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Molecular Adaptations For Sensing And Securing Prey And Insight Into Amniote Genome Diversity From The Garter Snake Genome, Blair W. Perry, Anne M. Bronikowski, et al. 2018 University of Texas at Arlington

Molecular Adaptations For Sensing And Securing Prey And Insight Into Amniote Genome Diversity From The Garter Snake Genome, Blair W. Perry, Anne M. Bronikowski, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Colubridae represents the most phenotypically diverse and speciose family of snakes, yet no well-assembled and annotated genome exists for this lineage. Here, we report and analyze the genome of the garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, a colubrid snake that is an important model species for research in evolutionary biology, physiology, genomics, behavior, and the evolution of toxin resistance. Using the garter snake genome, we show how snakes have evolved numerous adaptations for sensing and securing prey, and identify features of snake genome structure that provide insight into the evolution of amniote genomes. Analyses of the garter snake and other squamate reptile ...


Genomic Investigation Of Beta Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress In Livestock Species, Rachel Marie Kubik 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genomic Investigation Of Beta Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress In Livestock Species, Rachel Marie Kubik

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA), commonly fed to cattle during the last 20-40 days of the finishing period, improve muscle growth by decreasing adipose deposition and increasing muscle accretion. In most cases, final live weights, hot carcass weight and average daily gain have all been shown to increase when β-AA are feed while fed intake, back fat, and marbling all decrease. Two β-AA, Ractopamine HCl (β1-AA) and Zilpaterol HCl (β2-AA) are currently approved for use in beef cattle in the United States. Converse to the beneficial effects of β-AA, heat stress in livestock decreases production efficiency and growth. There have also been ...


Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recombination and mutagenesis are elevated by high levels of transcription. The correlation between transcription and genome instability is largely explained by the topological and structural changes in DNA and the associated physical obstacles generated by the transcription machinery. However, such explanation does not directly account for the unique types of mutations originating from the non-canonical residues such as uracil, which are also elevated at highly transcribed regions. Apurinic/Apyrimic or Abasic (AP) sites derived from uracil excision, accumulate at a higher rate in actively transcribed regions of the genome in S. cerevisiae and are primarily repaired by base excision repair ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease In German Shepherd Dogs, Atiyeh Peiravan, Francesca Bertolini, Max Rothschild, Kenneth W. Simpson, Albert E. Jergens, Karin Allenspach, Dirk Werling 2018 University of London, North Mymms

Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease In German Shepherd Dogs, Atiyeh Peiravan, Francesca Bertolini, Max Rothschild, Kenneth W. Simpson, Albert E. Jergens, Karin Allenspach, Dirk Werling

Animal Science Publications

Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is considered a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions between the intestinal immune system, intestinal microbiota and environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Although IBD can affect any breed, German shepherd dogs (GSD) in the UK are at increased risk of developing the disease. Based on previous evidence, the aim of the present study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which may confer genetic susceptibility or resistance to IBD using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genomic DNA was extracted from EDTA blood or saliva samples of 96 cases and 98 controls. Genotyping of cases ...


Drosophila Species Learn Dialects Through Communal Living, Balint Z. Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco 2018 Dartmouth College

Drosophila Species Learn Dialects Through Communal Living, Balint Z. Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Many species are able to share information about their environment by communicating through auditory, visual, and olfactory cues. In Drosophila melanogaster, exposure to para- sitoid wasps leads to a decline in egg laying, and exposed females communicate this threat to naïve flies, which also depress egg laying. We find that species across the genus Drosophila respond to wasps by egg laying reduction, activate cleaved caspase in oocytes, and communicate the presence of wasps to naïve individuals. Communication within a species and between closely related species is efficient, while more distantly related species exhibit partial communication. Remarkably, partial communication between some ...


