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Neuroanatomical Characterization Of Fruitless P2 Neurons And Assessment Of Their Role In Female Mate Receptivity, William Yeung 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Neuroanatomical Characterization Of Fruitless P2 Neurons And Assessment Of Their Role In Female Mate Receptivity, William Yeung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In behaviourally isolated species, preferential mate choice for conspecifics over heterospecifics is a primary isolating barrier for reducing interspecific gene flow. Drosophila males court heterospecific females more frequently than females are sexually receptive to courting heterospecific males, emphasizing the importance of female mate preference in reproductive isolation. The neurogenetic bases of female mate preference have been elusive historically, but recent research identified the D. melanogaster fruitless (fru) P2 exon to influence both conspecific and heterospecific female receptivity. I have expanded on these findings by creating a transgenic line that expresses Gal4 under fruP2 regulation. Driving a fluorescent …


Dual Activities Of Acc Synthase: Novel Clues Regarding The Molecular Evolution Of Acs Genes, Chang Xu, Bowei Hao, Gongling Sun, Yuanyuan Mei, Lifang Sun, Yunmei Sun, Yibo Wang, Yongyan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Mengyuan Zhang, Yue Zhang, Dan Wang, Zihe Rao, Xin Li, Jeffery Shen, Ning Ning Wang 2021 Nankai University

Dual Activities Of Acc Synthase: Novel Clues Regarding The Molecular Evolution Of Acs Genes, Chang Xu, Bowei Hao, Gongling Sun, Yuanyuan Mei, Lifang Sun, Yunmei Sun, Yibo Wang, Yongyan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Mengyuan Zhang, Yue Zhang, Dan Wang, Zihe Rao, Xin Li, Jeffery Shen, Ning Ning Wang

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Ethylene plays profound roles in plant development. The rate-limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis is 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS), which is generally believed to be a single-activity enzyme evolving from aspartate aminotransferases. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to catalyzing the conversion of S-adenosyl-methionine to the ethylene precursor ACC, genuine ACSs widely have Cβ-S lyase activity. Two N-terminal motifs, including a glutamine residue, are essential for conferring ACS activity to ACS-like proteins. Motif and activity analyses of ACS-like proteins from plants at different evolutionary stages suggest that the ACC-dependent pathway is uniquely developed in seed plants. A putative catalytic mechanism for …


Developing A Toolbox To Engineer Quantitative Trait Variation In Legume Species Using Crispr/Cas Technologies., Petar Miletic 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Toolbox To Engineer Quantitative Trait Variation In Legume Species Using Crispr/Cas Technologies., Petar Miletic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The impact of intensive agriculture on the environment is immense. This is especially dire with regard to the natural nitrogen (N) cycle, where the human driven interference, primarily associated with industrial fertilization, has reached unsustainable levels. Unlike cereals, legumes, such as soybean, alfalfa and common bean, have the ability to use atmospheric nitrogen, which limits the need for industrial fertilization. A more wide-spread use of legumes could alleviate some of the negative impacts on the biogeochemical cycle while also providing a useful alternative to meat consumption, an important factor in sustainability. To reach this goal, further improvements of legume crops …


Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Structure-Function Studies Of The Trypanosome Mitochondrial Replication Protein Polib, Raveen Armstrong

Masters Theses

Trypanosoma brucei and related protists are distinguished from all other eukaryotes by an unusual mitochondrial genome known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Replication of this single nucleoid involves a release, replicate, and reattach mechanism for the thousands of catenated minicircles and requires at least three DNA polymerase (POLIB, POLIC and POLID) with similarity to E. coli DNA polymerase I. Like other proofreading replicative DNA polymerases, POLIB has both an annotated polymerase domain and an exonuclease domain. Predictive modelling of POLIB indicates that it has the canonical right hand …


Global Gene Expression Analysis Of Systemic Sclerosis Myofibroblasts Demonstrates A Marked Increase In The Expression Of Multiple Nbpf Genes, Giuseppina Abignano, Heidi Hermes, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sankar Addya, Francesco Del Galdo, Sergio A. Jimenez 2021 University of Leeds

Global Gene Expression Analysis Of Systemic Sclerosis Myofibroblasts Demonstrates A Marked Increase In The Expression Of Multiple Nbpf Genes, Giuseppina Abignano, Heidi Hermes, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sankar Addya, Francesco Del Galdo, Sergio A. Jimenez

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Myofibroblasts are the key effector cells responsible for the exaggerated tissue fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Despite their importance to SSc pathogenesis, the specific transcriptome of SSc myofibroblasts has not been described. The purpose of this study was to identify transcriptome differences between SSc myofibroblasts and non-myofibroblastic cells. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expressing myofibroblasts and α-SMA negative cells were isolated employing laser capture microdissection from dermal cell cultures from four patients with diffuse SSc of recent onset. Total mRNA was extracted from both cell populations, amplified and analyzed employing microarrays. Results for specific genes were validated by Western blots …


Regulatory Non-Coding Rnas Modulate Transcriptional Activation During B Cell Development, Mary Attaway, Tzippora Chwat-Edelstein, Bao Q. Vuong 2021 CUNY City College

