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Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Body Size Regulation Via Bmp Signaling In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Uday Madaan

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The body size of an organism can be a crucial determinant of access to nutrition, reproductive success and overall survival in the wild. However, how body size of an individual is determined is incompletely understood. Body size is a complex trait determined by multiple pathways and genes, making it difficult to understand the role of individual genes and pathways in determining overall size. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a homolog of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) is a major regulator of body size; functional loss of DBL-1 leads to a small body size. Due to a drastic change in body size in dbl-1 ...


Selection For Resistance To Fowl Typhoid In The Chicken With Reference To Its Inheritance, W. V. Lambert, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

Selection For Resistance To Fowl Typhoid In The Chicken With Reference To Its Inheritance, W. V. Lambert, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Experiments were planned to study the influence of selection upon natural resistance to fowl typhoid in the chicken, and to determine something about the genetic nature of differences in resistance.

Using a pathogen of constant virulence and a uniform method of infection, it was determined that degree of infection influenced the mortality in unselected chicks. Both total mortality and rate of mortality were increased by the heavier doses.

Four generations of selection for resistance to a standard dose of fowl typhoid bacteria resulted in a decided decrease in mortality in the selected population. The mortalities observed in the chicks of ...


Genetic Tests For Linkage Between Row Number Genes And Certain Qualitative Genes In Maize, E. W. Lindstrom 2017 Iowa State College

Genetic Tests For Linkage Between Row Number Genes And Certain Qualitative Genes In Maize, E. W. Lindstrom

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Tests on a large scale were devised to determine if the multiple genes for kernel row number on the maize ear would show genetic linkage with known genes on several of the maize chromosomes. The linkage groups tested involved P (pericarp and cob), R (aleurone), Su, (endosperm), and Y (endosperm color) chromosomes.

A very significant correlation between cob (and pericarp) color and row number was discovered in a large series of crosses. This was so pronounced that one is inclined very strongly to believe that one of the major row-number genes is located on the P chromosome.

The experiments involving ...


The Inheritance Of Color And Horns In Blue-Gray Cattle Ii, John M. Evvard, P. S. Shearer, E. W. Lindstrom, A. D. B. Smith 2017 Iowa State College

The Inheritance Of Color And Horns In Blue-Gray Cattle Ii, John M. Evvard, P. S. Shearer, E. W. Lindstrom, A. D. B. Smith

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This bulletin is a sequel to Research Bulletin No. 30 published in 1916. It contains information and a discussion concerning the progeny from the original stock subsequent to that date.

The work of the previous investigators, their results and the conclusions drawn therefrom, are retabulated without details. Additional data are added showing that the recessive whites obtained from the F2 breed true.

The nature of the roan in the Shorthorn is considered. While it is recognized that Wright's criticism of the hypothesis used (Wentworth's) rendered it improbable, yet the fact that two whites when mated to self-colored ...


Editor's Note On `Putting Fossils In Trees' Special Issue, April M. Wright 2017 Iowa State University

Editor's Note On `Putting Fossils In Trees' Special Issue, April M. Wright

April Wright

This special issue has its origins with a 2014 symposium organized by myself and my co-editors David W. Bapst, Graeme T. Lloyd and Nicholas J. Matzke at the Society for Vertebrate Paleontology meetings in Berlin, Germany. In the two years prior to 2014, there had been several interesting and important papers published [1] [2] [3][4] about estimating phylogenetic trees incorporating fossil taxa, and particularly involving Bayesian analyses. Some of these papers were written from a neontological perspective, and appeared in journals not often read by paleontologists. We convened our session with a simple idea: to get di#11;erent ...


Topology, Divergence Dates, And Macroevolutionary Inferences Vary Between Different Tip-Dating Approaches Applied To Fossil Theropods (Dinosauria), D. W. Bapst, A. M. Wright, N. J. Matzke, G. T. Lloyd 2017 South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

Topology, Divergence Dates, And Macroevolutionary Inferences Vary Between Different Tip-Dating Approaches Applied To Fossil Theropods (Dinosauria), D. W. Bapst, A. M. Wright, N. J. Matzke, G. T. Lloyd

April Wright

Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian ‘tip-dating’ methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare tip-dating analyses to maximum-parsimony trees time-scaled via alternative a posteriori approaches including via the probabilistic cal3 method. Among tip-dating analyses, we find opposing but stronglysupported ...


