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Identification Of Qtls For Resistance Against Rhizoctonia Solani And Phoma Glycinicola In Soybeans (Glycine Max L. Merr), Herbert Sserunkuma 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Identification Of Qtls For Resistance Against Rhizoctonia Solani And Phoma Glycinicola In Soybeans (Glycine Max L. Merr), Herbert Sserunkuma

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

A QTL (Quantitative trait locus) is a chromosome location of a gene controlling a specific phenotypic trait. The trait maybe governed by multiple genes. Fungal pathogens are responsible for over 50% of all soybean diseases. Rhizoctonia solani Kühn causes seedling dumping off, root and hypocotyl rots and other disease in soybeans. Phoma glycinicola de Gruyter & Boerema causes Red leaf blotch disease, predominantly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is no reported complete resistance against these fungal pathogens in soybeans. Reaction to R.solani is reportedly a quantitative trait controlled by major and minor genes. Three QTLs contributing to reaction to R. solani ...


Identification Of Candidate Genes Underlying An Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus In Soybean, Gregory A. Peiffer, Keith E. King, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory D. May, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shun Fu Lin, Nicholas C. Lauter, Randy C. Shoemaker 2016 Iowa State University

Identification Of Candidate Genes Underlying An Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus In Soybean, Gregory A. Peiffer, Keith E. King, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory D. May, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shun Fu Lin, Nicholas C. Lauter, Randy C. Shoemaker

Andrew Severin

Prevalent on calcareous soils in the United States and abroad, iron deficiency is among the most common and severe nutritional stresses in plants. In soybean (Glycine max) commercial plantings, the identification and use of iron-efficient genotypes has proven to be the best form of managing this soil-related plant stress. Previous studies conducted in soybean identified a significant iron efficiency quantitative trait locus (QTL) explaining more than 70% of the phenotypic variation for the trait. In this research, we identified candidate genes underlying this QTL through molecular breeding, mapping, and transcriptome sequencing. Introgression mapping was performed using two related near-isogenic lines ...


Mrub_2874 Is Homologous To B3386 And Mrub_1349 Is Homologous To B2914, But Mrub_1349 Is Not Homologous To B4090, Samantha Murad, Dr. Lori Scott 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_2874 Is Homologous To B3386 And Mrub_1349 Is Homologous To B2914, But Mrub_1349 Is Not Homologous To B4090, Samantha Murad, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

ABSTRACT. This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation – Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_2874 and Mrub_1349. We predict that Mrub_2874 encodes the enzyme ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (DNA coordinates 2912530..2913204 on the reverse strand), which is the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway (KEGG map number 00030). It catalyzes the conversion of D-ribulose 5-phosphate to D-xylulose 5-phosphate. The E. coli K12 MG1655 ortholog is predicted to be b3386, which has the gene ...


The Role Of Cellulose Synthase-Like D Genes In Tip Growth Of Physcomitrella Patens, Erin E. Killeavy, Arielle Chaves, Alison Roberts 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Role Of Cellulose Synthase-Like D Genes In Tip Growth Of Physcomitrella Patens, Erin E. Killeavy, Arielle Chaves, Alison Roberts

Senior Honors Projects

Physcomitrella patens is a non-vascular plant with a relatively small genome and is amongst the few eukaryotic organisms that have a high rate of homologous recombination. This is valuable in biological research because it allows for targeted genetic modification of the organism. In vascular plants like Arabidopsis thaliana, a model organism, Cellulose Synthase-like D (CSLD) genes have been discovered to be important in tip growth. This type of growth is observed in the pollen tubes and root hairs of these plant types. The CSLD genes in Arabidopsis were found to play a crucial role in the growth of root hairs ...


