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Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella 2022 University of New Mexico

Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella

Biology ETDs

At high latitudes, climatic oscillations have triggered repeated episodes of organismal divergence by geographically isolating populations. For terrestrial species, extended isolation in glacial refugia – ice-free regions that enable terrestrial species persistence through glacial maxima – is hypothesized to stimulate allopatric divergence. Alternatively, upon glacial recession, divergent populations expanded from independent glacial refugia and often contacted other diverging populations. In the absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, this biogeographic process may trigger hybridization and ultimately, gene flow between divergent taxa. My dissertation research aims to understand how these episodic periods of isolation and contact have impacted the evolution of high latitude species. To ...


Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Mutations In Several Auxin Biosynthesis Genes And Their Effects On Plant Phenotypes In Arabidopsis, Gabriela Hernandez, Lauren Huebner, Bethany Karlin Zolman

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Auxins are important hormones in plants that regulate growth and development. Disruptions in the auxin biosynthesis pathway result in morphological changes in phenotypes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, including differences in root and leaf formation. Mutations in the Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis (TAA1) and YUCCA (YUC4) genes interfere with the plant's ability to synthesize Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the primary auxin involved in plant development. IBR1 and IBR3 act in the multistep conversion of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to IAA. ILL2, IAR3, and ILR1 hydrolyze IAA-amino acid conjugates into free IAA. The goal of our study was to determine the ...


Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond 2021 University of Texas at Tyler

Assesment Of Antibiotic Resistant Gene Expression In Clinical Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Dustin Esmond

Biology Theses

Increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections by antimicrobial resistant pathogens resulting in higher mortality rates and financial burden is of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents one of six highly virulent “ESKAPE” pathogens that exhibit considerable intrinsic drug resistance as well as mechanisms for acquiring further resistance. As many of these mechanisms are regulated through gene expression, we sought to identify regulatory strategies and patterns at play in 23 clinical isolates collected from Baku, Azerbaijan and Tyler, Texas, USA. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on six gene targets implicated in resistance and contrasted with antibiotic phenotypes. We found AmpC cephalosporinase ...


Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden 2021 Kennesaw State University

Examining Effects Of The Dna Regulator Lrp On Quorum Sensing Gene Expression In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bradley Lumsden

Symposium of Student Scholars

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that has the capacity to express multiple virulence factors that are regulated through an extensive quorum sensing network. Three major quorum sensing systems have been identified in Pseudomonas species: the acyl homoserine lactones of las and rhl, and the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS). We seek to investigate the involvement of a global regulator, Lrp with the expression of these three networks. Specifically, we will compare expression levels of las, rhl, and pqs in wild type P. aeruginosa (MPAO1) with an lrp transposon insertion mutant using quantitative PCR. Through this comparative qPCR analysis, we ...


Towards The Identification Of The Soil Fungal Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Joshua Inneh, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Fletcher Moon, Geoffrey Eger 2021 Kennesaw State University

Towards The Identification Of The Soil Fungal Microbiome Community Associated With Longleaf Pine, Joshua Inneh, Grace Krueger, Ian Thomasson, Fletcher Moon, Geoffrey Eger

Symposium of Student Scholars

This project is part of a larger study looking at the restoration of the Longleaf Pine (LLP) ecosystem in certain Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) in Northwest Georgia. Our long-term aim is to look for potential associations between the aboveground and belowground community structures as the complex system of feedback mechanisms between the soil microbiome, the rhizosphere, and the plant communities is not yet understood.

Soil samples were collected from a total of six plots in the Sheffield WMA located in Paulding County. The samples were collected from north or south facing hillside plots except for in the savanna sites (an ...


A Reevaluation Of The Phylogeography Of The Chattahoochee Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Chattahoochee) Using Next-Generation Genomic Data, Jadin Cross 2021 Kennesaw State University

A Reevaluation Of The Phylogeography Of The Chattahoochee Slimy Salamander (Plethodon Chattahoochee) Using Next-Generation Genomic Data, Jadin Cross

Symposium of Student Scholars

The Plethodon glutinosus species complex is a group of large-bodied, lungless salamanders that are widespread across the eastern United States. Species in this group are morphologically cryptic and were originally delimited using allozyme data, but in most cases, the extent of contemporary gene flow between named taxa has not be rigorously evaluated. The Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia are home to several members of this group—including P. glutinosus, P. teyahalee, P. chlorobryonis, and P. chattahoochee. P. chattahoochee has been found to be especially cryptic both morphologically and genetically as both intraspecific genetic variation and species boundaries within the P ...


