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Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of A Novel Mitochondrial Plasmid In Brassica, Mackenzie Strehle

UCARE Research Products

Possessing some of the largest and most complex genomes of any eukaryotic organelles, plant mitochondria are notorious for their rapidly rearranging genetic framework. In addition to containing a large and complex mitochondrial genome, the mitochondria of several plants in the genus Brassica have also been shown to contain an independent, self-replicating linear plasmid. Interestingly, the plasmid appears to be able to move independently between the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, and it can be paternally inherited, unlike the rest of the mitochondrial genome. The plasmid also has features similar to those of adenoviruses, including terminal inverted repeats and covalently bound proteins ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Tumor Formation In Response To Loss Of Chromatin Remodeler Chd5 In Zebrafish, Taylor R. Sabato, Erin L. Sorlien, Dr. Joseph P. Ogas 2017 Purdue University

Tumor Formation In Response To Loss Of Chromatin Remodeler Chd5 In Zebrafish, Taylor R. Sabato, Erin L. Sorlien, Dr. Joseph P. Ogas

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in humans. Deletion or mutation of CHD5 has been observed in numerous cancers, including neuroblastoma and melanoma. We hypothesize that chd5 is also a tumor suppressor in zebrafish, a powerful model system to study tumorigenesis. Many genes involved in tumorigenesis are conserved in zebrafish, and they develop fully penetrant tumor phenotypes. We have created chd5 knock-out zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 and are monitoring them for tumor development. In addition to the chd5 knock-outs, we are undertaking a double-mutant approach by coupling loss of ...


Performing A Genetic Screen To Identify Factors That Promote Lncrna-Dependent Gene Repression, Chrishan Fernando, Cecilia Yiu, Sara Cloutier, Siwen Wang, Elizabeth Tran 2017 Purdue University

Performing A Genetic Screen To Identify Factors That Promote Lncrna-Dependent Gene Repression, Chrishan Fernando, Cecilia Yiu, Sara Cloutier, Siwen Wang, Elizabeth Tran

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were once thought not to have useful functions in organisms but rather to be products of aberrant transcription. However, roles are being found for lncRNAs in beneficial processes such as controlling gene expression. In some of these cases, lncRNAs form R-loops in vivo. R-loops are nucleic acid structures consisting of hybridized strands of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) as well as the displaced strand of ssDNA. Formation of these R-loops is important for gene regulation by the lncRNAs. However, factors that promote formation of lncRNA R-loops are not known. The gene PHO84 is being ...


Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Zhao Zhang 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Zhao Zhang

Zhao Zhang

piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. In Drosophila, the heterochromatic piRNA clusters transcribe piRNA precursors to be transported into nuage, a perinuclear structure for piRNA production and transposon silencing. At nuage, reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavage—catalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila—destroy the sense transposon mRNA and expand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate. My thesis research mainly focuses on two fundamental questions about the piRNA ...


Engineering And Verifying Requirements For Programmable Self-Assembling Nanomachines, Robyn Lutz, Jack Lutz, James Lathrop, Titus Klinge, Eric Henderson, Davita Mathur, Dalia Abo Sheasha 2017 Iowa State University

Engineering And Verifying Requirements For Programmable Self-Assembling Nanomachines, Robyn Lutz, Jack Lutz, James Lathrop, Titus Klinge, Eric Henderson, Davita Mathur, Dalia Abo Sheasha

Robyn Lutz

We propose an extension of van Lamsweerde's goal-oriented requirements engineering to the domain of programmable DNA nanotechnology. This is a domain in which individual devices (agents) are at most a few dozen nanometers in diameter. These devices are programmed to assemble themselves from molecular components and perform their assigned tasks. The devices carry out their tasks in the probabilistic world of chemical kinetics, so they are individually error-prone. However, the number of devices deployed is roughly on the order of a nanomole (a 6 followed by fourteen 0s), and some goals are achieved when enough of these agents achieve ...


Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor 2017 The Unviersity of Western Ontario

Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over time, genetic differences can accumulate between populations that are geographically separated. This genetic divergence can lead to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that reduce gene flow between the populations and, upon secondary contact, result in distinct species. The process of speciation is, thus, what accounts for the multitude of species that contribute to the rich biodiversity on Earth. Interspecies hybrid sterility is a postzygotic isolating mechanism that affects the development of hybrids, rendering them sterile. A notable trend, known as Haldane's Rule, describes that heterogametic individual (e.g. males in Drosophila) are more susceptible to sterility than ...


Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The body size of an organism can be a crucial determinant of access to nutrition, reproductive success and overall survival in the wild. However, how body size of an individual is determined is incompletely understood. Body size is a complex trait determined by multiple pathways and genes, making it difficult to understand the role of individual genes and pathways in determining overall size. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a homolog of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) is a major regulator of body size; functional loss of DBL-1 leads to a small body size. Due to a drastic change in body size in dbl-1 ...


The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle 2017 University of Dayton

The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle

Biology Faculty Publications

Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides populationlevel benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic ...