Regulatory Non-Coding Rnas Modulate Transcriptional Activation During B Cell Development, Mary Attaway, Tzippora Chwat-Edelstein, Bao Q. Vuong

Publications and Research

B cells play a significant role in the adaptive immune response by secreting immunoglobulins that can recognize and neutralize foreign antigens. They develop from hematopoietic stem cells, which also give rise to other types of blood cells, such as monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells, wherein specific transcriptional programs define the commitment and subsequent development of these different cell lineages. A number of transcription factors, such as PU.1, E2A, Pax5, and FOXO1, drive B cell development. Mounting evidence demonstrates that non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), modulate the expression of these transcription factors directly by binding …


Vps54 Regulates Lifespan And Locomotor Behavior In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Emily C. Wilkinson, Emily L. Starke, Scott A. Barbee 2021 University of Denver

Vps54 Regulates Lifespan And Locomotor Behavior In Adult Drosophila Melanogaster, Emily C. Wilkinson, Emily L. Starke, Scott A. Barbee

Biological Sciences: Faculty Scholarship

Vps54 is an integral subunit of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, which is involved in tethering endosome-derived vesicles to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A destabilizing missense mutation in Vps54 causes the age-progressive motor neuron (MN) degeneration, muscle weakness, and muscle atrophy observed in the wobbler mouse, an established animal model for human MN disease. It is currently unclear how the disruption of Vps54, and thereby the GARP complex, leads to MN and muscle phenotypes. To develop a new tool to address this question, we have created an analogous model in Drosophila by generating novel loss-of-function alleles of the …


Human 5’-Tailed Mirtrons Are Processed By Rnasep, Mohammad Farid Zia 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Human 5’-Tailed Mirtrons Are Processed By Rnasep, Mohammad Farid Zia

Dissertations

Approximately a thousand microRNAs (miRNAs) are documented from human cells. A third appear to transit non-canonical pathways that typically bypass processing by Drosha, the dedicated nuclear miRNA producing enzyme. The largest class of non-canonical miRNAs are mirtrons which eschew Drosha to mature through spliceosome activity. While mirtrons are found in several configurations, the vast majority of human mirtron species are 5’-tailed. For these mirtrons, a 3’ splice site defines the 3’ end of their hairpin precursor while a “tail” of variable length separates the 5’ base of the hairpin from the nearest splice site. How this tail is removed is …


Statistical Potentials For Rna-Protein Interactions Optimized By Cma-Es, Takayuki Kimura, Nobuaki Yasuo, Masakazu Sekijima, Brooke Lustig 2021 Tokyo Institute of Technology

Statistical Potentials For Rna-Protein Interactions Optimized By Cma-Es, Takayuki Kimura, Nobuaki Yasuo, Masakazu Sekijima, Brooke Lustig

Faculty Research, Scholarly, and Creative Activity

Characterizing RNA-protein interactions remains an important endeavor, complicated by the difficulty in obtaining the relevant structures. Evaluating model structures via statistical potentials is in principle straight-forward and effective. However, given the relatively small size of the existing learning set of RNA-protein complexes optimization of such potentials continues to be problematic. Notably, interaction-based statistical potentials have problems in addressing large RNA-protein complexes. In this study, we adopted a novel strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES) to calculate statistical potentials, successfully identifying native docking poses.


Determining The Primary Dna Substrates Of Shld2'S Ob-Fold Domains, Hari Patchigolla 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Determining The Primary Dna Substrates Of Shld2'S Ob-Fold Domains, Hari Patchigolla

Holster Scholar Projects

Failure to repair DNA double-stranded breaks leads to cell death. Radiation therapy is commonly used to kill cancer cells by inducing these breaks. However resistance to radiation therapy, due to a hyperactive DNA double-stranded break repair pathway, is a common occurrence that makes cancer patients more prone to relapse. The Shieldin complex is shown to promote DNA-double stranded break repair by binding to DNA at sites of damage. Thus, the objective of this project is to understand the affinity and type of DNA that Shieldin binds to, through gel-shift assays, for the eventual creation of an inhibitor for this protein …


Establishment Of A Pesticide Resistance Monitoring Tool For The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus Urticae, Hanna Varonina 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Establishment Of A Pesticide Resistance Monitoring Tool For The Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus Urticae, Hanna Varonina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), or Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is a major agriculture pest known for its rapid development of resistance to pesticides. The analysis of spider mites’ pesticide resistance demonstrated that resistance patterns and frequencies vary between T. urticae strains collected from different geographic locations and host plants. This research aims at characterization of pesticide resistance patterns in mite populations present in greenhouses in the Southwestern Ontario by identifying genetic and metabolic markers of their pesticide resistance. The establishment of these markers lays the basis for development of a pesticide resistance diagnostic tool that will enable prediction of population resistance …


Student Perceptions Of Authoring A Publication Stemming From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure), Ashley N. Turner, Anil K. Challa, Katelyn M. Cooper 2021 Jacksonville State University

