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Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu 2018 Illinois State University

Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Biodiversity Assessment: Using Environmental Dna And Next-Generation Sequencing To Characterize Biological Communities In The Central Highlands Of Arizona, Courtney Turner-Rathbone 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

The Future Of Biodiversity Assessment: Using Environmental Dna And Next-Generation Sequencing To Characterize Biological Communities In The Central Highlands Of Arizona, Courtney Turner-Rathbone

Undergraduate Research Symposium - Prescott

Historically ecological surveys require significant man hours in the field, utilizing methods which can stress species being observed. In using environmental DNA (eDNA) gathered from air, soil, and water, traditional methods may be supplemented or reduced in order to more efficiently utilize funding and reduce or eliminate stress on surveyed species. Water was collected in replicates using aseptic technique from two different sites, 60 miles apart, along the Verde River. Samples were vacuum filtered within 24 hours through 0.45 μm cellulose nitrate (CN) filters to collect eDNA. DNA extraction from the filters was performed. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR ...


Delayed Trait Development And The Convergent Evolution Of Shell Kinesis In Turtles, Gerardo A. Cordero, Kevin Quinteros, Fredric J. Janzen 2018 Iowa State University

Delayed Trait Development And The Convergent Evolution Of Shell Kinesis In Turtles, Gerardo A. Cordero, Kevin Quinteros, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Developmental processes are foundational to clarifying the causes of convergent evolution. Here, we show how a key convergently evolving trait is slowly “acquired” in growing turtles. Adaptive morphological change tends to originate late in turtle ontogeny, owing to design constraints imposed by the shell. We investigated this trend by examining derived patterns of shell formation associated with the multiple (≥ 8) origins of shell closure (kinesis) in smallbodied turtles. Using box turtles as a model, we demonstrate that the flexible hinge joint required for shell kinesis differentiates gradually and via extensive repatterning of shell tissue. Disproportionate changes in shell shape and ...


Spatial Structuring Of Cellulase Gene Abundance And Activity In Soil, Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth Bach, Jaejin Lee, Jared Flater, Shane Dooley, Adina Howe, Kirsten S. Hofmockel 2018 Iowa State University

Spatial Structuring Of Cellulase Gene Abundance And Activity In Soil, Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth Bach, Jaejin Lee, Jared Flater, Shane Dooley, Adina Howe, Kirsten S. Hofmockel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Microbial mechanisms controlling cellulose degradation in soil habitats remains a critical knowledge gap in understanding and modeling terrestrial carbon-cycling. We investigated land management and soil micro-habitat influences on soil bacterial communities and distribution of cellulose-degrading enzyme genes in three bioenergy cropping systems (corn, prairie, and fertilized prairie). Within the soil, aggregates have been examined as potential micro- habitats with specific characteristics influencing resource partitioning and regulation, thus we also investigated genes associated with cellulose degradation within soil aggregate fractions from the fertilized prairie system. Soil bacterial communities and carbon-cycling gene presence varied across land management and soil microhabitats. Examination of ...


Set It And Forget It! A Self-Sustaining Semester-Long Literature Assignment For An Undergraduate Genetics Class. Now With A Bonus Reference Game To Emphasize Boolean Operators!, Brian Odom 2018 Wingate University

Set It And Forget It! A Self-Sustaining Semester-Long Literature Assignment For An Undergraduate Genetics Class. Now With A Bonus Reference Game To Emphasize Boolean Operators!, Brian Odom

Georgia International Conference on Information Literacy

Biology is the largest undergraduate major at Wingate University and Molecular Genetics is a required course for all biology majors. Some of the goals of this course are to provide technical training in skills required to function in the modern workforce. In addition to the gaining of molecular laboratory techniques, training in the use of library resources is also included in the laboratory curriculum. This training, taught by the course instructor, is a follow-up to an intensive library introduction provided by reference and instruction Librarians as part of the foundational molecular biology course taken during the freshman year.

This additional ...


