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Phylogenetic And Geographic Relationships Of Cheilostome Bryozoans In The Eastern Pacific, Hannah E. Lee 2022 Humboldt State University

Phylogenetic And Geographic Relationships Of Cheilostome Bryozoans In The Eastern Pacific, Hannah E. Lee

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

The phylum Bryozoa is an incredibly diverse group of marine invertebrates with a widespread global distribution that is well suited for evolutionary studies but whose phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood. Although recent studies on bryozoan taxonomies and phylogenies have increased, there is still a lack of assessment of species found at shallow water (<1 m) to intertidal depths. In this study, I aimed to expand the taxonomic sampling and assessment of the phylogenetic diversity of cheilostome bryozoans along the California coastline by utilizing mitochondrial DNA as well as inferring potential correlations between species presence and dispersal range both within and between rocky outer coast and sheltered harbor habitats. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to produce mitogenomes for cheilostome bryozoan samples collected off rocks from two rocky intertidal sites and off settlement panels from two harbor sites. Phylogenetic analyses generated evolutionary hypotheses of species relationships alongside geographic mapping of their distribution. This study identified 15 distinct species that represent 10 different families to form the first comprehensive phylogeny for multiple bryozoan families in California across a total range of approximately 973 km of coastline. Three genetically distinct species were found at multiple sites that are separated by a combination of rocky shores and sandy beaches, which indicates that the dispersal range of these species are not limited by geographic barriers along the coast of California. These results provide a future opportunity for further integration of this data with the phylogenies generated in this study to examine more robust evolutionary hypotheses for the phylogenetic and geographic relationships of Californian bryozoan species.


Immunoregulatory Receptor Genetics, Expression, And Splicing Studies In Alzheimer’S Disease, Benjamin C. Shaw 2022 University of Kentucky

Immunoregulatory Receptor Genetics, Expression, And Splicing Studies In Alzheimer’S Disease, Benjamin C. Shaw

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, undertaking many critical tissue maintenance functions such as immune surveillance and phagocytosis. Microglial dysfunction has recently been identified as a multi-stage signature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease (LOAD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in over thirty genes that modulate risk of developing LOAD. In the central nervous system, roughly half of these LOAD-associated genes are primarily expressed in microglia. The proteins encoded by these genes include cell surface receptors that contain either immunomodulatory tyrosine-phosphorylated activating motifs (ITAMs) or inhibitory motifs (ITIMs), including TREM2 …


Molecular Genetic Investigation Of Twins, Families, And Populations, Jeffrey John Beck 2022 University of South Dakota

Molecular Genetic Investigation Of Twins, Families, And Populations, Jeffrey John Beck

Dissertations and Theses

Twins have long been of interest for illuminating genetic and environmental influences on human traits and diseases. These explorations have been accelerated by the substantial amount of information collected from twins and their families participating in twin registers around the world. In this dissertation, I review what is known and what remains unknown about the biology and genetics of twins and the underlying twinning process. To elucidate additional genetic factors of the twinning process, I employed pedigree-based analysis to identify genetic regions shared among distantly related mothers of dizygotic twins. The shared regions may potentially contain rare genetic variants with …


Identifying Adaptor Proteins For Selective Mrna Export In S. Cerevisiae, Chloe Baker, Rebecca Adams 2022 Belmont University

Identifying Adaptor Proteins For Selective Mrna Export In S. Cerevisiae, Chloe Baker, Rebecca Adams

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

The export of mature mRNA from the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm is crucial for a cell’s survival, as this process is necessary to produce proteins encoded by these transcripts. In S. cerevisiae (yeast) cells, a protein known as Mex67 must bind to the mRNA while it’s in the nucleus so it can cross through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Mex67 cannot bind to the mRNA directly, instead it needs to be accompanied by adaptor proteins to aid it in getting across the NPC. Stress conditions such as heat shock interferes with the function of these adaptor …


Identifying The Human Homologs Of Yeast Rab Proteins Ypt10 & Ypt11 And A Global-Scale Louse Endosymbiont Genome Variation, Nathaniel P. Smith 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Identifying The Human Homologs Of Yeast Rab Proteins Ypt10 & Ypt11 And A Global-Scale Louse Endosymbiont Genome Variation, Nathaniel P. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes loss of upper and/or lower motor neurons, and currently has no treatment or cure available. Over 90% of cases occur spontaneously with unknown causes, highlighting the complexity of the disease, and only 10% of cases are linked to heritable genetic mutations. Numerous ALS-linked genes are conserved through evolution, and model organisms may therefore provide opportunities to understand disease pathology at a molecular or cellular level, proving instrumental in identifying therapeutic targets. ALS subtype 8 (ALS8) is caused by an autosomal dominant P56S mutation in the VAPB gene that …


Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton 2022 Fort Hays State University

Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton

Master's Theses

Anthropogenic global climate change is forcing the mass extinction of wildlife across the globe. Humans depend on freshwater ecosystems for many aspects of life including agricultural production, sanitation, and recreation. Healthy levels of biodiversity in freshwater environments ensure economically beneficial ecosystem services are maintained. Freshwater ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and have higher levels of imperiled organisms compared to terrestrial and marine systems. Within freshwater systems, freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) are the most imperiled with over 70% of North American species assigned to a conservation class as judged by state or federal management agencies. The objective of this study was …


Amelioration Of Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Dysfunction In Diabetes Mellitus: Delving Into Specialized And Non-Specific Therapeutics For The Ailing Heart, Andrya Jean Durr 2022 West Virginia University

Amelioration Of Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Dysfunction In Diabetes Mellitus: Delving Into Specialized And Non-Specific Therapeutics For The Ailing Heart, Andrya Jean Durr

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Morbidity and mortality of the diabetic population is influenced by many confounding factors, but cardiovascular disease (CVD), remains the leading cause of death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is central in the development of cardiac contractile dysfunction, with decreased mitochondrial bioenergetic function, increased dependence on free fatty acid utilization, and a decrease in glucose utilization having been shown to contribute to contractile dysfunction. Strategies targeting the amelioration of mitochondrial bioenergetic function are attractive for limiting diabetes-induced heart failure, and preserving health-span. The goals of this dissertation were to assess two mitochondrial-centric approaches for the amelioration of mitochondrial and cardiac contractile dysfunction in diabetes …


Getting To The Root Cause: The Genetic Underpinnings Of Root System Architecture And Rhizodeposition In Sorghum, Farren Smith 2022 West Virginia University

Getting To The Root Cause: The Genetic Underpinnings Of Root System Architecture And Rhizodeposition In Sorghum, Farren Smith

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Plants are some of the most diverse organisms on earth, consisting of more than 350,000 different species. To understand the underlying processes that contributed to plant diversification, it is fundamental to identify the genetic and genomic components that facilitated various adaptations over evolutionary history. Most studies to date have focused on the underlying controls of above-ground traits such as grain and vegetation; however, little is known about the “hidden half” of plants. Root systems comprise half of the total plant structure and provide vital functions such as anchorage, resource acquisition, and storage of energy reserves. The execution of these key …


Efficacy Of Non-Lethal Molecular Methods In Elucidating Distribution Of Gray Treefrog Complex (Hyla Chrysoscelis/Versicolor) In Kansas, Nora K. Lazerus 2022 Fort Hays State University

Efficacy Of Non-Lethal Molecular Methods In Elucidating Distribution Of Gray Treefrog Complex (Hyla Chrysoscelis/Versicolor) In Kansas, Nora K. Lazerus

Master's Theses

Globally, amphibians are the most imperiled vertebrate taxa in part because they rely on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Specifically, their permeable skin makes them uniquely susceptible to habitat degradation and alteration. Cope’s Gray Treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) and the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) are a diploid-tetraploid, morphologically indistinguishable sister pair of cryptic anurans native to Kansas. Since 1987, the distribution of gray treefrogs in Kanas has extended west but the status of each species in the complex in Kansas is not known beyond its documented combined western expansion. Currently, species identification cannot be determined by nonlethal …


Prevalence Of Mutations In The Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, And Pfmdr1 Genes Of Malarial Parasites Isolated From Symptomatic Patients In Dogondoutchi, Niger, Ibrahima Issa, Mahaman Moustapha Lamine, Veronique Hubert, Amadou Ilagouma, Eric Adehossi, Aboubacar Mahamadou, Neil F. Lobo, Demba Sarr, Lisa M. Shollenberger, Houze Sandrine, Ronan Jambou, Ibrahim Maman Laminou 2022 Old Dominion University

Prevalence Of Mutations In The Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, And Pfmdr1 Genes Of Malarial Parasites Isolated From Symptomatic Patients In Dogondoutchi, Niger, Ibrahima Issa, Mahaman Moustapha Lamine, Veronique Hubert, Amadou Ilagouma, Eric Adehossi, Aboubacar Mahamadou, Neil F. Lobo, Demba Sarr, Lisa M. Shollenberger, Houze Sandrine, Ronan Jambou, Ibrahim Maman Laminou