The Genetics Of Poultry Color In Poultry, C. W. Knox 2017 Iowa State College

The Genetics Of Poultry Color In Poultry, C. W. Knox

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. The chromogen gene for color, CC, acted as a simple dominant.

2. The extension of black pigment, EE, was inherited on a simple monohybrid basis.

3. The heterozygous extension and chromogen genes (Cc Ee) had a balanced relationship. This combination of heterozygous factors weakened the expression of the black melanic pigment in the presence of two or more doses of buff.

4. Buff color was controlled on a dihybrid basis, the following symbols being used, Bu Bu Bu' Bu'.

5. Three or more doses of the buff genes in the presence of homozygous color factors, CC, were epistatic to ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Genetic sequencing in beef cattle (L. Bos Taurus) is expected to aid producers select cattle with traits that enhance profitability. Using data from experimental trials conducted with Angus, Brahman, and their reciprocal cross, this project analyzes the profitability of grazing endophyte infected tall Fescue (L. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) vs. Bermuda grass (L. Cynodon dactylon) pasture. The study is unique in the sense that actual cow-calf breeding failure rates (open cows were not culled) were tracked from 1991 to 1997 on herds that were bred to calf in spring and either exposed to fungal endophyte (L.Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams ...


Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-McCrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener 2017 University of Rhode Island

Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-Mccrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener

Senior Honors Projects

Investigating the Genetic Basis for Hominoid Taillessness:

A Comparative Genetic Approach Across Ten Catarrhine Taxa

Samantha Tickey-McCrane1,2, Johanna E. Wegener2, and Holly Dunsworth1

Honors Thesis Abstract Written by Samantha Tickey-McCrane, Departments of Anthropology & Biology

Advisor: Dr. Holly Dunsworth, Department of Anthropology

How did hominoid tail loss occur? My goals are to test phylogenetic and adaptive hypotheses for tail length variation among macaques, and use those insights to reconstruct the evolution of hominoid taillessness. Further, I aim to ultimately uncover which candidate genes or pathways may be responsible for catarrhine tail loss, and what other traits may be affected by ...


A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko 2017 University of Rhode Island

A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko

Senior Honors Projects

Sexual dimorphism is exhibited across all cricket species and is a central aspect of the mating processes of these insects. Only male crickets possess wing structures and pattern generators in the central nervous system that allow them to produce a mating call that is unique to their species in order to attract conspecific females. Conspecific females possess an auditory feature detection circuit in the central nervous system that is capable of detecting the species-specific frequency and temporal pattern of sound pulses within a male call. In order for dimorphic differences in mating behavior to result in successful continuation of a ...


Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron 2017 Bowdoin College

Hybridization Dynamics Of A Newly Discovered Parrotfish Swarm In The Tropical Eastern Pacific, Robert Barron

Honors Projects

Hybrid zones and their dynamics are important in the understanding of the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. This study seeks to investigate the hybridization dynamics of a Scarus hybrid swarm within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) that includes four phenotypically distinct species: S. perrico, S. ghobban, S. rubroviolaceus, and S. compressus. Genetic and population structure analyses of four nuclear loci and a mitochondrial locus revealed that one of the four species, S. compressus, was the result of two different hybrid crosses: S. perricoS. rubroviolaceus and S. perricoS. ghobban. A NewHybrids model indicated that most of the ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


A New Era Of Genome Modification, Lizabeth R. Hampton 2017 University of Wyoming

A New Era Of Genome Modification, Lizabeth R. Hampton

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Four decades ago, the advent of technology that could be applied to genetic engineering stimulated the hope that one day we would be able to ‘fix’ genetic disorders or inhibit cancer growth by replacing defective genes or introducing helpful genes into a person’s genome. That hope was followed by frustration with the limitations of the technology until the recent development of a new strategy used in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which is considered one of the most important developments in the field of genome modification to date. CRISPR technology can be used both for genome modification and post-transcriptional editing ...


