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The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the …


Evolutionary Conservation Of The Heterochronic Pathway In C. Elegans And C. Briggsae, Maria Ivanova, Eric G. Moss 2021 Rowan University

Evolutionary Conservation Of The Heterochronic Pathway In C. Elegans And C. Briggsae, Maria Ivanova, Eric G. Moss

Stratford Campus Research Day

Heterochronic genes control the sequence and timing of developmental events during four larval stages of Caenorhabitis nematodes. Mutations in these genes may cause skipping or reiteration of developmental events.

C. briggsae is a close relative of C. elegans. These species have similar morphology and share the same ecological niche. C. briggsae undergoes the same developmental pathway consisting of four larval stages before reaching adulthood. It also has the same set of heterochronic genes.

Lin-28 is one of the heterochronic genes that also exists in other animals from flies to humans. It conservatively blocks the maturation of let-7 miRNA, the process …


Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Plant Growth, Development, And Responses To Nematode Parasitism, Meredith M. Bennett 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Plant Growth, Development, And Responses To Nematode Parasitism, Meredith M. Bennett

Doctoral Dissertations

Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone and DNA methylation and microRNAs, play key roles in mediating transcriptional changes during plant development and stress responses. However, how these interconnected epigenetic components regulate gene expression in a spatiotemporal fashion remains partially known. Here, I generated 15 transgenic Arabidopsis GUS reporter lines for genes involved in DNA methylation and demethylation pathways. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of these genes were profiled in various plant organs during development, exogenous phytohormone response, and plant-parasitic nematode pathogenesis. The analyses revealed unique and overlapping expression patterns in roots, shoots, and reproductive organs, emphasizing the importance of a DNA methylation—demethylation equilibrium. …


New Emerging Roles Of The Novel Hepatokine Serpinb1 In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Crosstalk With B-Cell Dysfunction And Dyslipidemia, Mohamed M. Kamal, Aya A. Ali, Ghada H. Sayed, Shadia Ragab, Dina H. Kassem 2021 The British University in Egypt

New Emerging Roles Of The Novel Hepatokine Serpinb1 In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Crosstalk With B-Cell Dysfunction And Dyslipidemia, Mohamed M. Kamal, Aya A. Ali, Ghada H. Sayed, Shadia Ragab, Dina H. Kassem

Pharmacy

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a devastating metabolic disease. Recently, the cross-talk between insulin-secreting-β-cells and various organs has sparked much interest. SerpinB1 emerged as a novel hepatokine inducing β-cell proliferation. However, its role in type-2-DM (T2DM) patients has not been adequately studied. This study was designed to investigate its circulating levels in subjects with/without T2DM, and to study its association with β-cell function, as well as various glycemic-control and lipid-profile parameters. Anthropometric data and biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1C % and lipid profile parameters were measured in 55 T2DM patients, as well as 30 healthy nondiabetic subjects. Serum …


Identification Of Proteins That Contribute To Yeast Heat Stress By Lysine Acetylation, Weijia Shi 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identification Of Proteins That Contribute To Yeast Heat Stress By Lysine Acetylation, Weijia Shi

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Evidence is emerging that protein lysine acetylation may be a novel type of post-translational modification (PTM) contributing to the mechanisms of yeast heat stress responses. Proteomics studies including ours have identified over 1,000 acetylated proteins in the yeast proteomes that are composed of about 6,000 proteins. Our lab recently identified 596 proteins that underwent acetylation changes during heat shock by mass spectrometry. However, the role of lysine acetylation on specific residues of specific proteins in yeast thermotolerance remains largely unknown. This study selected 43 proteins from our lab’s previous work and examined their possible contributions to yeast heat stress responses. …


Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey 2021 University of Maine

Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The process of translation, which refers to decoding genetic information from mRNA to protein, is vital for all cellular function. Translational fidelity starts at the level of aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNA). This reaction is catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases where each amino acid is transferred to its corresponding cognate tRNA. Because tRNAs harbor the anticodon sequence to decodes a particular mRNA codon, the specific aminoacylation of the tRNA with a cognate amino acid establishes the rules of decoding genetic code into proteins. Aminoacylated tRNAs are then delivered to ribosomes, where ribosomes in a highly organized manner need to accurately …


Functions Of Dcp2 And Ski7 In Mrna Degradation, Minseon Kim, Ambro van Hoof 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Functions Of Dcp2 And Ski7 In Mrna Degradation, Minseon Kim, Ambro Van Hoof

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Posttranscriptional gene regulation is essential to maintain gene expression fidelity. This is partially achieved by mRNA decay. When no longer required, mRNA is degraded by two alternative pathways. The decapping enzyme Dcp2 removes the 5` m7G cap of mRNAs, allowing Xrn1 to degrade the mRNA from the 5` end. Alternatively, mRNA is degraded from the 3` end by the RNA exosome.

While decapping by Dcp2 is a critical step in mRNA decay, its physiological function has been unclear. Null mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DCP2 have been reported to be lethal in some studies but slow-growing in others. In this …


The Biodiversity Of Deadwood-Associated Arthropods In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Isabelle Ong 2021 University of Mississippi

The Biodiversity Of Deadwood-Associated Arthropods In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Isabelle Ong

Honors Theses

A biodiversity hotspot is a location that has significantly elevated levels of biodiversity including many species found nowhere else, and which is also in danger of losing much of this diversity. By identifying biodiverse regions, conservation efforts can be targeted to those locations where they are likely to have the most beneficial impacts. We looked at deadwood associated arthropods within the Southern Appalachian Mountains to examine centers of biodiversity. Nine logs were sampled, three of which were located in Bankhead National Forest and six were located in the Great Smoky Mountains. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the mitochondrial …


Rare Variant Association Studies In Crohn’S Disease And Colorectal Cancer: Methods And Applications, Jiun-Sheng Chen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Rare Variant Association Studies In Crohn’S Disease And Colorectal Cancer: Methods And Applications, Jiun-Sheng Chen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genetic factors account for a substantial portion of Crohn’s disease and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Patients with Crohn’s disease, a condition that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, are at increased risk of colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. Genome-wide association studies using single marker approaches have identified loci responsible for these diseases, but disease susceptibility from rare variants is incompletely understood. This dissertation includes three chapters, two association studies for Crohn’s disease and CRC, and a statistical method to improve the power of statistical tests.

For Crohn’s disease, we performed targeted sequencing of 101 genes in 205 children with …


Implementing Crispr-Cas9 Gene Editing System In Microbotryum., Stevana Reese Schauer 2021 University of Louisville

Implementing Crispr-Cas9 Gene Editing System In Microbotryum., Stevana Reese Schauer

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Microbotryum dianthorum is a species of smut fungus which causes infection in plants in the Dianthus genus. The infection process is aided by small-secreted proteins known as effectors. Effectors may aid in the infection process because they are secreted by the fungus and can enter plant tissue, possibly to facilitate infection and/or manipulate the host. Thus, it is of interest to investigate the genes for these effectors to determine their role in the infection process. One method to study genes is through gene disruption, via the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system, but this has not yet been implemented in Microbotryum dianthorum …


Examining The Role Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Unc13 Protein In Open Field Activity Using Rnai, Islam Orabi 2021 University of Mississippi

Examining The Role Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Unc13 Protein In Open Field Activity Using Rnai, Islam Orabi

Honors Theses

Unc13 are proteins in the presynaptic neurons essential in controlling synaptic vesicle fusion and synaptic transmission. Recently, the reduction of Drosophila melanogaster Unc13 proteins (Dunc13), were found to result in a resistance to alcohol, highly reminiscent of tolerance formation. I investigated whether genetically reducing Dunc13 activity in Drosophila brain regions leads to different forms of behavioral plasticity using an open field activity paradigm. In my approach, a Dunc13 RNAi transgene was expressed in the Drosophila brain within the mushroom body, the ellipsoid body, and in all neurons. The activities of the flies were examined in the open field paradigm to …