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) depends not only on that of artemisinin but also on that of partner molecules. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, and Pfmdr1 genes from isolates collected during a clinical study. Plasmodium genomic DNA samples extracted from symptomatic malaria patients from Dogondoutchi, Niger, were sequenced by the Sanger method to determine mutations in the Pfdhfr (codons 51, 59, 108, and 164), Pfdhps (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613), and Pfmdr1 (codons 86, 184, 1034, and 1246) genes. One hundred fifty-five (155) pre-treatment samples were …


Analysis Of Root System Architecture And Qtl Identification In Grapevines, Sujan Thapa 2022 Missouri State University

Analysis Of Root System Architecture And Qtl Identification In Grapevines, Sujan Thapa

MSU Graduate Theses

The root system of the plant plays a vital role in water and nutrient uptake. Native North American grapevines adapted to a broad range of climatic and soil conditions, which led to the evolution of diverse root system architecture (RSA) within the Vitis genus. Despite the importance of RSA in viticulture, little is known about the genetic basis of the RSA in grapevine. I used novel root phenotyping tool, RhizoVision Analyzer to characterize the root system of 208 genotypes of an F1 grapevine progeny obtained from a cross between Vitis rupestris Scheele B38 and Vitis riparia Michx. HP-1. Dormant …


Phylogenetic Origins And Age-Based Proportions Of Malacho (Elops Smithi) Relative To Ladyfish (Elops Saurus): Species On The Move In The Western Gulf Of Mexico, Damon Williford, Nicolette S. Beeken, Joel Anderson, Polly Hajovsky, Roberta Weixelman 2022 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

Phylogenetic Origins And Age-Based Proportions Of Malacho (Elops Smithi) Relative To Ladyfish (Elops Saurus): Species On The Move In The Western Gulf Of Mexico, Damon Williford, Nicolette S. Beeken, Joel Anderson, Polly Hajovsky, Roberta Weixelman

Gulf and Caribbean Research

Two species of ladyfish occur in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Elops saurus and Elops smithi, that are morphologically indistinguishable except for vertebral counts but can also be identified by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Here we expand on previous work, most of which has occurred in Florida, and examine the demography, phylogenetics, geographic distribution, and age—structure of ladyfishes in Texas estuaries. Fishery—independent gill net data demonstrated that ladyfishes increase in abundance from north to south along the Texas coast. The abundance of ladyfishes also increased in Texas waters from 1982–2021, which coincides with recent trends of warmer winters. Genetic data …


Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer 2022 Michigan Technological University

Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation was written on topics related to the genus Quercus with a primary focus on Quercus ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak) and Quercus rubra (northern red oak). Within this dissertation are chapters related to the setup of experimental common gardens within the Ford and Kellogg experimental forest, a literature review describing drought adaptations of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak group), identification of transcription factors within the Q. robur (English oak) and Q. rubra genomes, a study comparing leaf trait phenotypic plasticity of Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. rubra, and an RNA-seq experiment studying ecological speciation between Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. …


Evaluating A Test For Shedding Propensity Using Tape Lifts From Different Skin Locations, Xiao M. Chen 2021 CUNY John Jay College

Evaluating A Test For Shedding Propensity Using Tape Lifts From Different Skin Locations, Xiao M. Chen

Student Theses

The shedding propensity of a person can assist data interpretation in casework when assessing the possibility of passive transfer for DNA analysis. Past studies on shedding propensity evaluated palmar skin (washed and unwashed) deposits. This study compared different skin locations with respect to shedding propensity, and explored the potential of tape-lifts as a skin surface collection method. Eight different skin types and samples were collected with adhesive tape disks from 28 participants over three non-consecutive days; the washed and unwashed fingers from both hands, toe, and arm, neck below ear, and nape. Samples were extracted, quantified, amplified, genotyped, and evaluated …


Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) by ensuring the proper folding of polypeptides. Loss of proteostasis has been linked to the onset of numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. Hsp110 is a member of the Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones and acts as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for Hsp70, the preeminent Hsp70-family protein folding chaperone. Hsp110 promotes rapid cycling of ADP for ATP, allowing Hsp70 to properly fold nascent or unfolded polypeptides in iterative cycles. In addition to its NEF activity, Hsp110 possesses an Hsp70-like substrate binding domain (SBD) whose biological roles are undefined. Previous work …


Erecta Family Genes Regulate The Shoot Apical Meristem And Organ Formation, Daniel A. DeGennaro 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Erecta Family Genes Regulate The Shoot Apical Meristem And Organ Formation, Daniel A. Degennaro