Genetic Diversity In Concentration Of A Protein Subcomponent In Selected Wheat Lines, Andrew B. Berman, Kelsey Gentry, Alexander K. Lee, Molly Yandrofski, Malorie Young, Robert L. Paris 2016 Cedarville University

Genetic Diversity In Concentration Of A Protein Subcomponent In Selected Wheat Lines, Andrew B. Berman, Kelsey Gentry, Alexander K. Lee, Molly Yandrofski, Malorie Young, Robert L. Paris

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Celiac Disease is a hypersensitive response to gluten caused by HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 T-cell presentation, initiating destruction of intestinal epithelial cells. Studies indicate that an indigestible fragment of the gluten molecule, alpha-gliadin subcomponent 33-mer, rich in proline and glutamine, is responsible for the hypersensitivity response. Determination of 33 mer concentration in wheat lines would be beneficial to future development of wheat lines with reduced 33 mer concentration. Protein from wheat flour was extracted and subjected to western blot in order to quantify the concentration of 33-mer. This will be a valuable tool for future research efforts focused on identification and ...


Law And The Sciences Of The Brain/Mind, Stephen J. Morse 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Law And The Sciences Of The Brain/Mind, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter is a submission to the Oxford Handbook of Law and the Regulation of Technology edited by Roger Brownsword. It considers whether the new sciences of the brain/mind, especially neuroscience and behavioral genetics, are likely to transform the law’s traditional concepts of the person, agency and responsibility. The chapter begins with a brief speculation about why so many people think these sciences will transform the law. After reviewing the law’s concepts, misguided challenges to them, and the achievements of the new sciences, the chapter confronts the claim that these sciences prove that we are really not ...


Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Non-Essentiality Of Alr And Muri Genes In Mycobacteria, Philion L. Hoff, Denise Zinniel, Raúl G. Barletta

UCARE Research Products

Amino acids are the building blocks of life. If DNA is the blueprint, amino acids are the lumber that proteins are built with. Proteins are built with left-handed, L- forms of amino acids. Bacteria have an essential cell wall component that happens to be an exception: peptidoglycan. Bacteria have enzymes called racemases that convert L- amino acid forms into right-handed, D- forms. Amino acids participate in many reactions with keto acids. Transaminases allow conversion between amino acids by transfer of an amino group.

Previous reports claimed there is no D-ala transaminase activity in mycobacteria and thus alr and murI genes ...


Design Of A Factorial Experiment With Randomization Restrictions To Assess Medical Device Performance On Vascular Tissue, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell 2016 University of Dayton

Design Of A Factorial Experiment With Randomization Restrictions To Assess Medical Device Performance On Vascular Tissue, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell

Carissa Krane

Background: Energy-based surgical scalpels are designed to efficiently transect and seal blood vessels using thermal energy to promote protein denaturation and coagulation. Assessment and design improvement of ultrasonic scalpel performance relies on both in vivo and ex vivo testing. The objective of this work was to design and implement a robust, experimental test matrix with randomization restrictions and predictive statistical power, which allowed for identification of those experimental variables that may affect the quality of the seal obtained ex vivo. Methods: The design of the experiment included three factors: temperature (two levels); the type of solution used to perfuse the ...


Is A Mitochondrial Plasmid Really A Virus?, Mackenzie Strehle 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Is A Mitochondrial Plasmid Really A Virus?, Mackenzie Strehle

UCARE Research Products

In addition to containing a large and complex mitochondrial genome, the mitochondria of several species of plants have been shown to contain an independent, self-replicating DNA molecule in the form of a plasmid. Plants in the Brassica genus contain a linear plasmid that is approximately 11.6 kilobases in length. The plasmid is characterized by the presence of terminal inverted repeats and covalently bonded proteins at its termini (Handa 2008). The plasmid also contains six ORFs that encode DNA and RNA polymerases and a number of unknown proteins (Figure 1). Currently, both the function of this plasmid and the mechanisms ...


Heredity In The Epigenetic Era: Are We Facing A Politics Of Reproductive Obligations?, Michael J. Crawford 2016 University of Windsor

Heredity In The Epigenetic Era: Are We Facing A Politics Of Reproductive Obligations?, Michael J. Crawford

Biological Sciences Publications

Recent research in the emerging field of epigenetics has implications with the potential to re-ignite acrimony in the discourse of reproductive rights, medical ethics, and the role of the state in our homes and in our lives. For scientists, epigenetics has profoundly realigned our understanding of heredity: epigenetics provides a mechanism through which the environmental challenges met in one generation can be inscribed and transmitted to future offspring. Although both genetic parents have the potential to transmit heritable epigenetic changes to their offspring, mothers have a particularly potent effect because nutrition in the uterine environment can exert a supplemental effect ...


