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Population Structure, Demographic History, And Environmental Niche Of The Sand Fly Disease Vector Lutzomyia Shannoni (Dyar) (Diptera: Psychodidae) In The U.S., Mexico, And Colombia, Matthew E. Wolkoff 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Population Structure, Demographic History, And Environmental Niche Of The Sand Fly Disease Vector Lutzomyia Shannoni (Dyar) (Diptera: Psychodidae) In The U.S., Mexico, And Colombia, Matthew E. Wolkoff

Biology Theses

Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the only known sand fly vector of vesicular stomatitis virus, a putative leishmaniasis vector, and also boasts the widest distribution of any sand fly in the New World. Research on Lu. shannoni in Central and South America has revealed genetically divergent subpopulations; however, tentative analysis of Lu. shannoni in the U.S. has failed to detect any significant population structure, even between specimens collected from highly disparate localities.

The present study used four molecular markers to more closely investigate the population structure of Lu. shannoni in the U.S., and assess the species ...


Are We Genetically Adapted To The Neolithic Diet?, Nicola E. Hale 2018 None

Are We Genetically Adapted To The Neolithic Diet?, Nicola E. Hale

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Obesity prevalence in the United States continues to increase and is associated with health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Among many contributing factors to obesity, fructose may be one of the major reasons as it disrupts the antioxidant system thereby resulting in an accumulation of reactive oxidative species and leading to obese conditions. The enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate from the TCA Cycle, hence might be implicated with not only energy metabolism but also cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, the hypothesis was that IDH2 deficiency in mice would exacerbate hepatic lipid ...


Evolutionary Conservation Of Midline Repulsion By Robo Family Receptors In Flies And Mice, Allison Loy 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evolutionary Conservation Of Midline Repulsion By Robo Family Receptors In Flies And Mice, Allison Loy

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the nervous system develops in animal embryos, neuronal axons are guided to their synaptic targets by extra cellular cues that signal through axon guidance receptors expressed on the surface of the axon. In animals with bilateral symmetry, one of the important decisions made by nearly every axon in the embryonic nervous system is whether to stay on its own side of the body, or to cross the midline and connect to cells on the opposite side. The Roundabout (Robo) family is an evolutionarily conserved group of axon guidance receptors that regulate midline crossing in a wide range of animal ...


Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine 2018 University of Rhode Island

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro 2018 University of Rhode Island

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Genomic Insights Into The Mitochondria Of 11 Eastern North American Species Of Cladonia, Laurel M. Brigham, Luis M. Allende, Benjamin R. Shipley, Kayla C. Boyd, Tanya J. Higgins, Nicholas Kelly, Carly R. Anderson-Stewart, Kyle Keepers, Cloe S. Pogoda, James C. Lendemer, Erin A. Tripp, Nolan C. Kane 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Genomic Insights Into The Mitochondria Of 11 Eastern North American Species Of Cladonia, Laurel M. Brigham, Luis M. Allende, Benjamin R. Shipley, Kayla C. Boyd, Tanya J. Higgins, Nicholas Kelly, Carly R. Anderson-Stewart, Kyle Keepers, Cloe S. Pogoda, James C. Lendemer, Erin A. Tripp, Nolan C. Kane

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Cladonia is among the most species-rich genera of lichens globally. Species in this lineage, commonly referred to as reindeer lichens, are ecologically important in numerous regions worldwide. In some locations, species of Cladonia can comprise the dominant groundcover, and are a major food source for caribou and other mammals. Additionally, many species are known to produce substances with antimicrobial properties or other characteristics with potentially important medical applications. This exceptional morphological and ecological variation contrasts sharply with the limited molecular divergence often observed among species. As a new resource to facilitate ongoing and future studies of these important species, we ...


Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen 2018 Western Kentucky University

Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

RNA polymerase is the central enzyme in all gene expression. The rpoCY75N mutation in the zinc-binding domain of the β’ subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase blocks a unique RNA-based mechanism of transcription antitermination utilized by bacteriophage HK022 and its relatives. Here, we describe the characterization of mutant phage, orc0368, which overcomes the rpoCY75N mutation. The orc0368 genome varies from the wild type phage genome by 4 single base pair mutations. Three of these mutations were not characterized because they occur in intergenic regions but the fourth was chosen for study because of its location between a series ...


