide resistance demonstrated that resistance patterns and frequencies vary between T. urticae strains collected from different geographic locations and host plants. This research aims at characterization of pesticide resistance patterns in mite populations present in greenhouses in the Southwestern Ontario by identifying genetic and metabolic markers of their pesticide resistance. The establishment of these markers lays the basis for development of a pesticide resistance diagnostic tool that will enable prediction of population resistance ...


Student Perceptions Of Authoring A Publication Stemming From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure), Ashley N. Turner, Anil K. Challa, Katelyn M. Cooper 2021 Jacksonville State University

Student Perceptions Of Authoring A Publication Stemming From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure), Ashley N. Turner, Anil K. Challa, Katelyn M. Cooper

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) engage students in authentic research experiences in a course format and can sometimes result in the publication of that research. However, little is known about student-author perceptions of CURE publications. In this study, we examined how students perceive they benefit from authoring a CURE publication and what they believe is required for authorship of a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal. All 16 students who were enrolled in a molecular genetics CURE during their first year of college participated in semistructured interviews during their fourth year. At the time of the interviews, students had been authors ...


Neurological Gene Jus Is Associated With Aging-Related Muscle Loss In The Fly Model Of Sarcopenia., Soobin An 2021 Kennesaw State University

Neurological Gene Jus Is Associated With Aging-Related Muscle Loss In The Fly Model Of Sarcopenia., Soobin An

Symposium of Student Scholars

Sarcopenia is a health condition in the elderly that is associated with degradation of muscle size, mass, and function. It can cause physical disability and, in extreme cases, death. The genetic aspect of sarcopenia is still not well understood. To shed light on sarcopenia mechanisms, we investigated muscle loss in aging fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. Our hypothesis was that aging-dependent muscle degradation can be affected by suboptimal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). We used RNA interference and tissue-specific genetic drivers to induce a selective knockdown (KD) of the julius seizure gene (jus), which is associated with neurological phenotypes ...


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and ...


Fine-Scale Morphological Divergence Of Wing Trait Variables In Highly Fragmented Populations Of The Bog Copper Butterfly (Lycaena Epixanthe), Jessica L. T. Jeong 2021 Western University

Fine-Scale Morphological Divergence Of Wing Trait Variables In Highly Fragmented Populations Of The Bog Copper Butterfly (Lycaena Epixanthe), Jessica L. T. Jeong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Habitat fragmentation can adversely affect animal and plant species through subdividing their natural habitats into smaller, more isolated patches. Oftentimes, these isolated groups are subject to reduced dispersal and gene flow, leading to genetic divergence and, consequently, morphological divergence among populations. This study aims to quantify the morphological divergence of the bog copper butterfly, Lycaena epixanthe, between nine isolated bog sites in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, via seven quantitative morphological traits in their wing pattern. Statistical analyses demonstrate significant differences in wing trait measurements between populations. As bog coppers are small, weak fliers with a strict host-plant dependency, it is ...


Functional Characterization Of Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms In Soybean, Ramtin Sirjani 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Functional Characterization Of Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms In Soybean, Ramtin Sirjani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Phenylalanine flux is partitioned between phenylpropanoid and protein synthesis. The mechanisms behind the metabolic channeling of phenylalanine are largely unknown. Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) enzymes, which catalyze the last and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of phenylalanine in plants, have been shown to interact with the isoflavonoid metabolon in the cytosol. Cytosolic phenylalanine, however, can only be synthesized through prephenate dehydratase (PDT) activity. In this study, putative soybean ADTs (GmADTs) were characterized for their ADT and PDT activity. This was done using complementation assays with two different knockout yeast strains, aro8aro9 and pha2, which lack prephenate aminotransferase and PDT activity, respectively ...


Overcoming Obstacles In Protein Expression In The Yeast Pichia Pastoris: Interviews Of Leaders In The Pichia Field, Zoe Ingram, Abha Patkar, Dahoon Oh, Kevin K. Zhang, Christina Chung, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P. Lin-Cereghino 2021 University of the Pacific

Overcoming Obstacles In Protein Expression In The Yeast Pichia Pastoris: Interviews Of Leaders In The Pichia Field, Zoe Ingram, Abha Patkar, Dahoon Oh, Kevin K. Zhang, Christina Chung, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P. Lin-Cereghino

Pacific Journal of Health

The yeast Pichia pastoris (also known as Komagataella pastoris) has been used for over 30 years to produce thousands of valuable, heterologous proteins, such as insulin to treat diabetes and antibodies to prevent migraine headaches. Despite its success, there are some common, stubborn problems encountered by research scientists when they try to use the yeast to produce their recombinant proteins. In order to provide those working in this field with strategies to overcome these common obstacles, nine experts in P. pastoris protein expression field were interviewed to create a written review and video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1oD6k8CdG8 ...


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity ...


Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh 2021 University of Dayton

Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Numerous imaging modules are utilized to study changes that occur during cellular processes. Besides qualitative (immunohistochemical) or semiquantitative (Western blot) approaches, direct quantitation method(s) for detecting and analyzing signal intensities for disease(s) biomarkers are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop method(s) to quantitate specific signals and eliminate noise during live tissue imaging. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•-) radicals results in oxidative damage of biomolecules, which leads to oxidative stress. This can be detected by dihydroethidium staining in live tissue(s), which does not rely on fixation and helps prevent ...


