Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle
UCARE Research Products
Possessing some of the largest and most complex genomes of any eukaryotic organelles, plant mitochondria are notorious for their rapidly rearranging genetic framework. In addition to containing a large and complex mitochondrial genome, the mitochondria of several plants in the genus Brassica have also been shown to contain an independent, self-replicating linear plasmid. Interestingly, the plasmid appears to be able to move independently between the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, and it can be paternally inherited, unlike the rest of the mitochondrial genome. The plasmid also has features similar to those of adenoviruses, including terminal inverted repeats and covalently bound proteins ...
Genome Wide Co-Expression Among The Starch Debranching Enzyme Genes Atisa1, Atisa2, And Atisa3 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Ling Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Martha G. James, Alan M. Myers, Eve Syrkin Wurtele
Each of four starch debranching enzymes (DBE) is distinct and highly conserved across the plant kingdom; however, the specific functions of these proteins in carbohydrate metabolism are not well understood. DBEs function in both biosynthesis and degradation of starch, and two have been shown to function as multimers in various quarternary structures that can contain one or more DBE proteins, i.e. ISA1 homomultimers and ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimers. This study characterizes potential functional relationships between the three isoamylase-type DBE proteins (ISA) of Arabidopsis using a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and promoter fusion approach to determine tissue-, subcellular-, and temporal specificity of ...
Comparative Transcriptome Reconstruction Of Four Hypericum Species Focused On Hypericin Biosynthesis, 2017 Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice
Comparative Transcriptome Reconstruction Of Four Hypericum Species Focused On Hypericin Biosynthesis, Miroslav Sotak, Odeta Czerankova, Daniel Klein, Zuzana Jurcackova, Ling Li, Eva Cellarova
Next generation sequencing technology rapidly developed research applications in the field of plant functional genomics. Several Hypericum spp. with an aim to generate and enhance gene annotations especially for genes coding the enzymes supposedly included in biosynthesis of valuable bioactive compounds were analyzed. The first de novo transcriptome profiling of Hypericum annulatum Moris, H. tomentosum L., H. kalmianum L., and H. androsaemum L. leaves cultivated in vitro was accomplished. All four species with only limited genomic information were selected on the basis of differences in ability to synthesize hypericins and presence of dark nodules accumulating these metabolites with purpose to ...
Tumor Formation In Response To Loss Of Chromatin Remodeler Chd5 In Zebrafish, 2017 Purdue University
Tumor Formation In Response To Loss Of Chromatin Remodeler Chd5 In Zebrafish, Taylor R. Sabato, Erin L. Sorlien, Dr. Joseph P. Ogas
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in humans. Deletion or mutation of CHD5 has been observed in numerous cancers, including neuroblastoma and melanoma. We hypothesize that chd5 is also a tumor suppressor in zebrafish, a powerful model system to study tumorigenesis. Many genes involved in tumorigenesis are conserved in zebrafish, and they develop fully penetrant tumor phenotypes. We have created chd5 knock-out zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 and are monitoring them for tumor development. In addition to the chd5 knock-outs, we are undertaking a double-mutant approach by coupling loss of ...
Performing A Genetic Screen To Identify Factors That Promote Lncrna-Dependent Gene Repression, 2017 Purdue University
Performing A Genetic Screen To Identify Factors That Promote Lncrna-Dependent Gene Repression, Chrishan Fernando, Cecilia Yiu, Sara Cloutier, Siwen Wang, Elizabeth Tran
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were once thought not to have useful functions in organisms but rather to be products of aberrant transcription. However, roles are being found for lncRNAs in beneficial processes such as controlling gene expression. In some of these cases, lncRNAs form R-loops in vivo. R-loops are nucleic acid structures consisting of hybridized strands of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) as well as the displaced strand of ssDNA. Formation of these R-loops is important for gene regulation by the lncRNAs. However, factors that promote formation of lncRNA R-loops are not known. The gene PHO84 is being ...
Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing In Drosophila: A Dissertation, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Zhao Zhang
piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. In Drosophila, the heterochromatic piRNA clusters transcribe piRNA precursors to be transported into nuage, a perinuclear structure for piRNA production and transposon silencing. At nuage, reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavage—catalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila—destroy the sense transposon mRNA and expand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate. My thesis research mainly focuses on two fundamental questions about the piRNA ...
Engineering And Verifying Requirements For Programmable Self-Assembling Nanomachines, 2017 Iowa State University
Engineering And Verifying Requirements For Programmable Self-Assembling Nanomachines, Robyn Lutz, Jack Lutz, James Lathrop, Titus Klinge, Eric Henderson, Davita Mathur, Dalia Abo Sheasha
We propose an extension of van Lamsweerde's goal-oriented requirements engineering to the domain of programmable DNA nanotechnology. This is a domain in which individual devices (agents) are at most a few dozen nanometers in diameter. These devices are programmed to assemble themselves from molecular components and perform their assigned tasks. The devices carry out their tasks in the probabilistic world of chemical kinetics, so they are individually error-prone. However, the number of devices deployed is roughly on the order of a nanomole (a 6 followed by fourteen 0s), and some goals are achieved when enough of these agents achieve ...
Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, 2017 The Unviersity of Western Ontario
Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Over time, genetic differences can accumulate between populations that are geographically separated. This genetic divergence can lead to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that reduce gene flow between the populations and, upon secondary contact, result in distinct species. The process of speciation is, thus, what accounts for the multitude of species that contribute to the rich biodiversity on Earth. Interspecies hybrid sterility is a postzygotic isolating mechanism that affects the development of hybrids, rendering them sterile. A notable trend, known as Haldane's Rule, describes that heterogametic individual (e.g. males in Drosophila) are more susceptible to sterility than ...
Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The body size of an organism can be a crucial determinant of access to nutrition, reproductive success and overall survival in the wild. However, how body size of an individual is determined is incompletely understood. Body size is a complex trait determined by multiple pathways and genes, making it difficult to understand the role of individual genes and pathways in determining overall size. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a homolog of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) is a major regulator of body size; functional loss of DBL-1 leads to a small body size. Due to a drastic change in body size in dbl-1 ...
The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, 2017 University of Dayton
The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle
Biology Faculty Publications
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides populationlevel benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic ...
The Santa Ana Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus): Phylogeography And Molecular Evolution Of The Mitochondrial Dna Control Region, 2017 California State University San Bernardino
The Santa Ana Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus): Phylogeography And Molecular Evolution Of The Mitochondrial Dna Control Region, James Jay Vanmeter
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
The purpose of this genetic study of the Santa Ana Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus was three-fold. The first goal was to characterize the molecular structure of the mtDNA control region of R. osculus. An 1143 base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which included the complete control region was sequenced for all individuals. Analysis of the sequence data revealed that the molecular structure of the speckled dace control region was similar to the molecular structure described for other vertebrate taxa. The speckled dace control region contains three major domains, which vary in base frequency as well as in the frequency ...
Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, 2017 Murray State University
Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner
Honors College Theses
CRISPR/Cas, a gene editing tool modified from an antiviral response in bacteria, has been demonstrated to faithfully and precisely introduce double strand breaks (DSB’s) in DNA at sites designated by guide RNA’s (gRNA’s). The system is applicable to many model organisms and shows promise in the study of gene function, creation of model organisms, and, importantly, treatment of heritable disease. However, the specificity of the Cas endonuclease is such that DSB’s are often introduced at sites similar to the target sequence, called off-target sites. Minimization of off-target DNA cleavage is important to prevent unknown and ...
Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).
A Genetic Analysis Of Nuclear Functions Of The Lipin Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
A Genetic Analysis Of Nuclear Functions Of The Lipin Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Xeniya Rudolf
Theses and Dissertations
Lipins are a family of proteins that have critical functions in the control of fat storage and energy homeostasis. Biochemically, lipins have two functions. They provide an enzymatic activity (phosphatidate phosphatase or PAP activity) in the glycerol-3 phosphate pathway that leads to the production of storage fats (triacylglycerols). In addition, they play a role in the regulation of genes in the cell nucleus as transcriptional co-regulators. The PAP activity of lipins has been widely studied in a number of organisms. However, the transcriptional co-regulator function is not as well described in the literature. The transcriptional function of lipins depends on ...
Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron
Hybrid zones and their dynamics are important in the understanding of the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. This study seeks to investigate the hybridization dynamics of a Scarus hybrid swarm within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) that includes four phenotypically distinct species: S. perrico, S. ghobban, S. rubroviolaceus, and S. compressus. Genetic and population structure analyses of four nuclear loci and a mitochondrial locus revealed that one of the four species, S. compressus, was the result of two different hybrid crosses: S. perrico ✕ S. rubroviolaceus and S. perrico ✕ S. ghobban. A NewHybrids model indicated that most of the ...
Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, 2017 University of Arkansas
Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther
Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses
In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...
Science, Between The Lines: Rosalind Franklin, 2017 University of Rhode Island
Science, Between The Lines: Rosalind Franklin, Rachael Renzi
Senior Honors Projects
The purpose of this paper is to contrast scientific rhetoric with creative biographical writing style. Both forms of communication rely on specific syntax and styles to describe research findings to the appropriate audiences, but the often passive format of scientific literature excludes the passionate reasonings of the researcher. In order to understand why the scientist is kept separate from his or her published findings, I am going to experiment with the two contrasting forms. Throughout the paper, each form will be tested and used at varying levels. Both scientific and creative writing will be mixed. To emphasize the technically dense ...
Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, 2017 University of Tennessee
Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton
Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
The objective of this thesis was to identify polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2) genes and to associate genotypes between the above mentioned polymorphisms and production traits in crossbred cattle. The hypothesis was that polymorphisms will exist for GR and CXCR2 genes and will be linked to production traits. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproduction health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during ...
Targeted Germ Cell Knockdown Of Xlr3 In Mus Musculus, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Targeted Germ Cell Knockdown Of Xlr3 In Mus Musculus, Caity Miller
Honors Scholar Theses
The X chromosome is rather distinct from autosomes due to the unique regulatory and functional characteristics it exhibits. Xlr3 is just one gene in a superfamily of highly related, and homologous genes found on the X chromosome in mice. Xlr3 is part of a complex, imprinted locus, of which the function is not well understood, although its protein product can be found in testis and oocyte. However, it is theorized that the region may be implicated in the progression of meiosis, due to localization of XLR3. This study sought to characterize the function of Xlr3 through the use of a ...