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Characterizing The Role Of Pa5189 Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Deletion And Overexpression Mutants, Seh Na Mellick 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Characterizing The Role Of Pa5189 Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa In Deletion And Overexpression Mutants, Seh Na Mellick

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

In the context of rising multidrug resistance in biofilm-forming pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this study investigates the role of the understudied transcription factor PA5189 in antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. PA5189 deletion and overexpression mutants were created in a parent P. aeruginosa strain using pEX18Tc-based recombinant suicide vectors, with genotypic verification of putative triparental conjugants achieved through restriction digestion and PCR. The study revealed that PA5189 overexpression significantly increases resistance to commonly used broad spectrum antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Additionally, differential expression of PA5189 was found to notably affect biofilm formation, with variations contingent on the nutrient …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova 2024 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang 2024 MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taiwan

Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mutations in fused in sarcoma (fust-1) are linked to ALS. However, how these ALS causative mutations alter physiological processes and lead to the onset of ALS remains largely unknown. By obtaining humanized fust-1 ALS mutations via CRISPR-CAS9, we generated a C. elegans ALS model. Homozygous fust-1 ALS mutant and fust-1 deletion animals are viable in C. elegans. This allows us to better characterize the molecular mechanisms of fust-1-dependent responses. We found FUST-1 plays a role in regulating superoxide dismutase, glutamate signaling, and oxidative stress. FUST-1 suppresses SOD-1 and VGLUT/EAT-4 in the nervous system. FUST-1 also regulates synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor …


Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad 2023 Plant Science Department, Amino Techno Gene Private Virtual Institute, Tehran 1495845983, Iran

Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad

Makara Journal of Science

The 5ʹ ends of protein-encoding genes contain 5ʹ untranslated regions (5ʹUTRs), which can effectively participate in regulating gene expression. The 5ʹUTRs of Arabidospis thaliana–derived alcohol dehydrogenase gene (AtADH) and omega (Ω) sequence from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most effective enhancers in biotechnology. In this study, bioinformatics techniques were employed to analyze the characteristics of the above sequences. After 5ʹUTR sequence collection, the inner ribosome entrance sites; small RNA (sRNA) target sequences; nucleotide contents; and upstream start and stop codons, ORFs, and coding DNA sequences of the Ω sequence and AtADH 5ʹUTR were identified. Moreover, the …


Investigating The Impact Of Transcription On Mutation Rates, Sarah Patterson 2023 Mississippi State University

Investigating The Impact Of Transcription On Mutation Rates, Sarah Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

tRNA genes are highly transcribed and perform one of the most fundamental cellular functions. Although a universal pattern observed across all three domains of life is that highly transcribed genes tend to evolve slowly, tRNA genes have been shown previously to evolve rapidly. This rapid sequence evolution could result from relaxed selection, increased mutation rate, or a combination of both. Here, we use mutation-accumulation line sequencing data to show that tRNA genes accumulate more mutations than other gene types. Our results indicate that this elevated mutation rate is a consequence of both elevated transcription-associated mutagenesis and a lack of transcription-coupled …


Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He

Doctoral Dissertations

N2O is a long-recognized greenhouse gas (GHG) with potential in global warming and ozone depletion. Terrestrial ecosystems are a major source of N2O due to imbalanced N2O production and consumption. Soil pH is a chief modulating factor controlling net N2O emissions, and N2O consumption has been considered negligible under acidic conditions (pH <6). In this dissertation, we obtained solids-free cultures reducing N2O at pH 4.5. Furthermore, a co-culture (designated culture EV) comprising two interacting bacterial population was acquired via consecutive transfer in mineral salt medium. Integrated phenotypic, metagenomic and metabolomic analysis dictated that the Serratia population excreted certain …


Characterization Of Radiotolerance In Potato And Development Of A Gamma Radiation Phytosensor., Robert Graham Sears 2023 University of Tennessee: Knoxville

Characterization Of Radiotolerance In Potato And Development Of A Gamma Radiation Phytosensor., Robert Graham Sears

Doctoral Dissertations

As humans pursue space travel and nuclear energy, the risk of harm from ionizing radiation increases. On Earth or in space, plants are essential to our personal and environmental health. Plants serve as sentinels, bioremediators and food sources in areas of high ionizing radiation, therefore it is essential to understand how ionizing radiation affects plant biology. This work aimed to understand plant responses to ionizing radiation in the potato chassis and apply that knowledge to generate novel phenotypes for nuclear energy and space applications. The first gamma radiation phytosensor was developed for monitoring at standoff distances greater than three meters. …