Inheritance Of Carbohydrates And Fat In Crosses Of Dent And Sweet Corn, E. W. Lindstrom, Fisk Gerhardt 2017 Iowa State College

Inheritance Of Carbohydrates And Fat In Crosses Of Dent And Sweet Corn, E. W. Lindstrom, Fisk Gerhardt

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Dent and sweet varieties of corn (maize) are sharply differentiated in the chemical constitution of their seed, especially in relative amounts of sugars, dextrins, starches and fat. This fact, together with our knowledge of the mechanism of heredity in this species, provides an excellent background for an exact. determination of the mode of inheritance of these chemical characters. Another advantage in the genetic analysis, lies in the precise, cellular mechanism of double fertilization in the embryo sac whereby the endosperm tissue is developed as the result of a triple fushion of nuclei, two from the female and one from the ...


Hereditary Correlation Of Size And Color Characteristics In Tomatoes, E. W. Lindstrom 2017 Iowa State College

Hereditary Correlation Of Size And Color Characteristics In Tomatoes, E. W. Lindstrom

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

From the hereditary standpoint, color and size characters in either plants or animals are not equally well understood. In general, the inheritance of color, technically known as a qualitative character, has been rather satisfactorily determined. On the modern chromosome theory of heredity, the genetic factors responsible for the development of colors appear to be located on the various chromosomes of the species and apparently follow a regular, stable and predictable mode of inheritance from generation to generation. Environmental agencies play a relatively minor part in ;modifying such characters. It is for this reason, perhaps, that their inheritance has been so ...


Genetic Variation In Concentration Of The 33-Mer Protein Subcomponent In Wheat, Robert L. Paris, Kaleb M. Pauley, Ryan K. Lokkesmoe, Sarah E. Lyon, James C. Dunlap, Julia M. Pierre, Timothy VanWingerden, Finny J. Johns, Kyle J. Kilchrist, Tyler J. Reid, Caleb M. Winn 2017 Cedarville University

Genetic Variation In Concentration Of The 33-Mer Protein Subcomponent In Wheat, Robert L. Paris, Kaleb M. Pauley, Ryan K. Lokkesmoe, Sarah E. Lyon, James C. Dunlap, Julia M. Pierre, Timothy Vanwingerden, Finny J. Johns, Kyle J. Kilchrist, Tyler J. Reid, Caleb M. Winn

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Celiac Disease is a hypersensitive response to gluten caused by HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 T-cell presentation, initiating destruction of intestinal epithelial cells. Currently, the only remedy for those suffering from celiac disease is elimination of all gluten from the diet. Studies indicate that an indigestible fragment of the gluten molecule, alpha-gliadin subcomponent 33-mer, rich in proline and glutamine, is responsible for the hypersensitivity response. Determination of 33-mer concentration in wheat lines could be beneficial to future development of wheat lines with reduced 33-mer concentration. Protein from wheat flour was extracted and subjected to ELISA techniques in order to quantify the concentration ...


Using Imputation As A Method Of Improving Genetic Data Analysis, Kimberly Diaz Perez 2017 Georgia State University

Using Imputation As A Method Of Improving Genetic Data Analysis, Kimberly Diaz Perez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


C-Myc’S Role On Methylation Of The Gata-2 Gene In Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, Jonathan D. Hajduk 2017 Lynchburg College

C-Myc’S Role On Methylation Of The Gata-2 Gene In Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, Jonathan D. Hajduk

Student Scholar Showcase

Lung cancer accounts for more deaths per year than any other form of cancer, resulting in a total of 158,000 deaths per year in the U.S. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is diagnosed in greater than 224,000 Americans every year. Methylation and subsequent downregulation of certain genes has been directly linked to the uncontrolled growth of NSCLC cells. Natural killer (NK) cells are key innate immune cells responsible for apoptosis of cells with incorrect genetic code. It is believed that one component of uncontrolled NSCLC growth is due to the NK cells’ inability to detect errors within ...


Differential Mrna Expression In Ectopic Germinal Centers Of Myasthenia Gravis Thymus, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda L. Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski 2017 George Washington University

Differential Mrna Expression In Ectopic Germinal Centers Of Myasthenia Gravis Thymus, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda L. Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder resulting in weakness of voluntary muscles. It is caused by antibodies directed against proteins present at the post-synaptic surface of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). A characteristic pathology of patients with early onset MG is thymic hyperplasia with ectopic germinal centers (GC). However, mechanisms that trigger and maintain thymic hyperplasia are poorly characterized.

In order to determine the central mechanisms involved in the pathology, thymus samples from MG patients were assessed by histology and grouped based on appearance of GC compared to samples without them. We assessed the differential mRNA expression profiles between the ...


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