The Association Of Polymorphism Rs3736228 Within The Lrp5 Gene With Bone Mineral Density In A Cohort Of Caucasian Young Adults, Mohamed J. H. Al-Amoodi, Whitney Jones, Danny Lee, Steven McKenzie, Helen C. Miller, Zach Zeller, Seth Stubblefield, Susan Knoblach, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Dustin Hittel, Laura L. Tosi 2018 George Washington University

The Association Of Polymorphism Rs3736228 Within The Lrp5 Gene With Bone Mineral Density In A Cohort Of Caucasian Young Adults, Mohamed J. H. Al-Amoodi, Whitney Jones, Danny Lee, Steven Mckenzie, Helen C. Miller, Zach Zeller, Seth Stubblefield, Susan Knoblach, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Dustin Hittel, Laura L. Tosi

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a significant burden for our aging population. Developing a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of poor bone quality may assist in the future development of prevention strategies. Correa-Rodriguez et al. have identified a group of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in a population of Spanish Caucasians. In particular, they found that SNP rs3736228 in the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5 (LRP5) gene had an influence on BMD. While the role of LRP5 in the Wnt canonical pathway has been fairly well characterized, its association with phenotypic BMD and ...


Genomic Mechanisms Of Sympatric Ecological And Sexual Divergence In A Model Agricultural Pest, The European Corn Borer, Brad S. Coates, Erik B. Dopman, Kevin W. Wanner, Thomas W. Sappington 2018 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Genomic Mechanisms Of Sympatric Ecological And Sexual Divergence In A Model Agricultural Pest, The European Corn Borer, Brad S. Coates, Erik B. Dopman, Kevin W. Wanner, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a model species for elucidating mechanisms underlying adaptively differentiated subpopulations in the face of reciprocal gene flow, and is a major pest of cultivated maize in North America and Eurasia. Strains are characterized by different pheromone communication systems in combination with voltinism strains that are adapted to distinct local climate and photoperiod through adjustments in diapause traits. However, only partial barriers to inter-strain hybridization exist in areas of sympatry. Recent research shows that genes governing important strain-specific isolating traits are disproportionately located on the Z-chromosome. Furthermore, co-adapted combinations of some of these genes ...


The Synthesis And Function Of The Peritrophic Matrix In Drosophila Melanogaster, Sean Conway 2018 Marquette University

The Synthesis And Function Of The Peritrophic Matrix In Drosophila Melanogaster, Sean Conway

Dissertations (2009 -)

Maintenance of functional barrier structures separating an organism from and regulating its interaction with the environment is critical for many aspects of fitness. Arguably, the most dynamic interface between an animal and its environment is the gut, as the organism must balance the primary functions, digestion and nutrient acquisition, with several homeostatic and defensive systems including pathogen defense, microbiome maintenance and stem cell renewal. Many animals secrete extracellular barrier structures along their guts to organize and modulate these interactions, including intestinal mucosal secretions in humans and a semi-permeable structure in insects called the peritrophic matrix (PM). In Drosophila, the PM ...


Changes In The Proliferation And Gene Expression Of Huvecs In Response To Treatment With Plant Secondary Metabolites, Caleigh Howard 2018 Pepperdine University

Changes In The Proliferation And Gene Expression Of Huvecs In Response To Treatment With Plant Secondary Metabolites, Caleigh Howard

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Medicinal plants have historically been a valuable source of new drugs, and Southern California possesses a rich collection of native plants which have been used as medicines by native people groups for thousands of years. Angiogenesis is the biological process of new blood-vessel growth from endothelial cells. It is an essential part of the wound-healing process, and increased angiogenesis has also been implicated in the growth of some types of cancerous tumors. In this study, extracts of the Southern Californian native plants Red shanks (Adenostoma sparsifolium) and the alkaloid extract of Jimson weed (Datura wrightii) were tested for their angiogenic ...


A Genetic Screen To Identify Fission Yeast Genes With Roles In Protecting Against Perturbation Of The Actin Cytoskeleton, Dorota Michalski 2018 The University of Western Ontario

A Genetic Screen To Identify Fission Yeast Genes With Roles In Protecting Against Perturbation Of The Actin Cytoskeleton, Dorota Michalski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, stress upon the cell division machinery leads to the activation of a cytokinesis checkpoint. This checkpoint results in a delay in cell cycle progression and the prolonged maintenance of a cytokinesis competent cellular state. In this state the cell is able to continuously reform/repair the actomyosin ring until cell division is achieved. To uncover genes that play a role in enforcing this checkpoint, the actin depolymerizing drug Latrunculin A (LatA) was used to perturb the cytokinetic machinery in a set of 3400 viable haploid S. pombe gene deletion mutants. Thirty-eight gene deletion mutants ...