The Evolutionary Origins Of Autism Associated Genes And Their Role In Great Ape Socio-Communication, Azeeza Abdulrauf, Martin Hudson, Susan M.E. Smith, Jared P. Taglialatela 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Evolutionary Origins Of Autism Associated Genes And Their Role In Great Ape Socio-Communication, Azeeza Abdulrauf, Martin Hudson, Susan M.E. Smith, Jared P. Taglialatela

Symposium of Student Scholars

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a major role in socio-communicative behavior. For this study, the focus is on autism associated OXTR, AVPR1A, and FOXP2 SNPs, and the role they play in great apes. Prior research on the OXTR, AVPR1A, and FOXP2 SNPs show that they affect behavior skills such as understanding and controlling emotion, understanding the emotions of others, and communications skills. Great apes, such as bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas are the model, since they are our closest relatives in the animal kingdom capable of understanding complex communication. Each gene has at least two SNPS that are investigated in the ...


The Role Of Pannexin 3 In Forced Exercise Bone Remodelling And Its Potential Implications For Osteoarthritis, Justin Tang 2021 Western University

The Role Of Pannexin 3 In Forced Exercise Bone Remodelling And Its Potential Implications For Osteoarthritis, Justin Tang

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Exercise such as running has been hypothesized to be a factor of osteoarthritis development. However, the relationship is unclear as differences in genetic backgrounds may influence the risk of osteoarthritis (OA). The gene Panx3 codes for the Pannexin 3 protein (PANX3), a mechanically sensitive channel that allows for the passage of various signalling molecules in both chondrocytes and osteoblasts (Boassa et al., 2007; Penuela et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2021). We have previously shown PANX3 to be protective in traumatic osteoarthritis, however beneficial in age-induced osteoarthritis (Moon et al., 2021), suggesting that PANX3s role in osteoarthritis development is ...


Functional Characterization Of Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms In Soybean, Ramtin Sirjani 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Functional Characterization Of Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms In Soybean, Ramtin Sirjani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Phenylalanine flux is partitioned between phenylpropanoid and protein synthesis. The mechanisms behind the metabolic channeling of phenylalanine are largely unknown. Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) enzymes, which catalyze the last and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of phenylalanine in plants, have been shown to interact with the isoflavonoid metabolon in the cytosol. Cytosolic phenylalanine, however, can only be synthesized through prephenate dehydratase (PDT) activity. In this study, putative soybean ADTs (GmADTs) were characterized for their ADT and PDT activity. This was done using complementation assays with two different knockout yeast strains, aro8aro9 and pha2, which lack prephenate aminotransferase and PDT activity, respectively ...


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that ...


Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh 2021 Wayne State University

Roles Of A Bradykinin Storm And A Cytokine Storm In Covid-19 Cases, Nouha H. Odeh

Honors College Theses

In the light of recent events, it is imperative to understand the key inflammatory response elements that appear to be the source of more severe ailments resulting from a SARS-CoV-2 viral infection known as Covid-19 The more severe cases of Covid-19 are characterized by a severe inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage. My research proposal aims to investigate the two possible culprits of this response: a bradykinin (BK) storm and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated cytokine storm. In both systems respectively, the excess release of these signals subsequently signals the production of even more of the same response element, resulting in ...


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity ...


Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh 2021 University of Dayton

Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Numerous imaging modules are utilized to study changes that occur during cellular processes. Besides qualitative (immunohistochemical) or semiquantitative (Western blot) approaches, direct quantitation method(s) for detecting and analyzing signal intensities for disease(s) biomarkers are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop method(s) to quantitate specific signals and eliminate noise during live tissue imaging. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•-) radicals results in oxidative damage of biomolecules, which leads to oxidative stress. This can be detected by dihydroethidium staining in live tissue(s), which does not rely on fixation and helps prevent ...


An Exploration Of The Properties Of Repair Template Dna That Promote Precision Genome Editing, Krishna S. Ghanta 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Exploration Of The Properties Of Repair Template Dna That Promote Precision Genome Editing, Krishna S. Ghanta

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

CRISPR/Cas9 induced DNA breaks can be precisely repaired by cellular homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways using exogenously provided template DNA (donor). However, the full potential of precision editing is hindered in many model systems by low cutting efficiencies, low HDR efficiencies and, cytotoxicity related to Cas9 and donor DNA. In this thesis, I address these challenges and present methods that we developed to increase HDR efficiencies in multiple model organisms.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that by reducing toxicity high editing efficiencies can be achieved with single stranded oligonucleotide (ssODN) donors. We demonstrate that melting dsDNA donors dramatically improves the ...


Development Of High Value Oil Traits Using The Model Oilseed Crop Camelina Sativa, Evan Updike 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Development Of High Value Oil Traits Using The Model Oilseed Crop Camelina Sativa, Evan Updike

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Plant oils are an important source of food, fuel, and feed in our society today. The oil found in the seeds of plants is composed almost entirely of triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules, which consist of three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone. As crude oil supplies decline, vegetable oils are gaining traction as a renewable substitute to petroleum-based materials in fuels, lubricants, and specialty oleochemicals. However, as it currently stands vegetable oils do not possess the properties necessary to fill the void of a petroleum free world.