How Behavior Of Nontarget Species Affects Perceived Accuracy Of Scat Detection Dog Surveys, Karen E. DeMatteo, Linsey W. Blake, Julie K. Young, Barbara Davenport 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

How Behavior Of Nontarget Species Affects Perceived Accuracy Of Scat Detection Dog Surveys, Karen E. Dematteo, Linsey W. Blake, Julie K. Young, Barbara Davenport

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Detection dogs, specially trained domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), have become a valuable, noninvasive, conservation tool because they remove the dependence of attracting species to a particular location. Further, detection dogs locate samples independent of appearance, composition, or visibility allowing researchers to collect large sets of unbiased samples that can be used in complex ecological queries. One question not fully addressed is why samples from nontarget species are inadvertently collected during detection dog surveys. While a common explanation has been incomplete handler or dog training, our study aimed to explore alternative explanations. Our trials demonstrate that a scat’s genetic profile ...


Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dystrophinopathy is a genetic disorder that results in the lack of or abnormal expression of the protein dystrophin. It is a disorder that alters cell structure and function, impacts the developing brain and brain function, presents with multi-domain cognitive deficits, and influences both mood and behavior. Cognitive impairments appear to be more localized to specific areas of functioning rather than a global deficit; however, deficits have been identified across multiple cognitive domains including language and aspects of executive functioning. A careful examination of the cognitive phenotype and its association to mutations affecting CNS isoforms is necessary to clarify the neuropsychological ...


Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The maintenance of homeostatic functions is key to the survival and well-being of an organism. Regulation of homeostasis relies on varied inputs, both intrinsic and extrinsic, to potentiate a web of interconnected signaling relays. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) is a well-known regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as having far reaching effects in other homeostatic mechanisms. On the other hand, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta signaling superfamily, is known for its role in differentiation and development, with only recent studies highlighting potential roles in metabolic homeostasis. Here we elucidate new functions ...


Confirming World-Wide Distribution Of An Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla Zastrowi Sillemi, Using Songs, Morphology, Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing, And Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Zoe Mandese 2018 University of Connecticut

Confirming World-Wide Distribution Of An Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla Zastrowi Sillemi, Using Songs, Morphology, Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing, And Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Zoe Mandese

Honors Scholar Theses

The Chrysoperla carnea-group of green lacewings is a cryptic species complex. Species within the group are morphologically similar, yet isolated from one another via reproductive mating song. Chrysoperla zastrowi, a species within the carnea-group, is currently described with a distribution ranging from South Africa to the Middle East and India. However, recent collections of carnea-group lacewings from Guatemala and California were preliminarily identified as Chrysoperla zastrowi based upon similarities in their vibrational courtship songs. This analysis aims to place six specimens, collected by collaborators in Guatemala, Armenia, Iran, and California, into a pre-existing phylogeny of the Chrysoperla ...


Creating Tools To Determine Whether Katanin 60 Affects Female Rejection Of Males In Drosophila, Joshua R. Isaacson 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Creating Tools To Determine Whether Katanin 60 Affects Female Rejection Of Males In Drosophila, Joshua R. Isaacson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During courtship, it is vital for organisms to recognize conspecifics because of the costs associated with forming interspecies hybrids. Many organisms use species-specific cues to recognize potential mates. These cues are perceived and evaluated via neural pathways. The genetic basis of how species-specific cues are evaluated and processed into receptive or rejection behaviour remains almost entirely unknown. The gene Katanin 60 (Kat60) has previously been identified as contributing to interspecific mate rejection between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. I use the CRISPR/Cas9 system and RNA interference (RNAi) to confirm if Kat60 influences female receptivity between D. melanogaster and D ...


A Mechanism Of Antimicrobial Resistance And A Mitigation Strategy, Christopher Bulow 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

A Mechanism Of Antimicrobial Resistance And A Mitigation Strategy, Christopher Bulow

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION

A Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance and a Mitigation Strategy

by

Christopher Bulow

Doctor of Philosophy in Biology and Biomedical Sciences

Molecular Genetics and Genomics

Washington University in St. Louis, 2018

Professor Gautam Dantas, Chair

The ability to treat infections, perform surgery, and administer immunosuppressants and chemotherapy depends on effective antibiotics. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is far outpacing the development of new therapies1-3 threatening to thrust medicine into a post-antibiotic era4. Many mechanisms of antimicrobial action and of antimicrobial resistance remain poorly understood as drug development struggles to keep pace. As resistance develops, the ...


Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Behavior in higher eukaryotes is a complex process which integrates signals in the environment, the genetic makeup of the organism, and connectivity in the nervous system to produce extremely diverse adaptations to the phenomenon of existence. Unraveling the subcellular components that contribute to behavioral output is important for both understanding how behavior occurs in an unperturbed state, as well as understanding how behavior changes when the underlying systems that generate it are altered. Of the numerous molecular species that make up a cell, the regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the coding template of all proteins, is of key importance to ...