Reducing The Potential For Acrylamide Formation In Wheat Products, Amy Hauver, P. Stephen Baenziger, Mary J. Guttieri 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Reducing The Potential For Acrylamide Formation In Wheat Products, Amy Hauver, P. Stephen Baenziger, Mary J. Guttieri

UCARE Research Products

Acrylamide, a chemical formed from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high-temperature cooking via the Maillard reaction (i.e. frying or baking) of high starch foods is deemed ‘probably carcinogenic to humans’ based on its affect in mice. In April of 2002, a group of Swedish researchers reported findings that presented evidence that heat-treated, starch-rich foods contained high levels of acrylamide, later linking the production of acrylamide to the Maillard reaction. A number of other studies have been done to link dietary intake of acrylamide to human cancers and other health effects, although many have had inconclusive results. Nevertheless, the ...


Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood

UCARE Research Products

The CDC estimates that more than one-third of U.S. adults (approximately 78.6 million) are obese. Despite national efforts to combat this with diet and exercise, the number of obese adults and children continues to climb. It is critical to emphasize that obesity can lead to lifelong, chronic complications and health risks including hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes.

Diet and obesity also have important impacts on the reproductive health of female including the ability to become pregnant (fertility) and risk for complications during pregnancy. Furthermore, for women who do become pregnant, obesity can affect the development of the embryo ...


Making Sense Of Genomic Variation: Part 1 Snp Annotation, Rolando Garcia-Milian 2016 Yale University

Making Sense Of Genomic Variation: Part 1 Snp Annotation, Rolando Garcia-Milian

Rolando Garcia-Milian

The  specific combination of genetic variation in an individual defines not  only the external appearance but also susceptibility to diseases,  cancer, genetic disorders, drug response, etc. This explains the great  interest in discovering and cataloging these variations and using them  for disease association and functional studies, among others. In this  session we will review the most popular databases and tools to annotate,  analyze and visualize genetic variations. Some of the databases and  tools that will be discussed are:
-dbSNP
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes.
- GWAS Catalog
-  EBI's Ensembl Variant ...


Development Of An In Vivo Rnai Protocol To Investigate Gene Function In The Filarial Nematode, Brugia Malayi, Chuanzhe Song, Jack Gallup, Timothy Day, Lyric Bartholomay, Michael Kimber 2016 Iowa State University

Development Of An In Vivo Rnai Protocol To Investigate Gene Function In The Filarial Nematode, Brugia Malayi, Chuanzhe Song, Jack Gallup, Timothy Day, Lyric Bartholomay, Michael Kimber

Michael Kimber

Our ability to control diseases caused by parasitic nematodes is constrained by a limited portfolio of effective drugs and a paucity of robust tools to investigate parasitic nematode biology. RNA interference (RNAi) is a reverse-genetics tool with great potential to identify novel drug targets and interrogate parasite gene function, but present RNAi protocols for parasitic nematodes, which remove the parasite from the host and execute RNAi in vitro, are unreliable and inconsistent. We have established an alternative in vivo RNAi protocol targeting the filarial nematode Brugia malayi as it develops in an intermediate host, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Injection of ...


Bio-Piracy: Creating Proprietary Rights In Plant Genetic Resources, James O. Odek 2016 University of Nairobi

Bio-Piracy: Creating Proprietary Rights In Plant Genetic Resources, James O. Odek

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Genetic Link Between Renal Birth Defects And Congenital Heart Disease, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Nikolai Klena, Kristi Granath, Ashok Panigrahy, Eileen Stewart, William Devine, Lara Strittmatter, Julie A. Jonassen, Xiaoqin Liu, Cecilia W. Lo, Gregory J. Pazour 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Genetic Link Between Renal Birth Defects And Congenital Heart Disease, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Nikolai Klena, Kristi Granath, Ashok Panigrahy, Eileen Stewart, William Devine, Lara Strittmatter, Julie A. Jonassen, Xiaoqin Liu, Cecilia W. Lo, Gregory J. Pazour

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a ...