Doctoral Dissertations

Plants are sessile and must adjust their organ growth to their environments. A reservoir of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) supplies cells for differentiation into organs. The SAM must balance organ production with stem cell maintenance. The ERECTA family (ERfs) encodes the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases ERECTA (ER), ERECTA-LIKE 1 (ERL1), and ERL2. ERf signaling regulates organ initiation and stem cell maintenance. Results presented in this work include the following:

1) WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) make up a negative feedback loop to maintain SAM size. WUS and CLV3 expression localization is critical for …


Genome-Wide Analyses Of Genomic Variation Regulating Differential Stress Responses In Japanese Quail, Steven Anthony Shumaker 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genome-Wide Analyses Of Genomic Variation Regulating Differential Stress Responses In Japanese Quail, Steven Anthony Shumaker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As consumer demands for poultry grow, producers work to improve bird productivity in both meat and egg production. This endeavor is multifaceted, as many different factors play a part in influencing the productivity of birds, including environmental conditions, overall health, and genetic potential. One aspect controlled for in all aspects of poultry production optimization is stress management. Mitigation of stress is of primary concern to producers, as improper stress management can have many deleterious effects on chickens. Stress management requires an understanding of poultry stress responses and their physiological mechanisms, which can be more deeply understood through genomic analysis. Chapter …


Investigation Of Mitochondrial Inheritance In The Smut Fungus Sporisorium Reilianum., Hector Eduardo Mendoza 2021 University of Louisville

Investigation Of Mitochondrial Inheritance In The Smut Fungus Sporisorium Reilianum., Hector Eduardo Mendoza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An important goal in evolutionary biology is to address the origin of Earth’s immense biodiversity through the evolution of complex sexual reproduction mechanisms in eukaryotes. Inheritance of mitochondria during sexual reproduction has received special attention in recent years, as these organelles cannot be synthesized de novo and must be transmitted from parent to offspring. The importance of these organelles far exceeds its common function as the energy-producing “powerhouse” of the cell, as it has been found to also be involved in fundamental processes like apoptosis, aging and metabolic homeostasis. Thus, appropriate inheritance of mitochondria is essential for growth and development …


Molecular Markers Within And Beyond Viburnum: A Single Set Of Ssrs For An Immense Genus, Trinity Paige Hamm 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular Markers Within And Beyond Viburnum: A Single Set Of Ssrs For An Immense Genus, Trinity Paige Hamm

Masters Theses

Comprised of more than 160 species, Viburnum is the largest genus in the Viburnaceae (formerly Adoxaceae) alongside Adoxa and Sambucus. The native range of Viburnum species spans much of the Northern Hemisphere and extends into the mountains of South America and Southeastern Asia. Their wide geographic range has made Viburnum particularly interesting to phylogeographers and phylogeneticists. This diverse genus is also horticulturally valuable with varying traits such as fragrance, fruit color, and bud and inflorescence form. There is sufficient morphological diversity in the genus for there to be more than 70 species and intraspecific hybrids in cultivation, and in …


Comparison Of Multiple Imputation Algorithms And Verification Using Whole-Genome Sequencing In The Cmuh Genetic Biobank, Ting-Yuan Liu, Chih-Fan Lin, Hsing-Tsung Wu, Ya-Lun Wu, Yu-Chia Chen, Chi-Chou Liao, Yu-Pao Chou, Dysan Chao, Hsing-Fang Lu, Ya-Sian Chang, Jan-Gowth Chang, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Fuu‑Jen Tsai 2021 China Medical University Hospital, Taiwan

Comparison Of Multiple Imputation Algorithms And Verification Using Whole-Genome Sequencing In The Cmuh Genetic Biobank, Ting-Yuan Liu, Chih-Fan Lin, Hsing-Tsung Wu, Ya-Lun Wu, Yu-Chia Chen, Chi-Chou Liao, Yu-Pao Chou, Dysan Chao, Hsing-Fang Lu, Ya-Sian Chang, Jan-Gowth Chang, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Fuu‑Jen Tsai

BioMedicine

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be conducted to systematically analyze the contributions of genetic factors to a wide variety of complex diseases. Nevertheless, existing GWASs have provided highly ethnic specific data. Accordingly, to provide data specific to Taiwan, we established a large-scale genetic database in a single medical institution at the China Medical University Hospital. With current technological limitations, microarray analysis can detect only a limited number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency of >1%. Nevertheless, imputation represents a useful alternative means of expanding data. In this study, we compared four imputation algorithms in terms of …


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