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Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long 2010 Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Promiscuous Mating In Feral Pigs (Sus Scrofa) From Texas, Usa, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Angeline Zamorano, Randy W. Deyoung, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, David B. Long

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Context. Feral pigs represent a significant threat to agriculture and ecosystems and are disease reservoirs for pathogens affecting humans, livestock and other wildlife. Information on the behavioural ecology of feral pigs might increase the efficiency and effectiveness of management strategies.

Aims. We assessed the frequency of promiscuous mating in relation to oestrous synchrony in feral pigs from southern Texas, USA, an agroecosystem with a widespread and well established population of feral pigs. An association between multiple paternity of single litters and synchrony of oestrous may indicate alternative mating strategies, such as mateguarding.

Methods. We collected gravid sows at …


Seasonal Variability In Ichthyoplankton Abundance And Assemblage Composition In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Off Alabama, Frank J. Hernandez, Jr, Sean P. Powers, William M. Graham 2010 Dauphin Island Sea Lab

Seasonal Variability In Ichthyoplankton Abundance And Assemblage Composition In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Off Alabama, Frank J. Hernandez, Jr, Sean P. Powers, William M. Graham

University Faculty and Staff Publications

Multiyear ichthyoplankton surveys used to monitor larval fish seasonality, abundance, and assemblage structure can provide early indicators of regional ecosystem changes. Numerous ichthyoplankton surveys have been conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico, but few have had high levels of temporal resolution and sample replication. In this study, ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly (October 2004–October 2006) at a single station off the coast of Alabama as part of a long-term biological survey. Four seasonal periods were identified from observed and historic water temperatures, including a relatively long (June–October) “summer” period (water temperature >26°C). Fish egg abundance, total larval abundance, and …


Shallow Water Dredging, Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science 2010 William & Mary

Shallow Water Dredging, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay


Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell 2010 University of Colorado Boulder

Ignoring Nature: Why We Do It, The Dire Consequences, And The Need For A Paradigm Shift To Save Animals, Habitats, And Ourselves, Marc Bekoff, Sarah Bexell

Ecology Collection

The article discusses the importance of biodiversity and on how people protect animals and habitats. It describes the conservation psychology and conservation social work. It suggests that there will be fewer people who will actually be able to make a positive difference in the relationships with animals and ecosystems.


Proceedings Of The Eleventh North American Crane Workshop: Preface And Contents, 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Proceedings Of The Eleventh North American Crane Workshop: Preface And Contents

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The North American Crane Working Group (NACWG) is an organization of professional biologists, aviculturists, land managers, and other interested individuals dedicated to the conservation of cranes and their habitats in North America. Our group meets approximately every 3 years to exchange new information on research and conservation of sandhill and whooping cranes and occasionally reports from abroad. Our meeting in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, 23-27 September 2008, was no exception. The workshop was ably organized by Tom Hoffman, the scientific program was well-constructed by Jane Austin, and George Archibald and Richard Urbanek helped to bring together a memorable field day in …


Aerial Survey Techniques For Breeding Whooping Cranes, BRIAN W. JOHNS 2010 Canadian Wildlife Service

Aerial Survey Techniques For Breeding Whooping Cranes, Brian W. Johns

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Since the discovery of nesting whooping cranes in Wood Buffalo National Park, the Canadian Wildlife Service has conducted aerial surveys to monitor the population. Aerial survey techniques have varied over the years; however, they have generally followed the techniques used by the author since 1991. The technique involves flying a combination of circular flights and transects over known nesting territories and similar looking marshes likely to contain breeding whooping cranes. These aerial surveys account for nearly 100% of the breeding whooping cranes each year.


