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Redox Sensing By Yeast Hsp70 Facilitates Modulation Of Protein Quality Control And The Cytoprotective Response, Alec Santiago 2022 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Redox Sensing By Yeast Hsp70 Facilitates Modulation Of Protein Quality Control And The Cytoprotective Response, Alec Santiago

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Neurodegenerative disease affects millions of Americans every year, through diagnoses such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. One factor linked to formation of these aggregates is damage sustained to proteins by oxidative stress. Cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis) relies on the ubiquitous Hsp70 chaperone family. Hsp70 activity has been previously shown to be modulated by modification of two key cysteines in the ATPase domain by oxidizing or thiol-modifying compounds. To investigate the biological consequences of cysteine modification on the Hsp70 Ssa1 in budding yeast, I generated cysteine null (cysteine to serine) and oxidomimetic (cysteine to aspartic acid) mutant ...


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A hidden ...


The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine

Doctoral Dissertations

Faithful replication of the genome is paramount for maintaining the fitness of an organism. Therefore, life has evolved inducible mechanisms to be able to repair damaged DNA and maintain evolutionary fitness. The SOS response is a highly conserved DNA damage inducible response that is tightly regulated. Multiple factors contribute to the ability of the cell to perform proper DNA repair and induction of the SOS response including the amount of RecA, mutations in RecA that affect competition for DNA, and other proteins that interact with the RecA filament. The complex relationship between RecA and LexA is the subject of this ...


Intracellular Delivery Of Therapeutic Biomolecules Through Versatile Polymer Nanotechnology, David C. Luther 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Intracellular Delivery Of Therapeutic Biomolecules Through Versatile Polymer Nanotechnology, David C. Luther

Doctoral Dissertations

Advancing pharmaceutical technology has made it possible to treat diseases once considered ‘undruggable.’ Access to these new pharmaceutical targets is possible thanks to the advent of protein and nucleic acid therapeutics. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as cutting-edge treatments for cancer and multiple sclerosis have centered on these biologic therapies, promising even greater value in the future. However, their utility is limited at a cellular level by inability to cross the plasma membrane. Nanocarrier technologies encapsulate therapeutics and facilitate uptake into the cell but are often trapped and degraded in endosomes. Arginine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Arg-NPs) provide efficient, direct ...


Alu Dimorphism At The Pv92 Locus Of Chromosome 16 Is In Equilibrium For University Student Population, James M. Brooks, Mackenzie L. Thackston 2022 Charleston Southern University

Alu Dimorphism At The Pv92 Locus Of Chromosome 16 Is In Equilibrium For University Student Population, James M. Brooks, Mackenzie L. Thackston

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Alu is a retrotransposable element, which refers to its ability to be copied and move from one region of DNA to another DNA region. At the PV92 locus of chromosome 16, Alu is a 300 bp dimorphic insert that can either be present or absent. It does not encode a protein product and has lost the ability to transpose. It is specific to humans, and differences in genotype and allele frequencies between human populations are important tools in understanding evolution. In this research, data was obtained and analyzed from 269 students at Charleston Southern University (CSU) belonging to four different ...


Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. McEwan 2022 University of Dayton

Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Pyrus calleryana is one of the most problematic invasive species in the eastern United States. The mechanisms that enable Py. calleryana to establish and outcompete native plants are not fully understood but likely include a profile of advantageous traits. Extended leaf phenology is a characteristic noted in many woody invasive plants. Leaf phenology of Py. calleryana and two native woody species, Populus deltoides and Platanus occidentalis, was observed in natural areas near Dayton, OH from December 2019 to November 2020. A frost event in May also gave us the serendipitous opportunity to assess frost tolerance of these species. We found ...


Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos 2022 Universidad de Sonora

Variability And Genetic Structure Of The Montezuma Quail Cyrtonyx Montezumae In The Northern Limit Of Its Distribution, Eduardo Sánchez Murrieta, Alberto Macías-Duarte, Reyna A. Castillo-Gámez, Angel B. Montoya, Alejandro Varela-Romero, Nohelia G. Pacheco Hoyos

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

A species’ geographic distribution of genetic variability is influenced by different factors including size of geographic distribution, dispersal capability, mating system, and migration. For instance, a low migration rate among populations may cause a decrease in genetic variation. Such is the case of the Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae), a popular game bird with a limited flight capacity that prevents long-distance dispersal. In the northern limit of the species’ distribution in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States, the species inhabits oak forests that are separated from one another by deserts. Consequently, Montezuma quail populations are distributed in patches ...


Using Direct Pcr For Disaster Victim Identification Reference Samples, Mary Habib 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Using Direct Pcr For Disaster Victim Identification Reference Samples, Mary Habib

Student Theses

Forensic genetic testing is an important tool for the identification of victims after a mass fatality event but degradation of remains, presence of PCR inhibitors, and limited amounts of sample can make testing difficult. Standard protocols typically include extraction of genetic material from recovered post-mortem samples, and from ante-mortem reference samples or families of a missing person. This is a time-consuming and laborious process and may result in the loss of trace amounts of DNA available for amplification. Incorporating workflows that bypass the extraction step and directly amplify recovered DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) profile generation has the potential ...