The Santa Ana Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus): Phylogeography And Molecular Evolution Of The Mitochondrial Dna Control Region, James Jay VanMeter 2017 California State University San Bernardino

The Santa Ana Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus): Phylogeography And Molecular Evolution Of The Mitochondrial Dna Control Region, James Jay Vanmeter

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this genetic study of the Santa Ana Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus was three-fold. The first goal was to characterize the molecular structure of the mtDNA control region of R. osculus. An 1143 base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which included the complete control region was sequenced for all individuals. Analysis of the sequence data revealed that the molecular structure of the speckled dace control region was similar to the molecular structure described for other vertebrate taxa. The speckled dace control region contains three major domains, which vary in base frequency as well as in the frequency ...


Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner 2017 Murray State University

Risk Assessment In Crispr Transgenic Organisms, Jeffrey B. Warner

Honors College Theses

CRISPR/Cas, a gene editing tool modified from an antiviral response in bacteria, has been demonstrated to faithfully and precisely introduce double strand breaks (DSB’s) in DNA at sites designated by guide RNA’s (gRNA’s). The system is applicable to many model organisms and shows promise in the study of gene function, creation of model organisms, and, importantly, treatment of heritable disease. However, the specificity of the Cas endonuclease is such that DSB’s are often introduced at sites similar to the target sequence, called off-target sites. Minimization of off-target DNA cleavage is important to prevent unknown and ...


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


Chromatin-Modifying Agents Convert Fibroblasts To Oct4+ And Vegfr-2+ Capillary Tube-Forming Cells, Anita Wary, Neil Wary '18, Jugajyoti Baruah, Victoria Mastej, Kishore K. Wary 2017 York Community High School

Chromatin-Modifying Agents Convert Fibroblasts To Oct4+ And Vegfr-2+ Capillary Tube-Forming Cells, Anita Wary, Neil Wary '18, Jugajyoti Baruah, Victoria Mastej, Kishore K. Wary

Student Publications & Research

Rationale
The human epigenome is plastic. The goal of this study was to address if fibroblast cells can be epigenetically modified to promote neovessel formation.

Methods and results
Here, we used highly abundant human adult dermal fibroblast cells (hADFCs) that were treated with the chromatin-modifying agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, and subsequently subjected to differentiation by activating Wnt signaling. Our results show that these epigenetically modified hADFCs increasingly expressed β-catenin, pluripotency factor octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4, also known as POU5F1), and endothelial cell (EC) marker called vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, also known as Fetal Liver Kinase-1). In ...


A Genetic Analysis Of Nuclear Functions Of The Lipin Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Xeniya Rudolf 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genetic Analysis Of Nuclear Functions Of The Lipin Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Xeniya Rudolf

Theses and Dissertations

Lipins are a family of proteins that have critical functions in the control of fat storage and energy homeostasis. Biochemically, lipins have two functions. They provide an enzymatic activity (phosphatidate phosphatase or PAP activity) in the glycerol-3 phosphate pathway that leads to the production of storage fats (triacylglycerols). In addition, they play a role in the regulation of genes in the cell nucleus as transcriptional co-regulators. The PAP activity of lipins has been widely studied in a number of organisms. However, the transcriptional co-regulator function is not as well described in the literature. The transcriptional function of lipins depends on ...


Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron 2017 Bowdoin College

Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron

Honors Projects

Hybrid zones and their dynamics are important in the understanding of the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. This study seeks to investigate the hybridization dynamics of a Scarus hybrid swarm within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) that includes four phenotypically distinct species: S. perrico, S. ghobban, S. rubroviolaceus, and S. compressus. Genetic and population structure analyses of four nuclear loci and a mitochondrial locus revealed that one of the four species, S. compressus, was the result of two different hybrid crosses: S. perricoS. rubroviolaceus and S. perricoS. ghobban. A NewHybrids model indicated that most of the ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud 2017 University of Tennessee

Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic Polymorphisms Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor And Interleukin-8 Receptor Genes Are Related To Production Traits And Hair Coat Score In Crossbred Cattle, Avery Deaton

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this thesis was to identify polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and interleukin-8 receptor (CXCR2) genes and to associate genotypes between the above mentioned polymorphisms and production traits in crossbred cattle. The hypothesis was that polymorphisms will exist for GR and CXCR2 genes and will be linked to production traits. Glucocorticoid receptors have been positively associated with higher milk yields, lactose content, feed intake, and feed conversion rates. Interleukin-8 genes are part of the innate immune response and help with many aspects of female reproduction health, such as protecting the embryo from the maternal immune system during ...


Science, Between The Lines: Rosalind Franklin, Rachael Renzi 2017 University of Rhode Island

Science, Between The Lines: Rosalind Franklin, Rachael Renzi

Senior Honors Projects

The purpose of this paper is to contrast scientific rhetoric with creative biographical writing style. Both forms of communication rely on specific syntax and styles to describe research findings to the appropriate audiences, but the often passive format of scientific literature excludes the passionate reasonings of the researcher. In order to understand why the scientist is kept separate from his or her published findings, I am going to experiment with the two contrasting forms. Throughout the paper, each form will be tested and used at varying levels. Both scientific and creative writing will be mixed. To emphasize the technically dense ...


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