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Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The body size of an organism can be a crucial determinant of access to nutrition, reproductive success and overall survival in the wild. However, how body size of an individual is determined is incompletely understood. Body size is a complex trait determined by multiple pathways and genes, making it difficult to understand the role of individual genes and pathways in determining overall size. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a homolog of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) is a major regulator of body size; functional loss of DBL-1 leads to a small body size. Due to a drastic change in body size in dbl-1 ...


Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner 2017 Murray State University

Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner

Honors College Theses

CRISPR/Cas, a gene editing tool modified from an antiviral response in bacteria, has been demonstrated to faithfully and precisely introduce double strand breaks (DSB’s) in DNA at sites designated by guide RNA’s (gRNA’s). The system is applicable to many model organisms and shows promise in the study of gene function, creation of model organisms, and, importantly, treatment of heritable disease. However, the specificity of the Cas endonuclease is such that DSB’s are often introduced at sites similar to the target sequence, called off-target sites. Minimization of off-target DNA cleavage is important to prevent unknown and ...


Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud 2017 University of Tennessee

Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Science, Between The Lines: Rosalind Franklin, Rachael Renzi 2017 University of Rhode Island

Science, Between The Lines: Rosalind Franklin, Rachael Renzi

Senior Honors Projects

The purpose of this paper is to contrast scientific rhetoric with creative biographical writing style. Both forms of communication rely on specific syntax and styles to describe research findings to the appropriate audiences, but the often passive format of scientific literature excludes the passionate reasonings of the researcher. In order to understand why the scientist is kept separate from his or her published findings, I am going to experiment with the two contrasting forms. Throughout the paper, each form will be tested and used at varying levels. Both scientific and creative writing will be mixed. To emphasize the technically dense ...


Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron 2017 Bowdoin College

Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron

Honors Projects

Hybrid zones and their dynamics are important in the understanding of the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. This study seeks to investigate the hybridization dynamics of a Scarus hybrid swarm within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) that includes four phenotypically distinct species: S. perrico, S. ghobban, S. rubroviolaceus, and S. compressus. Genetic and population structure analyses of four nuclear loci and a mitochondrial locus revealed that one of the four species, S. compressus, was the result of two different hybrid crosses: S. perricoS. rubroviolaceus and S. perricoS. ghobban. A NewHybrids model indicated that most of the ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this thesis was to identify polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2) genes and to associate genotypes between the above mentioned polymorphisms and production traits in crossbred cattle. The hypothesis was that polymorphisms will exist for GR and CXCR2 genes and will be linked to production traits. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproduction health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during ...


A New Era Of Genome Modification, Lizabeth R. Hampton 2017 University of Wyoming

A New Era Of Genome Modification, Lizabeth R. Hampton

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Four decades ago, the advent of technology that could be applied to genetic engineering stimulated the hope that one day we would be able to ‘fix’ genetic disorders or inhibit cancer growth by replacing defective genes or introducing helpful genes into a person’s genome. That hope was followed by frustration with the limitations of the technology until the recent development of a new strategy used in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which is considered one of the most important developments in the field of genome modification to date. CRISPR technology can be used both for genome modification and post-transcriptional editing ...


The Effect Of Galactose On The Expression Of Genes Regulated By Rrp6p, Mary Megan Pelkowski, Kevin Callahan 2017 Saint John Fisher College

The Effect Of Galactose On The Expression Of Genes Regulated By Rrp6p, Mary Megan Pelkowski, Kevin Callahan

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Gene expression is a multi-faceted phenomenon, governed not only by the sequence of nucleotides, but also by the extent to which a particular gene gets transcribed, how the transcript is processed, and whether or not the transcript ever makes it out of the nucleus. Rrp6p is a 5’-3’ exonuclease that can function independently and as part of the nuclear exosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Portin, 2014). It degrades various types of aberrant RNA species including small nuclear RNAs, small nucleolar RNAs, telomerase RNA, unspliced RNAs, and RNAs that have not been properly packaged for export (Butler & Mitchell, 2010). This exosome ...