Copy Number Variation In The Porcine Genome Detected From Whole-Genome Sequence, Rebecca Anderson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Copy Number Variation In The Porcine Genome Detected From Whole-Genome Sequence, Rebecca Anderson

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Copy number variations (CNVs) are large insertions, deletions, and duplications in the genome that vary between individuals in a species. These variations are known to impact a broad range of phenotypes from molecular-level traits to higher-order clinical phenotypes. CNVs have been linked to complex traits in humans such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nervous system disorders, and early-onset extreme obesity. In this study, whole-genome sequence was obtained from 72 founders of an intensely phenotyped experimental swine herd at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska. This included 24 boars (12 Duroc and 12 Landrace ...


Investigating The Genetic Structure Of Northern Long-Eared Bats In Nebraska, Jonathan Korbitz 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Investigating The Genetic Structure Of Northern Long-Eared Bats In Nebraska, Jonathan Korbitz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Abstract:

The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) is one of many species of hibernating bats in North America affected by a recently discovered fungal disease called white-nose syndrome (WNS). Northern long-eared bats seem to be extremely susceptible to the disease with mass fatalities occurring among populations in eastern North America. Researchers in the eastern distribution of this species have performed mtDNA analysis to identify the population structure of the species; however, genetic analysis has yet to be done in western parts of its distribution. The goal of this study is to create a better understanding of the genetic makeup of ...


Colonization History Of The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) In North America: Insights From Random Forest Abc Using Microsatellite Data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, Thomas Guillemaud 2018 Université Côte d’Azur

Colonization History Of The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) In North America: Insights From Random Forest Abc Using Microsatellite Data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, Thomas Guillemaud

Entomology Publications

First described from western Kansas, USA, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the worst pests of maize. The species is generally thought to be of Mexican origin and to have incidentally followed the expansion of maize cultivation into North America thousands of years ago. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated formally. In this study, the genetic variability of samples collected throughout North America was analysed at 13 microsatellite marker loci to explore precisely the population genetic structure and colonization history of D. v. virgifera. In particular, we used up-to-date approximate Bayesian computation methods based on ...


The Genome Of The Hi5 Germ Cell Line From Trichoplusia Ni, An Agricultural Pest And Novel Model For Small Rna Biology, Yu Fu, Yujing Yang, Han Zhang, Gwen Farley, Junling Wang, Kaycee A. Quarles, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D. Zamore 2018 Boston University

The Genome Of The Hi5 Germ Cell Line From Trichoplusia Ni, An Agricultural Pest And Novel Model For Small Rna Biology, Yu Fu, Yujing Yang, Han Zhang, Gwen Farley, Junling Wang, Kaycee A. Quarles, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D. Zamore

Open Access Articles

We report a draft assembly of the genome of Hi5 cells from the lepidopteran insect pest, Trichoplusia ni, assigning 90.6% of bases to one of 28 chromosomes and predicting 14,037 protein-coding genes. Chemoreception and detoxification gene families reveal T. ni-specific gene expansions that may explain its widespread distribution and rapid adaptation to insecticides. Transcriptome and small RNA data from thorax, ovary, testis, and the germline-derived Hi5 cell line show distinct expression profiles for 295 microRNA- and > 393 piRNA-producing loci, as well as 39 genes encoding small RNA pathway proteins. Nearly all of the W chromosome is devoted to ...


Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe 2018 Iowa State University

Practical Implications Of Erythromycin Resistance Gene Diversity On Surveillance And Monitoring Of Resistance, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Jinlyung Choi, Thomas B. Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, Heather K. Allen, Schuyler D. Smith, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes. Here we evaluated the diversity of one type of macrolide antibiotic resistance gene (erm) in one type of environment (manure) to determine which primers ...


Jak/Stat Signaling Regulates Gametogenesis And Age-Related Reproductive Maintenance, Michelle Suzanne Giedt 2018 University of Kentucky

Jak/Stat Signaling Regulates Gametogenesis And Age-Related Reproductive Maintenance, Michelle Suzanne Giedt

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Cell signaling is central to integration of internal and external cues that regulate development and homeostasis. Most development is thought of as pre-adult, but limited developmental processes occur in adults. Gametogenesis incorporates elements of both these facets, with a distinct developmental plan for gamete synthesis which is regulated by integration of homeostatic inputs such as nutrient status, and environmental cues. Signaling pathways integrate and transduce information from these cues to evoke a response. A decline in homeostasis and subsequent cues occurs over time, in the case of reproductive tissues leading to a progressive loss of fertility. The Janus Kinase and ...


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