A Novel Two-Component Signaling System Facilitates Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli's Ability To Exploit Abundant Host Metabolites, Wentong Cai, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Giuseppe Dell'Anna, Bryon A. Nicholson, Nicolle L. Barbieri, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Yaping Feng, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan, Ganwu Li 2016 Iowa State University

A Novel Two-Component Signaling System Facilitates Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli's Ability To Exploit Abundant Host Metabolites, Wentong Cai, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Giuseppe Dell'anna, Bryon A. Nicholson, Nicolle L. Barbieri, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Yaping Feng, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan, Ganwu Li

Lisa K. Nolan

wo-component signaling systems (TCSs) are major mechanisms by which bacteria adapt to environmental conditions. It follows then that TCSs would play important roles in the adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments. However, no pathogen-associated TCS has been identified in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Here, we identified a novel TCS, which we termed KguS/KguR (KguS: α-ketoglutarate utilization sensor; KguR: α-ketoglutarate utilizationregulator) in UPEC CFT073, a strain isolated from human pyelonephritis. kguS/kguR was strongly associated with UPEC but was found only rarely among other E. coli including commensal and intestinal pathogenic strains. An in vivo competition assay in a ...


Staufen Negatively Modulates Microrna Activity In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zhiji Ren, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, David Morrissey, Victor Ambros 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Staufen Negatively Modulates Microrna Activity In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zhiji Ren, Isana Veksler-Lublinsky, David Morrissey, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

The double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen has been implicated in various post-transcriptional gene regulatory processes. Here we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Staufen, STAU-1, functionally interacts with microRNAs. Loss-of-function mutations of stau-1 significantly suppress phenotypes of let-7 family microRNA mutants, a hypomorphic allele of dicer and a lsy-6 microRNA partial loss-of-function mutant. Furthermore, STAU-1 modulates the activity of lin-14, a target of lin-4 and let-7 family microRNAs, and this modulation is abolished when the 3' untranslated region of lin-14 is removed. Deep sequencing of small RNA cDNA libraries reveals no dramatic change in the levels of microRNAs, or other ...


Gene Expression Response To Heat Stress In Two Broiler Lines, Jibin Zhang, Carl Schmidt, Susan Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Gene Expression Response To Heat Stress In Two Broiler Lines, Jibin Zhang, Carl Schmidt, Susan Lamont

Jibin Zhang

The fast growth rate and increased body weight of modern broilers makes them susceptible to heart failure and sensitive to heat stress. To find the genetic causes of these problems, gene expression was measured in hearts of two broiler lines that differed in their response to heat stress. Each line was separated into two groups that were kept under heat stress or at ambient temperature. The comparison of gene expression between the two lines and heat treatments suggests that expression of 325 genes were significantly changed in modern broilers under heat stress, while only 3 genes changed their expression in ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Stem Cell Creation Via High Nitric Oxide (Hno) Adaptation, Niresh T. Kuganeswaran '16, Krishi Korrapati '17, Thomas Wan '16, Timothy Tamas, James A. Radosevich 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Molecular Mechanisms Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor Stem Cell Creation Via High Nitric Oxide (Hno) Adaptation, Niresh T. Kuganeswaran '16, Krishi Korrapati '17, Thomas Wan '16, Timothy Tamas, James A. Radosevich

Student Publications & Research

Cancer relapse or recurrence is defined as the return of cancer or its signs/symptoms after a period of improvement. Surgery may not remove all cancer cells and leave behind a few which cannot be detected by scans or other tests. It is also possible that some tumor cells are resistant to chemotherapy or radiation. Although many cancer cells are killed by these treatments, there may exist a few which contain a different genetic makeup which allows them to survive. These hypermalignant cancer cells, or cancer stem cells (CSCs), have been associated with causing cancer relapse. It has also been ...


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