Student Perceptions Of Authoring A Publication Stemming From A Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (Cure), Ashley N. Turner, Anil K. Challa, Katelyn M. Cooper

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) engage students in authentic research experiences in a course format and can sometimes result in the publication of that research. However, little is known about student-author perceptions of CURE publications. In this study, we examined how students perceive they benefit from authoring a CURE publication and what they believe is required for authorship of a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal. All 16 students who were enrolled in a molecular genetics CURE during their first year of college participated in semistructured interviews during their fourth year. At the time of the interviews, students had been authors …


Neurological Gene Jus Is Associated With Aging-Related Muscle Loss In The Fly Model Of Sarcopenia., Soobin An 2021 Kennesaw State University

Neurological Gene Jus Is Associated With Aging-Related Muscle Loss In The Fly Model Of Sarcopenia., Soobin An

Symposium of Student Scholars

Sarcopenia is a health condition in the elderly that is associated with degradation of muscle size, mass, and function. It can cause physical disability and, in extreme cases, death. The genetic aspect of sarcopenia is still not well understood. To shed light on sarcopenia mechanisms, we investigated muscle loss in aging fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. Our hypothesis was that aging-dependent muscle degradation can be affected by suboptimal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). We used RNA interference and tissue-specific genetic drivers to induce a selective knockdown (KD) of the julius seizure gene (jus), which is associated …


Foe To Friend: Parallel Domestication Of Ophiocordyceps From Fungal Parasite To Beneficial Symbiont In Cicadas, Jason Vailionis, Eric RL Gordon, Chris Simon 2021 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Foe To Friend: Parallel Domestication Of Ophiocordyceps From Fungal Parasite To Beneficial Symbiont In Cicadas, Jason Vailionis, Eric Rl Gordon, Chris Simon

University Scholar Projects

Nutritional symbioses are integral to the survival and diversity of many insects. The majority of herbivorous insects in the order Hemiptera possess stable, inherited symbionts that produce essential amino acids and vitamins. However, instability has been observed in cicadas, with one bacterial symbiont, Hodgkinia cicadicola, being repeatedly replaced by a new fungal symbiont, Ophiocordyceps. The fungal symbionts are thought to be derived from parasitic Ophiocordyceps species, but little is known about these parasitic ancestors or how the transition from parasite to mutualist occurs. We used a combination of targeted amplified genes and metagenomic sequencing to investigate the evolution …


Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and …


Fine-Scale Morphological Divergence Of Wing Trait Variables In Highly Fragmented Populations Of The Bog Copper Butterfly (Lycaena Epixanthe), Jessica L. T. Jeong 2021 Western University

Fine-Scale Morphological Divergence Of Wing Trait Variables In Highly Fragmented Populations Of The Bog Copper Butterfly (Lycaena Epixanthe), Jessica L. T. Jeong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Habitat fragmentation can adversely affect animal and plant species through subdividing their natural habitats into smaller, more isolated patches. Oftentimes, these isolated groups are subject to reduced dispersal and gene flow, leading to genetic divergence and, consequently, morphological divergence among populations. This study aims to quantify the morphological divergence of the bog copper butterfly, Lycaena epixanthe, between nine isolated bog sites in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, via seven quantitative morphological traits in their wing pattern. Statistical analyses demonstrate significant differences in wing trait measurements between populations. As bog coppers are small, weak fliers with a strict host-plant dependency, it …


Functional Characterization Of Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms In Soybean, Ramtin Sirjani 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Functional Characterization Of Arogenate Dehydratase Isoforms In Soybean, Ramtin Sirjani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Phenylalanine flux is partitioned between phenylpropanoid and protein synthesis. The mechanisms behind the metabolic channeling of phenylalanine are largely unknown. Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) enzymes, which catalyze the last and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of phenylalanine in plants, have been shown to interact with the isoflavonoid metabolon in the cytosol. Cytosolic phenylalanine, however, can only be synthesized through prephenate dehydratase (PDT) activity. In this study, putative soybean ADTs (GmADTs) were characterized for their ADT and PDT activity. This was done using complementation assays with two different knockout yeast strains, aro8aro9 and pha2, which lack prephenate aminotransferase and PDT activity, …


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity) have significantly higher anxiety …


Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh 2021 University of Dayton

Unbiased Automated Quantitation Of Ros Signals In Live Retinal Neurons Of Drosophila Using Fiji/Imagej, Prajakta Deshpande, Neha Gogia, Anuradha Venkatakrishnan Chimata, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Numerous imaging modules are utilized to study changes that occur during cellular processes. Besides qualitative (immunohistochemical) or semiquantitative (Western blot) approaches, direct quantitation method(s) for detecting and analyzing signal intensities for disease(s) biomarkers are lacking. Thus, there is a need to develop method(s) to quantitate specific signals and eliminate noise during live tissue imaging. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•-) radicals results in oxidative damage of biomolecules, which leads to oxidative stress. This can be detected by dihydroethidium staining in live tissue(s), which does not rely on fixation and helps prevent stress on tissues. However, …


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This …


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