A Study Of The Snd1/Prmt5 Axis In Liver Cancer By Genetic Mouse Models, Tanner Wright, Tanner Wright 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Study Of The Snd1/Prmt5 Axis In Liver Cancer By Genetic Mouse Models, Tanner Wright, Tanner Wright

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Arginine methylation is an essential post-translational modification (PTM) in cells. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is the primary enzyme that catalyzes symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA) and requires methylosome protein 50 (MEP50) for stability and enzymatic activity which are necessary for life and development. Effector proteins bind different types of PTM’s to facilitate signaling. Staphylococcal nuclease Tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is an effector that specifically binds SDMA via its single C-terminal Tudor domain. Both SND1 and PRMT5 have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SND1 has been confirmed as a driver of HCC using genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), though, …


Association Of The Abcb1 Gene Polymorphism And Infertility In Azoospermia Males In Iraqi Kurdish Population, Muhsin Jamil Abdulwahid 2023 General Directorate of Scientific Research Center, Salahaddin University-Erbil. , Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Molecular Genetics Unit

Association Of The Abcb1 Gene Polymorphism And Infertility In Azoospermia Males In Iraqi Kurdish Population, Muhsin Jamil Abdulwahid

Polytechnic Journal

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a product of the ABCB1 gene (ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1) or MDR: multiple drug resistance 1 gene is expressed in various parts of the human body, like testis. The ABCB1 gene has several single nucleotide polymorphisms in its exons and introns that have been discovered. This study used DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to discover and characterize nucleotide variations in exons 27 of the ABCB1 gene in seven infertile and three normally fertile individuals. In this study, a set of primers were designed using the NCBI primer designing tool to amplify 394bp the …


Engaging Students In A Genetics Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Utilizing Caenorhabditis Elegans In Hybrid Learning To Explore Human Disease Gene Variants, Natalie Forte, Virginia Veasey, Bethany Christie, Amira Carter, Marli Hanks, Alan Holderfield, Taylor Houston, Anil Challa, Ashley Turner 2023 Jacksonville State University

Engaging Students In A Genetics Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Utilizing Caenorhabditis Elegans In Hybrid Learning To Explore Human Disease Gene Variants, Natalie Forte, Virginia Veasey, Bethany Christie, Amira Carter, Marli Hanks, Alan Holderfield, Taylor Houston, Anil Challa, Ashley Turner

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Genetic analysis in model systems using bioinformatic approaches provides a rich context for a concrete and conceptual understanding of gene structure and function. With the intent to engage students in research and explore disease biology utilizing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model, we developed a semester-long course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) in a hybrid (online/in-person) learning environment—the gene-editing and evolutionary nematode exploration CURE (GENE-CURE). Using a combination of bioinformatic and molecular genetic tools, students performed structure-function analysis of disease-associated variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in human orthologs. With the aid of a series of workshop-style research sessions, students worked in teams …


Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei) Hoxa5: Insights Into The Divergence Of Hoxa5 Gene Expression And Regulation Across Evolutionarily Divergent Gnathostome Vertebrates, Jennifer A. Lange, Amber L. Rittgers, Adam Davis 2023 University of North Georgia

Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei) Hoxa5: Insights Into The Divergence Of Hoxa5 Gene Expression And Regulation Across Evolutionarily Divergent Gnathostome Vertebrates, Jennifer A. Lange, Amber L. Rittgers, Adam Davis

Georgia Journal of Science

Hox genes are evolutionarily conserved developmental regulatory genes that function, in part, to pattern the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of organs and organ systems during animal embryonic development. Hoxa5, specifically, is shown to be expressed in the spinal cord, somites, or transient compartments giving rise to the vertebrae and ribs, developing gut, lungs, and limbs of the mouse (Mus musculus). The cis-regulatory elements (CREs), or short DNA sequences, that direct Hoxa5 expression in these embryonic domains have been mapped and functionally tested in the mouse as well. Similar Hoxa5 expression patterns have been observed in chicken ( …


Human Ipsc Derived Cardiomyocyte Model Reveals The Transcriptomic Bases Of Covid-19 Associated Myocardial Injury, Kashish Kumar, Satish Kumar, Erica De Leon, Joanne E. Curran, Sarah Williams-Blangero, John Blangero 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Human Ipsc Derived Cardiomyocyte Model Reveals The Transcriptomic Bases Of Covid-19 Associated Myocardial Injury, Kashish Kumar, Satish Kumar, Erica De Leon, Joanne E. Curran, Sarah Williams-Blangero, John Blangero