To address this problem, plant biotechnologists have done extensive work on genetic engineering ...


Marker-Assisted Selection To Determine The Introgression Of Rpv-3 Mediated Downy Mildew Resistance In 'Chambourcin' X 'Caberenet Sauvignon' Grapevine Population, Kavya Sri Tummala 2021 Missouri State University

Marker-Assisted Selection To Determine The Introgression Of Rpv-3 Mediated Downy Mildew Resistance In 'Chambourcin' X 'Caberenet Sauvignon' Grapevine Population, Kavya Sri Tummala

MSU Graduate Theses

Downy mildew caused by the fungus, Plasmopara viticola in the grapes is one of the major diseases affecting crop yield throughout the world. Breeding grapes via conventional methods for the downy mildew resistance will take approximately 25-30 years to fully evaluate and release new cultivars. Because of the long breeding cycle in woody plant species like grape, developing DNA markers linked to genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for horticultural traits can greatly accelerate the breeding process and allow a much more accurate selection of progeny. This study aims to determine the presence of resistance in the 267 F1 genotypes ...


Understanding The Role Of Arglu1 In Interferon Signaling Activation In Breast Cancer, Phuoc Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Understanding The Role Of Arglu1 In Interferon Signaling Activation In Breast Cancer, Phuoc Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In the U.S., the highest number of new cancer cases belongs to breast cancer in women, and this cancer also bears the second-highest death rate in women. Despite significant progress in breast cancer treatment that has been made in the past several decades, innovative and efficient therapies are still needed to eradicate this deadly disease. Novel cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) could induce long-lasting responses and improve survival in hard-to-treat malignancies. Regrettably, only a fraction of breast cancer patients respond to this highly promising strategy. To improving ICB therapy in breast cancer treatment, IFN signaling induction is ...


Genetic Approaches For The Study Of Complex Human Diseases, Julieta Lazarte 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Genetic Approaches For The Study Of Complex Human Diseases, Julieta Lazarte

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The field of human genetics has evolved from its initial narrow focus on single-gene Mendelian disorders, which largely affect children, to our current understanding that for most diseases there is continuum of rare to common variants which can exert a range of phenotypic effects. Despite advances in sequencing capabilities and our overall understanding of diseases, there remains a large proportion of heritability unexplained. Through the use of next-generation sequencing technologies and DNA microarray, I have explored a spectrum of genetic variations from rare, single and structural variants to common variants in individuals with i) “lone” atrial fibrillation; ii) familial hypercholesterolemia ...


Biallelic Variants In Pcdhgc4 Cause A Novel Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Progressive Microcephaly, Seizures, And Joint Anomalies, Maria Iqbal, Reza Maroofian, Büşranur Çavdarlı, Florence Riccardi, Michael Field, Siddharth Banka, Dalal K. Bubshait, Yun Li, Jozef Hertecant, Shahid Mahmood Baig 2021 University of Cologne and University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Biallelic Variants In Pcdhgc4 Cause A Novel Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Progressive Microcephaly, Seizures, And Joint Anomalies, Maria Iqbal, Reza Maroofian, Büşranur Çavdarlı, Florence Riccardi, Michael Field, Siddharth Banka, Dalal K. Bubshait, Yun Li, Jozef Hertecant, Shahid Mahmood Baig

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Purpose: We aimed to define a novel autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder, characterize its clinical features, and identify the underlying genetic cause for this condition.
Methods: We performed a detailed clinical characterization of 19 individuals from nine unrelated, consanguineous families with a neurodevelopmental disorder. We used genome/exome sequencing approaches, linkage and cosegregation analyses to identify disease-causing variants, and we performed three-dimensional molecular in silico analysis to predict causality of variants where applicable.
Results: In all affected individuals who presented with a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive microcephaly, seizures, and intellectual disability we identified biallelic disease-causing variants in Protocadherin-gamma-C4 (PCDHGC4). Five variants ...


A Low Vitamin B12 Induced Transcriptional Mechanism That Regulates Metabolic Activity Of The Methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine Cycle In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabrielle E. Giese 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Low Vitamin B12 Induced Transcriptional Mechanism That Regulates Metabolic Activity Of The Methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine Cycle In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabrielle E. Giese

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cells must regulate their metabolism in order to grow, adapt to changes in nutrient availability and maintain homeostasis. Flux, or the turnover of metabolites, through the metabolic network can be regulated at the allosteric and transcriptional levels. While study of allosteric regulation is limited to biochemical examination of individual proteins, transcriptional control of metabolism can be explored at a systems level. We endeavored to elucidate transcriptional mechanisms of metabolic flux regulation in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We also worked to create a visual tool to explore metabolic pathways that will support future efforts in the research of ...


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