The Transcriptome Of The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis Enopla (Annelida: Syllidae): A Unique Luciferase Gene Family And Putative Epitoky-Related Genes, Mercer R. Brugler, M. Teresa Aguado, Michael Tessler, Mark Siddall 2018 NYC College of Technology (CUNY)

The Transcriptome Of The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis Enopla (Annelida: Syllidae): A Unique Luciferase Gene Family And Putative Epitoky-Related Genes, Mercer R. Brugler, M. Teresa Aguado, Michael Tessler, Mark Siddall

Publications and Research

The Bermuda fireworm Odontosyllis enopla exhibits an extremely tight circalunar circadian behavior that results in an impressive bioluminescent mating swarm, thought to be due to a conventional luciferase-mediated oxidation of a light-emitting luciferin. In addition, the four eyes become hypertrophied and heavily pigmented, and the nephridial system is modified to store and release gametes and associated secretions. In an effort to elucidate transcripts related to bioluminescence, circadian or circalunar periodicity, as well as epitoky-related changes of the eyes and nephridial system, we examined the transcriptomic profile of three female O. enopladuring a bioluminescent swarm in Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Using ...


Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning

Theses and Dissertations

Fescue toxicosis in grazing beef cattle is caused by consumption of Ergot alkaloids associated with tall fescue (toxic fescue) and is responsible for substantial economic loss to the U.S. beef industry. Cattle consuming toxic fescue suffer adverse physiological responses, such as: hyperthermia, increased respiration rate (RR), poor reproduction and growth performance. Other adverse responses to fescue toxins include the retention of a winter hair coat and vasoconstriction in the extremities, which can lead to tissue necrosis. Identifying cattle with reduced susceptibility to fescue toxins would allow for efficient use of fescue pastures; thus, the objectives of this thesis was ...


Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recombination and mutagenesis are elevated by high levels of transcription. The correlation between transcription and genome instability is largely explained by the topological and structural changes in DNA and the associated physical obstacles generated by the transcription machinery. However, such explanation does not directly account for the unique types of mutations originating from the non-canonical residues such as uracil, which are also elevated at highly transcribed regions. Apurinic/Apyrimic or Abasic (AP) sites derived from uracil excision, accumulate at a higher rate in actively transcribed regions of the genome in S. cerevisiae and are primarily repaired by base excision repair ...


Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter 2018 FMS Foundation

Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Theistic evolutionists present multiple genetic arguments against a literal Adam and Eve. One key argument asserts it would be impossible for a single human couple to give rise to the genetic diversity seen in the modern human population. This implicitly assumes Adam and Eve would have been created without internal genetic diversity. If this were true, all observed variations would have to arise recently via random mutations. This would require incredibly high mutation rates, logically leading to rapid extinction.

Yet, Adam and Eve could have been created massively heterozygous. We have argued for over a decade that they could have ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed 2018 York University

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


Comparative Genetic And Genomic Analysis Of The Novel Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 10, David Andrew Goodman 2018 Portland State University

Comparative Genetic And Genomic Analysis Of The Novel Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 10, David Andrew Goodman

Dissertations and Theses

Viruses that infect thermophilic Archaea are unique in both their structure and genetic makeup. The lemon-shaped fuselloviruses - which infect members of the order Sulfolobales, growing optimally at 80º C and pH 3 - are some of the most ubiquitous and best studied viruses of the thermoacidophilic Archaea. They provide a malleable and useful genetic tool for probing into the functions of their host, as well as the host responses to infection. Nonetheless, much about these viruses remains to be learned to further understand their morphological, genetic, and life cycle characteristics.

In order to investigate these aspects of these Fuselloviridae, as well ...


Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this project, we aimed to answer the question: Does cellular radiation affect offspring production and expression of the Rad51 gene in the organism Drosophila melanogaster? It was hypothesized that if Drosophila larvae were exposed to cellular radiation, the total offspring production would decrease, along with a corresponding increase in Rad51 expression. The Rad51 protein is crucial to the propagation of strand invasion and exchange steps in homologous recombination, resulting in the repair of double stranded DNA breaks. To test our hypothesis, we exposed the experimental group of Drosophila larvae to doses of cellular radiation emitted from an iPhone 6 ...


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