Research Symposium

Background: Multi-organ complications have been the hallmark of severe COVID-19; cardiac injuries were reported in 20% to 30% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, although the disease etiology remains poorly understood. This study leveraged genome-wide RNA-sequence data generated using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) differentiated cardiomyocytes (CMs) and in vitro modeling of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CMs, to understand the molecular mechanisms of COVID-19 myocardial injuries for novel diagnostic and therapeutic development.

Methods: Raw RNA-sequence data sets, GSE165242 and GSE150392 were aligned to human genome assembly GRCh38 and gene expressions were quantified. Differentially expressed (DE) genes between experimental groups were identified using moderated …


Antp Transcriptional Activity Is Modulated By The Formation Of The Trimeric Antp-Tbp Complexes With Tfiieβ, Exd And Bip2, Norma C. Hernández Bautista, Gustavo Jiménez Mejía, Claudia Altamirano Torres, Diana Reséndez Pérez 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Antp Transcriptional Activity Is Modulated By The Formation Of The Trimeric Antp-Tbp Complexes With Tfiieβ, Exd And Bip2, Norma C. Hernández Bautista, Gustavo Jiménez Mejía, Claudia Altamirano Torres, Diana Reséndez Pérez

Research Symposium

Homeoproteins are transcriptional factors that bind to DNA through a highly conserved binding domain known as the homeodomain (HD) which recognizes short regions rich in AT to control the development of the body appendages of organisms. However, their structural and recognition similarities make it difficult to explain how homeoproteins are capable of carrying out their function. Previous results have shown that Antp homeoprotein can establish dimeric interactions with TBP, TFIIEβ, Exd, BIP2 and more recently through BiFC-FRET we confirmed that Antp and TBP can form trimeric complexes with TFIIEβ/Exd/BIP2. Therefore, is important to show how these trimeric complexes modulate Antp …


Tata-Box Binding Protein Interacts With Antp, Scr, Ubx And Abdb Through Their N-Terminal Domains, Rubén Montalvo Méndez, Gustavo Jiménez Mejía, Diana Reséndez Pérez 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Tata-Box Binding Protein Interacts With Antp, Scr, Ubx And Abdb Through Their N-Terminal Domains, Rubén Montalvo Méndez, Gustavo Jiménez Mejía, Diana Reséndez Pérez

Research Symposium

Background: Hox proteins are transcriptional factors (TFs) that define segment identity during embryonic development regulating specific target genes. These TFs interact with cofactors for DNA specificity and other TFs to regulate gene expression, which include basal transcriptional machinery members like BIP2, Med19, TFIIEβ, M1BP and TBP. Since TBP glutamine homopeptide (PolyQ) act as an interaction domain involved transcriptional regulation, we analyzed if TBP interact with Antp, Scr, Ubx and AbdB through its PolyQ region.

Methods: We used Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) to determine TBP interaction with Antp, Scr, Ubx and AbdB as well as the implication of their homeodomain (HD) …


Modeling Nonsegmented Negative-Strand Rna Virus (Nnsv) Transcription With Ejective Polymerase Collisions And Biased Diffusion, Felipe-Andres Piedra 2023 Baylor College of Medicine

Modeling Nonsegmented Negative-Strand Rna Virus (Nnsv) Transcription With Ejective Polymerase Collisions And Biased Diffusion, Felipe-Andres Piedra

Research Symposium

Background: The textbook model of NNSV transcription predicts a gene expression gradient. However, multiple studies show non-gradient gene expression patterns or data inconsistent with a simple gradient. Regarding the latter, several studies show a dramatic decrease in gene expression over the last two genes of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genome (a highly studied NNSV). The textbook model cannot explain these phenomena.