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge 2022 University of South Alabama

Genomic Analysis And Characterization Of Surface Properties Of Naphthalene Degrading Acinetobacter Isolates, Gunn Emilie Berge

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the past decade, single-cell technologies evolved from profiling hundreds of cells to millions of cells, and emerged from a single modality of data to cover multiple views at single-cell resolution, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and so on. With advance of these single-cell technologies, the booming of multimodal single-cell data creates a valuable resource for us to understand cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanism at a comprehensive level. However, the large-scale multimodal single-cell data also presents a huge computational challenge for insightful integrative analysis. Here, I will lay out problems in data integration that single-cell research community is interested in and ...


Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin 2022 University of New Orleans

Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Polyploidy, a term used to describe organisms with cells having more than two paired sets of chromosomes, is a significant driver of diversification among land plants. Over a century of research has advanced our understanding of polyploidization in some taxa, but polyploid organisms remain understudied. In this dissertation, I investigate chromosome number evolution, phylogeographic structure, genetic differentiation, and the effects of climate change on ploidy level distribution using polyploid plant systems. In the first chapter, I inferred a molecular phylogeny of Allium, an economically important genus that includes cultivated crops and ornamentals, to investigate evolutionary transitions in chromosome number using ...


Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson 2022 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most sought-after deer species in America. The antlers of mammals, such as deer, are one of the fastest regenerative tissues in the world and are grown and naturally cast every year. Research on cast antlers have been used for a variety of purposes including population comparisons and impacts of deer health due to climatic stressors. When investigating cast antlers, it is important to confirm individuality of match sets in addition to antlers of the same individual between years. Therefore, individuality must be confirmed genetically, and protocols must be developed and established to do so ...


The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown 2022 Dartmouth College

The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition, a critical cellular process in development, is frequently co-opted by solid tumors to promote invasion and metastasis. In particular, the hybrid or intermediate EMT state, possessing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, is associated with increased cancer stemness and plasticity. Similarly, intra-tumoral heterogeneity in solid tumors, in particular breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis. We sought to understand the link between the generation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the intermediate EMT state and their impact on tumor progression and patient prognosis. As part of my thesis work, I developed a model ...


Diversity In Darkness: Shedding Light On Cryptic Species In The Cave Beetle Genus Darlingtonea Valentine Using 3rad Sequencing And Consequences Of Climate Change Based On Thermal Tolerance And Dehydration Resistance, Athanasios S. Apostolopoulos 2022 Western Kentucky University

Diversity In Darkness: Shedding Light On Cryptic Species In The Cave Beetle Genus Darlingtonea Valentine Using 3rad Sequencing And Consequences Of Climate Change Based On Thermal Tolerance And Dehydration Resistance, Athanasios S. Apostolopoulos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationship between geographic distribution and phylogeny is pronounced in patchy, discontinuous habitats that limit gene flow, such as cave ecosystems. The isolating nature and selective pressures of cave environments can result in relatively high levels of endemism and cryptic speciation in cave faunas. Cryptic speciation exhibited in cave faunas is poorly studied, though it is an integral aspect to consider when discussing conservation efforts.

Our study employed the 3RAD genomic sequencing technique and robust population sampling across the distribution of a monotypic genus of cave beetle, Darlingtonea Valentine, that inhabits karst systems in a nearly 200 square mile range ...


The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr. 2022 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr.

University Scholar Projects

FOP is a rare genetic disorder in which skeletal muscle and associated connective tissue progressively turn to bone through a process called heterotopic ossification (HO). The extra skeletal bone growth is cumulative, eventually trapping patients in a second skeleton that eventually leads to death by asphyxiation. The FOP mutation is autosomal dominant that can be inherited or acquired sporadically. Unfortunately, FOP is currently incurable with no therapeutic options to inhibit bone growth or reduce existing bone nodules. My project intends to further our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of the disease within the tongue muscle. A population of cells known ...


The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr. 2022 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr.

Honors Scholar Theses

FOP is a rare genetic disorder in which skeletal muscle and associated connective tissue progressively turn to bone through a process called heterotopic ossification (HO). The extra skeletal bone growth is cumulative, eventually trapping patients in a second skeleton that eventually leads to death by asphyxiation. The FOP mutation is autosomal dominant that can be inherited or acquired sporadically. Unfortunately, FOP is currently incurable with no therapeutic options to inhibit bone growth or reduce existing bone nodules. My project intends to further our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of the disease within the tongue muscle. A population of cells known ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at ...


Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigation Of Dna Variability And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) In Mississippi, James C. Valentine, Mac H. Alford

Master's Theses

The genus Perlesta Banks, 1906 (Plecoptera: Perlidae) consists of 35 species, 33 native to the United States and Canada and two native to China. For over a century these small, brown stonefly adults and freckled yellow nymphs have gone by the name of the type species of the genus, Perlesta placida, but taxonomic work in the genus since 1989 has resulted in the recognition of additional species. These species were mostly recognized and described using morphological characteristics, but two areas that are lacking include (1) linking nymphs to adults and (2) phylogenetic analysis of all species occurring in Mississippi using ...


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