Loss Of Sarm1 Does Not Suppress Motor Neuron Degeneration In The Sod1g93a Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Owen M. Peters, Elizabeth A. Lewis, Jeannette M. Osterloh, Alexandra Weiss, Johnny Salameh, Jake P. Metterville, Robert H. Brown Jr., Marc R. Freeman 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Loss Of Sarm1 Does Not Suppress Motor Neuron Degeneration In The Sod1g93a Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Owen M. Peters, Elizabeth A. Lewis, Jeannette M. Osterloh, Alexandra Weiss, Johnny Salameh, Jake P. Metterville, Robert H. Brown Jr., Marc R. Freeman

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Axon degeneration occurs in all neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular pathways regulating axon destruction during neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Sterile Alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1 (Sarm1) is an essential component of the prodegenerative pathway driving axon degeneration after axotomy and represents an appealing target for therapeutic intervention in neurological conditions involving axon loss. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by rapid, progressive motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy, causing paralysis and death. Patient tissue and animal models of ALS show destruction of upper and lower motor neuron cell bodies and loss of their associated axons. Here, we investigate whether ...


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed 2018 York University

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Evolutionary And Population Dynamics Of Crustaceans In The Gulf Of Mexico, Laura Timm 2018 Florida International University

Evolutionary And Population Dynamics Of Crustaceans In The Gulf Of Mexico, Laura Timm

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Evolution occurs and can be conceptualized along a spectrum, bounded on one extreme by the relationships between deep lineages – such as phyla, classes, and orders – and on the other by the molecular dynamics of operational taxonomic units within a species, defined as population genetics. The purpose of this dissertation was to better understand the evolutionary and population dynamics of crustaceans within the Gulf of Mexico. In the second chapter of my dissertation, I provide a guide to best phylogenetic practice while reviewing infraordinal relationships within Decapoda, including the promise held by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches such as Anchored Hybrid Enrichment ...


Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson 2018 University of Kentucky

Borrelia Burgdorferi Spovg Dna- And Rna-Binding Protein Modulates The Physiology Of The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Christina R. Savage, Brandon L. Jutras, Aaron Bestor, Kit Tilly, Patricia A. Rosa, Yvonne Tourand, Philip E. Stewart, Catherine A. Brissette, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The SpoVG protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds to specific sites of DNA and RNA. The bacterium regulates transcription of spoVG during the natural tick-mammal infectious cycle and in response to some changes in culture conditions. Bacterial levels of spoVG mRNA and SpoVG protein did not necessarily correlate, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms also control protein levels. Consistent with this, SpoVG binds to its own mRNA, adjacent to the ribosome-binding site. SpoVG also binds to two DNA sites in the glpFKD operon and to two RNA sites in glpFKD mRNA; that operon encodes genes necessary for glycerol catabolism ...


The Role Of Mafb In Reverting The Transformed Phenotype Of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Tulley Shofner 2018 Dickinson College

The Role Of Mafb In Reverting The Transformed Phenotype Of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Tulley Shofner

Student Honors Theses By Year

The five-year survival rate for patients with acute myeloid leukemia is 27.4%, with most patients who achieve temporary remission relapsing, despite chemotherapeutic treatments (National Cancer Institute, 2014). With the inadequacy of current drug therapies for human acute myeloid leukemia patients, the genetic changes in AML cells’ genomes and transcriptomes have been studied for insights as to more effective targeted therapies. Data obtained by the Roberts lab demonstrates that treatment of HL-60 cells with PMA, which leads to cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis, is accompanied by upregulation of approximately 100 transcription factor genes. For this project, the basic leucine ...


Systematics And Evolution Of The Pig, A. Ruvinsky, M. F. Rothschild 2018 University of New England

Systematics And Evolution Of The Pig, A. Ruvinsky, M. F. Rothschild

Max Rothschild

According to the traditional classification system the order Artiodactyla (eventoed ungulates), to which the pig belongs, has a complicated and diversified taxonomy. It is comprised of about ten families with approximately 88 genera and more than 200 species. In addition, recent investigations of mammalian phylogeny show a certain degree of similarity between Artiodactyla and Cetacea (whales), even though they are not deeply nested within the artiodactyl phylogenetic tree. Cetacea appear to be more closely related to the members of the suborder Ruminantia, than to the two other traditionally defined suborders, Tylopoda and Suiformes (Graur and Higgins, 1994). The limited molecular ...


Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency, Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A. Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath 2018 George Washington University

Systematic Pan-Cancer Analysis Of Somatic Allele Frequency, Liam Spurr, Muzi Li, Nawaf Alomran, Qianqian Zhang, Paula Restrepo, Mercedeh Movassagh, Chris Trenkov, Nerissa Tunnessen, Tatiyana Apanasovich, Keith A. Crandall, Nathan Edwards, Anelia Horvath

Open Access Articles

Imbalanced expression of somatic alleles in cancer can suggest functional and selective features, and can therefore indicate possible driving potential of the underlying genetic variants. To explore the correlation between allele frequency of somatic variants and total gene expression of their harboring gene, we used the unique data set of matched tumor and normal RNA and DNA sequencing data of 5523 distinct single nucleotide variants in 381 individuals across 10 cancer types obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We analyzed the allele frequency in the context of the variant and gene functional features and linked it with changes in ...


Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura 2018 University of Maine

Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Micro RNAs (miRNAs), which are ~22 nucleotide (nt) long RNA molecules and several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) engage in an RNA dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing process known as RNA interference (RNAi). In the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway, an enzyme known as DICER cleaves the ~70nt pre-miRNA to a ~22nt long miRNA that is loaded into the RNAi effector mechanism, the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC).

Several in vitro studies provide suggestive evidence that mammalian double stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), such as TARBP2, act as DICER cofactors in miRNA processing and RISC loading to promote RNAi activity. A screen attempting ...


The Role Of Ferric Reduction Oxidases In Plant Anti-Herbivore Defense., Virginia C. Nunamaker 2018 University of Louisville

The Role Of Ferric Reduction Oxidases In Plant Anti-Herbivore Defense., Virginia C. Nunamaker

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Iron is an essential element required for plants to carry out metabolic functions such as photosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Within Arabidopsis thaliana, eight ferric reduction oxidase (FRO) genes function in iron uptake and homeostasis with tissue specific expression. However, little else is known regarding the biological role of FROs. Recent studies identify the FRO gene family as particularly responsive to the green leaf plant derived volatile (GLV) cis-3-hexenyl acetate (z3HAC). Since z3HAC acts as a wound signal and cues unaffected parts of the plant to prime defenses prior to herbivory, an increase in FRO activity in response to ...


Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of Escherichia coli and Meiothermus ruber proC genes using the complementation assay. In this research project, mutants of varying severity to the functional state of the protein were developed. The results showed that two or more amino acid deletions reduced or eliminated ProC function. Amino acid substitutions, on the other hand, were not severe enough to impact ProC function. Double and triple mutants ...


Phylogeny Of The Orangethroat Darter (Etheostoma Spectabile) Species Complex In The Ozark Highlands Of Arkansas, McKenna George 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phylogeny Of The Orangethroat Darter (Etheostoma Spectabile) Species Complex In The Ozark Highlands Of Arkansas, Mckenna George

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Darters are small, benthic fishes that live in freshwater rivers and streams and belong to the family Percidae. Pleistocene glaciations fragmented many darter species, resulting in speciation, but new species are often hard to detect if they are morphologically identical to pre-existing species. Intraspecific hybridization and resulting introgression, which occur frequently in glaciated areas, further complicate identification by introducing heterospecific genomes into mitochondrial DNA, making it difficult to accurately resolve phylogenetic relationships. The results of Bossu and Near’s 2009 study highlight this issue, showing a large degree of incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees.

This study analyzed samples ...


Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb 2018 University of Louisville

Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mutations in genes encoding the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins nyctalopin and LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness because they are critical to depolarizing bipolar cell function in the retina. LRIT3 has two closely related family members, LRIT1 and LRIT2. In silico analyses of publicly available RNA-Seq data showed that Lrit1 was highly expressed in the retina. Here I describe the expression pattern and impact of loss of LRIT1 on retinal function. To enable these studies, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create an Lrit1-/- mouse line. Retinal morphology and morphometry analyses showed no gross changes in retinal structure ...


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