Production, Evaluation, And Selection Of Elite Quality Protein Popcorn (Qpp) Hybrids, Leandra Parsons 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Production, Evaluation, And Selection Of Elite Quality Protein Popcorn (Qpp) Hybrids, Leandra Parsons

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

In 2017, twelve Quality Protein Popcorn (QPP) inbred lines were developed and selected as premier dent by popcorn crosses fit for hybridization and testing. These QPP inbred lines were derived from specific Quality Protein dent Maize (QPM) by ConAgra Brands® popcorn line crosses to produce high lysine, vitreous popcorn lines capable of near-equal popping characteristics compared to the original popcorn parents. The QPP hybridization project commenced in the summer of 2018 utilizing these 12 inbred QPP lines and crossing them in a full diallel. Since then, the production of QPP hybrids has employed a diverse set of selection factors evaluating …


Determination Of Human Shedding Propensity Based On Str Results, Genevieve Trapani 2021 CUNY John Jay College

Determination Of Human Shedding Propensity Based On Str Results, Genevieve Trapani

Student Theses

Trace DNA evidence may be discovered at a crime scene after having been deposited by a person of interest via active or passive transfer. Based on previous studies, passive transfer of one’s DNA is influenced by their shedding propensity, or probability of depositing a detectable amount of DNA through touch. Determining the shedding propensity of a person of interest can aid in trace DNA interpretation in forensic casework. This study explored STR profile quality and the presence of a DNA mixture for different skin surface locations, including fingertips before and after handwashing. As expected, unwashed fingers showed a higher prevalence …


Using Crispr-Cas9 To Characterize The Role Of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) In Insulin Regulation, Pancreatic Development, And Type 2 Diabetes, LilyAnne Grieve 2021 Murray State University

Using Crispr-Cas9 To Characterize The Role Of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) In Insulin Regulation, Pancreatic Development, And Type 2 Diabetes, Lilyanne Grieve

Honors College Theses

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise nationally and internationally, impacting millions of people worldwide. Type 2 diabetes results from insulin resistance leading to chronic hyperinsulinemia and dysfunction of the insulin producing β cells of the pancreas. While environmental factors can influence the development of type 2 diabetes, research has shown genetics are also involved. Gli-similar 3 (Glis3), a Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor, has been identified as a novel regulator of insulin transcription. Evidence has shown that loss-of-function Glis3 mutations decrease insulin expression, implicating Glis3 in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the distinct role Glis3 …


The Genes Of Pain, Alina Semenova 2021 Southern Maine Community College

The Genes Of Pain, Alina Semenova

Thinking Matters Symposium

Pain is an important defense mechanism that protects us from environmental factors that might harm us. Our body's response to pain helps us to avoid injury. However, constant pain is a problem. Management of constant pain is an important area of research. Studies have shown that genetic variation contributes to pain sensitivity.

Numerous pain-related genes and their functional polymorphisms (CYP450, MOR-1, COMT, GCH1, etc.) have been identified in the past ten years. In particular, three opioid receptors (OPRM, OPRD and OPRK) are associated with pain sensitivity. One of the most studied human functional polymorphisms is the debrisoquine/sparteine polymorphism of CYP2D6 …


Understanding The Genetics Of Schizophrenia, Matthew Toohey 2021 Southern Maine Community College

Understanding The Genetics Of Schizophrenia, Matthew Toohey

Thinking Matters Symposium

Schizophrenia has been considered heritable for a long time, but only with the advent of new technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and genome-wide association studies can we begin to identify specific molecular causes of schizophrenia. This poster will review some of the genetic variants that research groups have associated with schizophrenia. Current research has indicated that schizophrenia is a polygenic disease and has been linked to many genes. Some of these common risk variants are in protein coding sections of the DNA. These proteins are often linked to neurological development or immune system function. Other variants that have been associated …