Sickle Cell Anemia: Current Treatments And Potential Advancements, Vanessa Martinez 2017 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Sickle Cell Anemia: Current Treatments And Potential Advancements, Vanessa Martinez

Selected Honors Theses

Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects red blood cells, specifically the hemoglobin protein. An amino acid mutation in the gene that encodes β-globin leads to malformation of the β subunit of hemoglobin.3, Valine becomes glutamic acid in the mutated β-globin gene.9 The mutation malformation leads to the red blood cells becoming sickle shaped, or crescent shaped.3,4 The sickle shape of red blood cells in individuals with sickle cell disease leads to vaso-occlusive crisis.9 Vaso-occlusive crisis includes complications such as blood clotting, chronic pain, organ failure, organ death, and possibly early mortality.9 The ...


Rolling Circle Mutagenesis Of Gst-Mcherry To Understand Mutation, Gene Expression, And Regulation, Jessica Cole, Amanda Ferguson, Veronica A. Segarra, Susan Walsh 2017 Portland State University

Rolling Circle Mutagenesis Of Gst-Mcherry To Understand Mutation, Gene Expression, And Regulation, Jessica Cole, Amanda Ferguson, Veronica A. Segarra, Susan Walsh

Faculty Publications

Undergraduates are often familiar with textbook examples of human mutations that affect coding regions and the subsequent disorders, but they may struggle with understanding the implications of mutations in the regulatory regions of genes. We have designed a laboratory sequence that will allow students to explore the effect random mutagenesis can have on protein function, expression, and ultimately phenotype. Students design and perform a safe and time-efficient random mutagenesis experiment using error-prone rolling circular amplification of a plasmid expressing the inducible fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mCherry. Mutagenized and wild-type control plasmid DNA, respectively, are then purified and transformed into ...


P02. Production Of A Protein Subunit Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin 2017 Western University

P02. Production Of A Protein Subunit Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Western Research Forum

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. We have designed a chimeric protein subunit vaccine against M. haemolytica based on recent evidence demonstrating the protective potential of antigens against a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to a surface lipoprotein. Plant-based production of this protein vaccine provides a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional production methods. Plant-base production also supports the use of an edible vaccine that will deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues to provide local immunization against M. haemolytica to prior to its progression into the lungs. Chloroplasts produce ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Antisense Oligonucleotides Used To Target The Dux4 Mrna As Therapeutic Approaches In Faciosscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (Fshd), Eugenie Ansseau, Celine Vanderplanck, Armelle Wauters, Scott Q. Harper, Frederique Coppee, Alexandra Belayew 2017 University of Mons

Antisense Oligonucleotides Used To Target The Dux4 Mrna As Therapeutic Approaches In Faciosscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (Fshd), Eugenie Ansseau, Celine Vanderplanck, Armelle Wauters, Scott Q. Harper, Frederique Coppee, Alexandra Belayew

Wellstone Center for FSHD Publications and Presentations

FacioScapuloHumeral muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent hereditary myopathies and is generally characterized by progressive muscle atrophy affecting the face, scapular fixators; upper arms and distal lower legs. The FSHD locus maps to a macrosatellite D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4q35. Each D4Z4 unit contains a DUX4 gene; the most distal of which is flanked by a polyadenylation site on FSHD-permissive alleles, which allows for production of stable DUX4 mRNAs. In addition, an open chromatin structure is required for DUX4 gene transcription. FSHD thus results from a gain of function of the toxic DUX4 protein that normally ...


Draft Genome Sequences Of Three Closely Related Isolates Of The Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodovulum Sulfidophilum, Michael S. Guzman, Beau McGinley, Natalia Santiago-Merced, Dinesh Gupta, Arpita Bose 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Draft Genome Sequences Of Three Closely Related Isolates Of The Purple Nonsulfur Bacterium Rhodovulum Sulfidophilum, Michael S. Guzman, Beau Mcginley, Natalia Santiago-Merced, Dinesh Gupta, Arpita Bose

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

We report here the draft genome sequences of three isolates of Rhodovulum sulfidophilum from a single population that will serve as a model system for understanding genomic traits that underlie metabolic variation within closely related marine purple nonsulfur bacteria in natural microbial communities.


Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a family of genes involved with recognizing pathogens and mounting an immune response. Parasite-mediated selection often favours heterozygosity at MHC because MHC-diverse individuals recognize a wider range of pathogens. Because migratory birds encounter many pathogens, I hypothesized that MHC diversity predicts overwinter and juvenile survivorship in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). I found no correlation between MHC diversity and neutral-locus (microsatellite) heterozygosity, suggesting that measures of neutral and adaptive genetic diversity provide complementary rather than redundant information. However, pairwise similarity at MHC predicted pairwise similarity at microsatellite loci. In contrast to my hypothesis, MHC ...


Transcriptional And Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Histone Variant H2a.Z During Sea Urchin Development, Mihai Hajdu 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Transcriptional And Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Histone Variant H2a.Z During Sea Urchin Development, Mihai Hajdu

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A.Z peak expression in 24-h embryos, endogenous H2A.Z 3’ UTR sequences stabilize GFP mRNAs relative to those with SV40 3’ UTR sequences, although the 3’UTR of H2A.Z does not determine the spatial distribution of H2A.Z ...


Regulation Of The Drosophila Initiator Caspase Dronc Through Ubiquitylation, Hatem E. Kamber Kaya 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of The Drosophila Initiator Caspase Dronc Through Ubiquitylation, Hatem E. Kamber Kaya

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that is evolutionary conserved from worms to humans. Apoptosis is mediated by initiator and effector caspases. The initiator caspases carry long pro-domains for their interaction with scaffolding proteins to form a cell-death platform, which is essential for their activation. Activated initiator caspases then cleave effector caspases that execute cell death through cleaving downstream targets. In addition to their apoptotic function, caspases also participate in events where caspase activity is not required for cell killing, but for regulating other functions, so-called non-apoptotic functions of caspases. The Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc, the ortholog of mammalian ...


Serine Biosynthesis And Glycine Biosynthesis/Degradation: Mrub_0173 Is Orthologous To E. Coli B2913 (Sera); Mrub_0125 Is Orthologous To E. Coli B4388 (Serb); Mrub_2910 Is Orthologous To E. Coli B2551 (Glya)., Megan M. Janssen, Dr. Lori R. Scott 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Serine Biosynthesis And Glycine Biosynthesis/Degradation: Mrub_0173 Is Orthologous To E. Coli B2913 (Sera); Mrub_0125 Is Orthologous To E. Coli B4388 (Serb); Mrub_2910 Is Orthologous To E. Coli B2551 (Glya)., Megan M. Janssen, Dr. Lori R. Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

ABSTRACT. This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_0173, Mrub_0125, and Mrub_ 2910. We predict that Mrub_0173 encodes the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (DNA coordinates 152982 ... 154347), which is the 1st step of the serine biosynthesis pathway (KEGG map number 00680). It catalyzes the conversion of NAD+ + 3-phospho-D-glycerate → NADH H+ + 3-phospho-hydroxypyruvate. The E. coli K12 MG1655 ortholog is predicted to be b2913, which has the gene identifier serA ...


Mrub_3029, Mrub_2052, Are Predicted Orthologs Of B_0688, B_0394, While Mrub_0759 And Mrub_2365 Are Not Predicted Orthologs Of B_1309, In Escherichia Coli, Which Code For Enzymes Involved In Starch And Sucrose Metabolism, Max A. Benstine, Dr. Lori R. Scott 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_3029, Mrub_2052, Are Predicted Orthologs Of B_0688, B_0394, While Mrub_0759 And Mrub_2365 Are Not Predicted Orthologs Of B_1309, In Escherichia Coli, Which Code For Enzymes Involved In Starch And Sucrose Metabolism, Max A. Benstine, Dr. Lori R. Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

We predict that Mrub__[0759] encodes the enzyme [Meiothermus ruber Fruktokinase] (DNA coordinates [741282..742202 on the forward strand] which is the 00500 step of the Starch and Sucrose Metabolism pathway (KEGG map number [2.7.1.4]). It catalyzes the conversion of [ATP + D-fructoseADP + D-fructose 6-phosphate]. The E. coli K12 MG1655 ortholog is predicted to be b1309, which has the gene identifier [ycjM] We predict that Mrub__[ 2365] encodes the enzyme [Meiothermus ruber Fruktokinase] (DNA coordinates [2417118..2418059 on the forward strand], which is the [00500] step of the [Starch and Sucrose Metabolism] pathway (KEGG map number [2.7 ...


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