Methods: Computational models of RSV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV – another highly studied NNSV) transcription were written in the Python programming language using the Scientific Python Development Environment. The model code is freely available on GitHub: …


Challenges In Genetic Counseling In Hereditary Cancer Syndromes In A Mexican Oncologic Center, Diana Cristina Perez-Ibave, Diana Cristina de Lourdes Perez Ibave, María Fernanda Noriega-Iriondo, Omar Alejandro Zayas-Villanueva, Fernando Alcorta-Nuñez, Juan Francisco González-Guerrero, Adelina Alcorta-Garza, David Hernandez-Barajas, Oscar Vidal-Gutierrez, Carlos Horacio Burciaga-Flores 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León

Challenges In Genetic Counseling In Hereditary Cancer Syndromes In A Mexican Oncologic Center, Diana Cristina Perez-Ibave, Diana Cristina De Lourdes Perez Ibave, María Fernanda Noriega-Iriondo, Omar Alejandro Zayas-Villanueva, Fernando Alcorta-Nuñez, Juan Francisco González-Guerrero, Adelina Alcorta-Garza, David Hernandez-Barajas, Oscar Vidal-Gutierrez, Carlos Horacio Burciaga-Flores

Research Symposium

Background: In Mexico, hereditary cancer is underdiagnosed, medical geneticists give genetic counseling, but the access is limited due to the socio-economic characteristics of the population. The CUCC (Centro Universitario Contra el Cáncer) Early Cancer Detection Clinic (CECIL) created a model in which patients without cancer are enrolled in a prevention cancer screening program.

Methods: From 2016 to 2021, 3014 patients were enrolled in the prevention program. Patients were evaluated with a hereditary cancer risk survey before a consultation. Those with at least one familial hereditary risk positive answer were assessed in a consultation. We also included patients with cancer diagnoses …


The Use Of Prognostic Markers To Predict Disease Progression And Clinical Outcome In Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance, Smouldering Multiple Myeloma And Multiple Myeloma., Róisín C. McMonagle 2023 Cork Institute of Technology

The Use Of Prognostic Markers To Predict Disease Progression And Clinical Outcome In Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance, Smouldering Multiple Myeloma And Multiple Myeloma., Róisín C. Mcmonagle

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a complex and incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smouldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) precede MM, with variable risks and rates of disease progression. The continuing high relapse and death rate in MM cases has prompted research into more accurate prognostic markers to predict progression from MGUS and SMM to MM, as well as identify MM cases with aggressive disease, in order to begin early, targeted and effective therapeutic intervention. Many studies have focused on utilising current markers more effectively, including M-protein, serum-free light chain ratio, …


Transcriptional Pausing Factor M1bp Regulates Cellular Homeostasis By Suppressing Autophagy And Apoptosis In Drosophila Eye, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Hannah Darnell, Akanksha Raj, Madhuri Kango-Singh 2023 University of Dayton

Transcriptional Pausing Factor M1bp Regulates Cellular Homeostasis By Suppressing Autophagy And Apoptosis In Drosophila Eye, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Hannah Darnell, Akanksha Raj, Madhuri Kango-Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

During organogenesis cellular homeostasis plays a crucial role in patterning and growth. The role of promoter proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II, which regulates transcription of several developmental genes by GAGA factor or Motif 1 Binding Protein (M1BP), has not been fully understood in cellular homeostasis. Earlier, we reported that M1BP, a functional homolog of ZKSCAN3, regulates wingless (wg) and caspase-dependent cell death (apoptosis) in the Drosophila eye. Further, blocking apoptosis does not fully rescue the M1BPRNAi phenotype of reduced eye. Therefore, we looked for other possible mechanism(s). In a forward genetic screen, members of the Jun-amino-terminal-(NH2)-Kinase (JNK) pathway …


Characterization Of Pathological Tau Mutants, Charles J. McDonald 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Characterization Of Pathological Tau Mutants, Charles J. Mcdonald

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Tau is a protein expressed exclusively in glia and neurons in the central nervous system and implicated in several neurogenerative diseases called “tauopathies”. Among all the tauopathies, one third is characterized by the presence of genetic mutations leading to the synthesis of tau proteins with single amino acid substitutions at specific locations and affecting protein function. While most of the initial studies have emphasize the functional role of tau as modulator of the axonal cytoskeleton, it has recently been well accepted that tau is also an intrinsically disordered protein that tends to form membraneless organelles called coacervates, due to a …


Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott 2023 Southern Adventist University

Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

The AtPRP4 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to function in several specific parts of the plant’s cell wall. It is shown to be expressed in the seeds, radicles, roots, leaves, inflorescences, and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. These patterns have suggested unique functions for ATPRP4 in determining cell-type-specific wall structure during the development of a plant as well as contributing to defense reactions against physical damage to the plant and pathogen infection within the plant. In this study, a simple DNA prep was performed on the true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed using …


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