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Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu 2018 Illinois State University

Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dystrophinopathy is a genetic disorder that results in the lack of or abnormal expression of the protein dystrophin. It is a disorder that alters cell structure and function, impacts the developing brain and brain function, presents with multi-domain cognitive deficits, and influences both mood and behavior. Cognitive impairments appear to be more localized to specific areas of functioning rather than a global deficit; however, deficits have been identified across multiple cognitive domains including language and aspects of executive functioning. A careful examination of the cognitive phenotype and its association to mutations affecting CNS isoforms is necessary to clarify the neuropsychological ...


Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Integration Of Bmp And Insulin/Igf-1 Signaling Regulates Multiple Homeostatic Functions In Caenorhabditis Elegans, James F. Clark

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The maintenance of homeostatic functions is key to the survival and well-being of an organism. Regulation of homeostasis relies on varied inputs, both intrinsic and extrinsic, to potentiate a web of interconnected signaling relays. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) is a well-known regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as having far reaching effects in other homeostatic mechanisms. On the other hand, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta signaling superfamily, is known for its role in differentiation and development, with only recent studies highlighting potential roles in metabolic homeostasis. Here we elucidate new functions ...


Creating Tools To Determine Whether Katanin 60 Affects Female Rejection Of Males In Drosophila, Joshua R. Isaacson 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Creating Tools To Determine Whether Katanin 60 Affects Female Rejection Of Males In Drosophila, Joshua R. Isaacson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During courtship, it is vital for organisms to recognize conspecifics because of the costs associated with forming interspecies hybrids. Many organisms use species-specific cues to recognize potential mates. These cues are perceived and evaluated via neural pathways. The genetic basis of how species-specific cues are evaluated and processed into receptive or rejection behaviour remains almost entirely unknown. The gene Katanin 60 (Kat60) has previously been identified as contributing to interspecific mate rejection between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. I use the CRISPR/Cas9 system and RNA interference (RNAi) to confirm if Kat60 influences female receptivity between D. melanogaster and D ...


Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Behavior in higher eukaryotes is a complex process which integrates signals in the environment, the genetic makeup of the organism, and connectivity in the nervous system to produce extremely diverse adaptations to the phenomenon of existence. Unraveling the subcellular components that contribute to behavioral output is important for both understanding how behavior occurs in an unperturbed state, as well as understanding how behavior changes when the underlying systems that generate it are altered. Of the numerous molecular species that make up a cell, the regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the coding template of all proteins, is of key importance to ...


A Mechanism Of Antimicrobial Resistance And A Mitigation Strategy, Christopher Bulow 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

A Mechanism Of Antimicrobial Resistance And A Mitigation Strategy, Christopher Bulow

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION

A Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance and a Mitigation Strategy

by

Christopher Bulow

Doctor of Philosophy in Biology and Biomedical Sciences

Molecular Genetics and Genomics

Washington University in St. Louis, 2018

Professor Gautam Dantas, Chair

The ability to treat infections, perform surgery, and administer immunosuppressants and chemotherapy depends on effective antibiotics. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is far outpacing the development of new therapies1-3 threatening to thrust medicine into a post-antibiotic era4. Many mechanisms of antimicrobial action and of antimicrobial resistance remain poorly understood as drug development struggles to keep pace. As resistance develops, the ...


The Transcriptome Of The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis Enopla (Annelida: Syllidae): A Unique Luciferase Gene Family And Putative Epitoky-Related Genes, Mercer R. Brugler, M. Teresa Aguado, Michael Tessler, Mark Siddall 2018 NYC College of Technology (CUNY)

The Transcriptome Of The Bermuda Fireworm Odontosyllis Enopla (Annelida: Syllidae): A Unique Luciferase Gene Family And Putative Epitoky-Related Genes, Mercer R. Brugler, M. Teresa Aguado, Michael Tessler, Mark Siddall

Publications and Research

The Bermuda fireworm Odontosyllis enopla exhibits an extremely tight circalunar circadian behavior that results in an impressive bioluminescent mating swarm, thought to be due to a conventional luciferase-mediated oxidation of a light-emitting luciferin. In addition, the four eyes become hypertrophied and heavily pigmented, and the nephridial system is modified to store and release gametes and associated secretions. In an effort to elucidate transcripts related to bioluminescence, circadian or circalunar periodicity, as well as epitoky-related changes of the eyes and nephridial system, we examined the transcriptomic profile of three female O. enopladuring a bioluminescent swarm in Ferry Reach, Bermuda. Using ...


Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning

Theses and Dissertations

Fescue toxicosis in grazing beef cattle is caused by consumption of Ergot alkaloids associated with tall fescue (toxic fescue) and is responsible for substantial economic loss to the U.S. beef industry. Cattle consuming toxic fescue suffer adverse physiological responses, such as: hyperthermia, increased respiration rate (RR), poor reproduction and growth performance. Other adverse responses to fescue toxins include the retention of a winter hair coat and vasoconstriction in the extremities, which can lead to tissue necrosis. Identifying cattle with reduced susceptibility to fescue toxins would allow for efficient use of fescue pastures; thus, the objectives of this thesis was ...


Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter 2018 FMS Foundation

Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Theistic evolutionists present multiple genetic arguments against a literal Adam and Eve. One key argument asserts it would be impossible for a single human couple to give rise to the genetic diversity seen in the modern human population. This implicitly assumes Adam and Eve would have been created without internal genetic diversity. If this were true, all observed variations would have to arise recently via random mutations. This would require incredibly high mutation rates, logically leading to rapid extinction.

Yet, Adam and Eve could have been created massively heterozygous. We have argued for over a decade that they could have ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed 2018 York University

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


Comparative Genetic And Genomic Analysis Of The Novel Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 10, David Andrew Goodman 2018 Portland State University

Comparative Genetic And Genomic Analysis Of The Novel Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 10, David Andrew Goodman

Dissertations and Theses

Viruses that infect thermophilic Archaea are unique in both their structure and genetic makeup. The lemon-shaped fuselloviruses - which infect members of the order Sulfolobales, growing optimally at 80º C and pH 3 - are some of the most ubiquitous and best studied viruses of the thermoacidophilic Archaea. They provide a malleable and useful genetic tool for probing into the functions of their host, as well as the host responses to infection. Nonetheless, much about these viruses remains to be learned to further understand their morphological, genetic, and life cycle characteristics.

In order to investigate these aspects of these Fuselloviridae, as well ...


Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Put Your Phone Down: Effects Of Cellular Radiation On Drosophila Melanogaster, Anna Sapone, Michael Wilson, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this project, we aimed to answer the question: Does cellular radiation affect offspring production and expression of the Rad51 gene in the organism Drosophila melanogaster? It was hypothesized that if Drosophila larvae were exposed to cellular radiation, the total offspring production would decrease, along with a corresponding increase in Rad51 expression. The Rad51 protein is crucial to the propagation of strand invasion and exchange steps in homologous recombination, resulting in the repair of double stranded DNA breaks. To test our hypothesis, we exposed the experimental group of Drosophila larvae to doses of cellular radiation emitted from an iPhone 6 ...


Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Brandon Adair, Tamra E. Jones, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Manganese Toxicity In The Dopamine Synthesis Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Brandon Adair, Tamra E. Jones, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Manganese is prevalent in Montana, and Manganese toxicity symptomatically resembles Parkinsons disease. The goal of this project was to determine whether exposure to high levels of Manganese affects the Dopamine synthesis pathway. For our experiment, we chose to measure the expression of the ple gene in Drosophila melanogaster that were exposed to Manganese during development. The ple gene codes for Tyrosine Hydroxylase, an enzyme that functions in the first rate-limiting step of Dopamine synthesis. We hypothesized that an abundance of Manganese would result in decreased expression of ple in larvae and observable motor function deficits among adult flies. To carry ...


Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether alcohol induces starvation conditions in Tetrahymena thermophila. For this experiment, it was hypothesized that alcohol induces starvation due to a lack of energy available in the organism for feeding. This hypothesis was tested by monitoring food vacuole formation and expression of the PFK1 gene in Tetrahymena that were exposed to alcohol. The PFK-1 gene was chosen because its encoded protein plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. For the experiment, control and experimental cultures of Tetrahymena themophila were maintained in a nutrient rich media, with the media of the experimental group ...


The Effect Of Exposure To Ionizing Radiation On Cwf16 Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Shelby Olsen, David Woolston 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Exposure To Ionizing Radiation On Cwf16 Expression In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Shelby Olsen, David Woolston

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The following research seeks to determine whether exposure to ultraviolet radiation will induce an increase in the expression of the Cwf16 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. Cwf16 is a homolog of Ccgc94, whose gene product is a functioning member of the Prp19 complex, a protein complex which protects cells from committing apoptosisprogrammed cell deathdue to exposure to ionizing radiation. The homology between Cwf16 and Ccgc94 yields the hypothesis that Cwf16 expression in T. thermophila will increase in response to UV radiation exposure in a similar mechanism to that observed the Ccgc94 system. In the present research, T. thermophila cultures were randomly ...


Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this study, Tetrahymena thermophila cultures were exposed to an acute treatment of UV light and expression of the FBP1 gene was examined. The FBP1 gene encodes Fructose- 1,6-biphosphatase which plays an important role in the process of gluconeogenesis. It was hypothesized that exposure of Tetrahymena to UV light would cause an upregulation in DNA repair enzymes, thereby causing these cells to require higher levels of glucose. The higher demand for glucose would then result in the upregulation of gluconeogenesis and FBP1. Following acute exposure of Tetrahymena cultures to UV light, the expression of FBP1 was analyzed using reverse ...


Uv Light Exposure And Tetrahymena Thermophilia: Expression Of The Phr2 Gene, Molly Moloney, Tanner Gustavsen, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Uv Light Exposure And Tetrahymena Thermophilia: Expression Of The Phr2 Gene, Molly Moloney, Tanner Gustavsen, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The PHR2 (photolyase repair) gene functions in the repair of DNA in Tetrahymena thermophila. It was hypothesized that when Tetrahymena cultures are exposed to UV light, increased expression of PHR2 would occur in response to the damage incurred. UV light has been known to cause the formation of pyrimidine dimers and other disruptions in DNA. Through two rounds of experimentation, the acute impact of UV light exposure was monitored. The cultures underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and semi-quantitative PCR analysis. We predicted that UV exposure would result in the increased expression of PHR2.


Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide On Abda Gene Expression And Larval Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Emma Esposito, Keenan McNally, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide On Abda Gene Expression And Larval Development In Drosophila Melanogaster, Emma Esposito, Keenan Mcnally, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, we tested the effects sulfur dioxide exposure had on abd-A gene expression and larval development in Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies showed that sulfur dioxide exposure inhibits development of gonads in adult flies and increases development time. We hypothesized that expression of abd-A would decrease in developing Drosophila exposed to sulfur dioxide. The abd-A gene is in the Hox gene family, which functions in the development of body segmentation. The abd-A gene is specific to the abdominal region of the fly, and is also important to the development of gonads and fat bodies. To test our hypothesis, we ...


The Effect Of Metal Pollutants On Cell Growth And Ttherm0058490expressionint Etrahymenathermophila, Inderbir Bains, William French, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

The Effect Of Metal Pollutants On Cell Growth And Ttherm0058490expressionint Etrahymenathermophila, Inderbir Bains, William French, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, we sought to answer the following question: Do higher levels of metal exposure affect expression of the TTHERM 00584900 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila? The TTHERM 00584900 gene produces an ATP-binding cassette protein that is responsible for removing metals and metalloids from Tetrahymena thermophila. It is hypothesized that the expression of TTHERM 00584900 will increase with exposure to metals. In order to test this hypothesis, Tetrahymena thermophila were randomly assigned to either a control group, which was cultured in a normal growth medium, or a treatment group, whichin addition to the medium was exposed to water contaminated with ...


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