An Exploration Of The Properties Of Repair Template Dna That Promote Precision Genome Editing, Krishna S. Ghanta 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Exploration Of The Properties Of Repair Template Dna That Promote Precision Genome Editing, Krishna S. Ghanta

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

CRISPR/Cas9 induced DNA breaks can be precisely repaired by cellular homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways using exogenously provided template DNA (donor). However, the full potential of precision editing is hindered in many model systems by low cutting efficiencies, low HDR efficiencies and, cytotoxicity related to Cas9 and donor DNA. In this thesis, I address these challenges and present methods that we developed to increase HDR efficiencies in multiple model organisms.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that by reducing toxicity high editing efficiencies can be achieved with single stranded oligonucleotide (ssODN) donors. We demonstrate that melting dsDNA donors dramatically improves the ...


Understanding The Role Of Arglu1 In Interferon Signaling Activation In Breast Cancer, Phuoc Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Understanding The Role Of Arglu1 In Interferon Signaling Activation In Breast Cancer, Phuoc Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In the U.S., the highest number of new cancer cases belongs to breast cancer in women, and this cancer also bears the second-highest death rate in women. Despite significant progress in breast cancer treatment that has been made in the past several decades, innovative and efficient therapies are still needed to eradicate this deadly disease. Novel cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) could induce long-lasting responses and improve survival in hard-to-treat malignancies. Regrettably, only a fraction of breast cancer patients respond to this highly promising strategy. To improving ICB therapy in breast cancer treatment, IFN signaling induction is ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Marker-Assisted Selection To Determine The Introgression Of Rpv-3 Mediated Downy Mildew Resistance In 'Chambourcin' X 'Caberenet Sauvignon' Grapevine Population, Kavya Sri Tummala 2021 Missouri State University

Marker-Assisted Selection To Determine The Introgression Of Rpv-3 Mediated Downy Mildew Resistance In 'Chambourcin' X 'Caberenet Sauvignon' Grapevine Population, Kavya Sri Tummala

MSU Graduate Theses

Downy mildew caused by the fungus, Plasmopara viticola in the grapes is one of the major diseases affecting crop yield throughout the world. Breeding grapes via conventional methods for the downy mildew resistance will take approximately 25-30 years to fully evaluate and release new cultivars. Because of the long breeding cycle in woody plant species like grape, developing DNA markers linked to genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for horticultural traits can greatly accelerate the breeding process and allow a much more accurate selection of progeny. This study aims to determine the presence of resistance in the 267 F1 genotypes ...


The Biodiversity Of Freshwater Crustaceans As Revealed By Taxonomy And Mitochondrial Dna Barcodes, Adrian Amelio Vasquez, Brittany L. Bonnici, Donna R. Kashian, Jorge Trejo-Martinez, Carol J. Miller, Jeffrey L. Ram 2021 Wayne State University

The Biodiversity Of Freshwater Crustaceans As Revealed By Taxonomy And Mitochondrial Dna Barcodes, Adrian Amelio Vasquez, Brittany L. Bonnici, Donna R. Kashian, Jorge Trejo-Martinez, Carol J. Miller, Jeffrey L. Ram

Physiology Faculty Research Publications

Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences in this file were obtained from specimens collected by plankton net in western Lake Erie in 2012 & 2013, along with later specimens collected at various locations and times, including some collected in Belize in 2015. Methods and other details about these sequences are described in a paper by the same authors in a submitted publication (2021: URL to be given here when published). The right columns below contain additional notes on lengths of sequences, GenBank accession ID (when obtained), and annotation as to whether the sequence represents a new barcode for its genus or species taxon. According to our experience, a DNA identity of >96.5% with previous GenBank barcodes is a reliable range for determining a species level barcode for that morpho species; a DNA identity of 90.5% to 96.5% with previous barcodes is sufficient to identify genus. DNA identities within these ranges are considered to be "barcode confirmations." Conversely, DNA identities outside of these ranges are considered to be new barcodes for that species or genus, respectively. Contradictions with previous GenBank sequences are discussed in the manuscript. The submitted manuscript includes the highest percentage identity to a previous sequence in GenBank as determined by BLASTN in ...


Sensitive And Specific Detection Of Sars-Cov-2 In Saliva Using Reverse Transcriptase Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Casey Juntila 2021 Northern Michigan University

Sensitive And Specific Detection Of Sars-Cov-2 In Saliva Using Reverse Transcriptase Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Casey Juntila

All NMU Master's Theses

A novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 has caused the emergency release of the most well-known molecular assay, the CDC N1 RT-PCR assay, causing reports of poor analytical performance resulting in false-negative results (20, 26), and inconsistent testing kits received (23, 32). An immediate and dire need for a rapid and reliable SARS-CoV-2 testing workflow specifically designed for a university setting is the purpose this project is aiming and intended to fulfill. The workflow design uses a less invasive saliva sample for rapid screening using colorimetric RT-LAMP detection of three SARS-CoV-2 gene regions for Orf1ab, envelope, and nucleocapsid. Purified SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA ...


Dynamics Of The Soil Microbiome In Ginseng Gardens, Megan E. Lambert 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Dynamics Of The Soil Microbiome In Ginseng Gardens, Megan E. Lambert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ginseng Replant Disease (GRD) is a syndrome in which ginseng cannot be cultivated in soil previously used to grow ginseng. Since GRD can persist for decades, it severely impacts the Ontario ginseng industry. To better understand the origin of GRD, the impact of ginseng cultivation on the soil microbiome was investigated in bulk soil of three newly planted ginseng gardens in Ontario, from seeding through two years of cultivation. While specific trends in species richness, diversity and composition were unclear, PERMANOVA analyses confirmed that they changed over time. Known GRD-related pathogens, including Ilyonectria mors-panacis and Fusarium oxysporum, were detected in ...


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