The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu 2021 Liberty University

The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu

Senior Honors Theses

A previous study that introduced dietary folate to mice in the form of folic acid to determine if gene activity would be altered based on this biological molecule demonstrated that mice without folic acid had cognition deficits, and this phenomenon was correlated with altered gene expression in their brains. The included bioinformatic analysis revealed two main transcription factors that bind to proteins in the nucleus, and one is known as the Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to the lack of literature explaining the function of this transcription factor, this project is intended to analyze Zfp410 in detail from scratch. …


Nmr Solution Structures Of Runella Slithyformis Rna 2'-Phosphotransferase Tpt1 Provide Insights Into Nad+ Binding And Specificity, Sébastien Alphonse, Ankan Banerjee, Swathi Dantuluri, Stewart Shuman, Ranajeet Ghose 2021 CUNY City College

Nmr Solution Structures Of Runella Slithyformis Rna 2'-Phosphotransferase Tpt1 Provide Insights Into Nad+ Binding And Specificity, Sébastien Alphonse, Ankan Banerjee, Swathi Dantuluri, Stewart Shuman, Ranajeet Ghose

Publications and Research

Tpt1, an essential component of the fungal and plant tRNA splicing machinery, catalyzes transfer of an internal RNA 2′-PO4 to NAD+ yielding RNA 2′-OH and ADP-ribose-1′,2′-cyclic phosphate products. Here, we report NMR structures of the Tpt1 ortholog from the bacterium Runella slithyformis (RslTpt1), as apoenzyme and bound to NAD+. RslTpt1 consists of N- and C-terminal lobes with substantial inter-lobe dynamics in the free and NAD+-bound states. ITC measurements of RslTpt1 binding to NAD+ (KD ∼31 μM), ADP-ribose (∼96 μM) and ADP (∼123 μM) indicate that substrate affinity is determined primarily by …


Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Hoxb6: An Exploration Into The Divergence Of Genomic Dna Sequence And Gene Expression Across Teleost Fishes Post-Genome Duplication, Amber Lynn Rittgers, Pierre Le Pabic, Adam Davis 2021 University of Georgia

Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Hoxb6: An Exploration Into The Divergence Of Genomic Dna Sequence And Gene Expression Across Teleost Fishes Post-Genome Duplication, Amber Lynn Rittgers, Pierre Le Pabic, Adam Davis

Georgia Journal of Science

Hoxb6 is an evolutionarily conserved developmental regulatory gene that functions, in part, to pattern several organs and organ systems within the embryonic trunk during vertebrate embryogenesis. The cis-regulatory circuitry mediating trunk expression in mouse (Mus musculus) may be conserved across gnathostome vertebrates, as several other species show similar trunk expression patterns, including chicken (Gallus gallus), dogfish shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), and several teleost fishes. A whole genome duplication event that occurred in the lineage leading to teleost fishes has generated at least two Hoxb6 genes, hoxb6a and b6b. Two teleost fishes of the …


Determining Master Regulatory Genes Of Muscle Senescence In The Hawk Moth, Manduca Sexta, Leah J. Naasz 2021 University of South Dakota

Determining Master Regulatory Genes Of Muscle Senescence In The Hawk Moth, Manduca Sexta, Leah J. Naasz

Honors Thesis

ABSTRACT DETERMINING MASTER REGULATORY GENES OF MUSCLE SENESCENCE IN THE HAWK MOTH, MANDUCA SEXTA Leah Naasz Director: Bernie Wone, Ph.D. Skeletal muscle exhibits a gradual deterioration of its functional capabilities as it senesces. While the adverse effects of muscle aging are well-known, the molecular trigger of this degenerative process is unknown. Here, I aim to identify master regulatory genes (i.e., transcription factors) that might be involved in the initiation of the muscle senescence process in our muscle aging model Manduca sexta. This invertebrate adult moth was chosen as the model organism due to its relatively short lifespan, similarity to the …


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