Examination Of Opportunistically Collected Eggs Laid By Whooping Cranes In Florida, MARILYN G. SPALDING, MARTIN J. FOLK, STEPHEN A. NESBITT 2010 University of Florida

Examination Of Opportunistically Collected Eggs Laid By Whooping Cranes In Florida, Marilyn G. Spalding, Martin J. Folk, Stephen A. Nesbitt

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We examined 41 whooping crane (Grus americana) eggs or egg remains from 27 nests in the field (n = 4), in the laboratory (n = 33), or incubated by another pair (n = 1), or in captivity (n = 3). Eggs were collected because the nest was in danger (2 eggs, 1 nest), abandoned (5 eggs, 4 nests), or failed to hatch after 34 days (27 eggs, 16 nests), or they were removed for management purposes (5 eggs, 3 nests). Evidence of fertility was found in 18 eggs (12 nests, 44%) of 33 opened. The remainder were either …


Eastern Equine Encephalitis In Florida Whooping Cranes, MARILYN G. SPALDING, LILLIAN M. STARK 2010 University of Florida

Eastern Equine Encephalitis In Florida Whooping Cranes, Marilyn G. Spalding, Lillian M. Stark

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Two whooping cranes (Grus americana) that were part of separate projects to reintroduce whooping cranes in eastern North America died suddenly in Florida following a few days of abnormal behavior. The first case was a semi-captive bird on ultralight-led migration from Wisconsin to Florida in December 2004. The second case was a molting 10-year-old male and successful wild breeder that died in May, 2005. Clinical signs were lethargy, abnormal posture, isolation followed by attack by other birds, collapse, heart murmur, and death. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (alphavirus) was isolated from the liver of both birds. The most severe …


Summary Of Sandhill Crane Hunting Seasons In Kansas 1993-2007, DAVID E. SHARP, HELEN M. HANDS, JAMES A. DUBOVSKY, JOHN E. CORNELY 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Summary Of Sandhill Crane Hunting Seasons In Kansas 1993-2007, David E. Sharp, Helen M. Hands, James A. Dubovsky, John E. Cornely

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The mid-continent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) is the largest population of cranes in North America. Hunting seasons for sandhill cranes were closed in 1916 and gradually resumed in Mexico (1940), the United States (1961), and Canada (1964). As knowledge of the biology of cranes and experience with hunting seasons increased, areas in which hunting was permitted expanded, and by 1992 all but 2 states (Nebraska and Kansas) in the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway conducted sport hunting seasons for this population. In 1993 Kansas resumed hunting and initial seasons were limited to specified geographic areas of …


A Retrospective Serological Survey For Infectious Bursal Disease Virus In Free-Ranging Sandhill Cranes In South-Central Wisconsin, RICHARD R. SIM, BARRY K. HARTUP 2010 University of Wisconsin

A Retrospective Serological Survey For Infectious Bursal Disease Virus In Free-Ranging Sandhill Cranes In South-Central Wisconsin, Richard R. Sim, Barry K. Hartup

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

A retrospective serosurvey of resident sandhill cranes (Grus candensis pratensis) in Florida suggested Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV, family Birnaviridae) may have been enzootic there as early as 1992, with 13-63% seroprevalence among age classes and wide geographic distribution of seropositive cranes. The purpose of our study was to describe the prevalence of antibodies to IBDV serotype 2 in a local population of greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) near Briggsville, Wisconsin, that overlapped with resident Florida birds in winter during the same time period. Blood samples were collected June through October between 1996 and 1999 …


Wintering Sandhill Crane Distribution And Habitat Use Patterns At Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, TANDI L. PERKINS, LEIGH H. FREDRICKSON 2010 Wildlife and Fisheries Science

Wintering Sandhill Crane Distribution And Habitat Use Patterns At Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, Tandi L. Perkins, Leigh H. Fredrickson

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The single most important factor regulating sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) populations is their ability to carry out annual life cycle events while responding to changing habitat availability and distribution across local, regional, and continental landscapes. Wetland and cropland resource availability and distribution across the landscape have become increasingly unpredictable. Recent changes in farming practices, urbanization, and prevailing drought conditions in New Mexico have transformed and reduced dynamic, heterogeneous landscapes into scattered fragments of the original setting. Concerns are increasing for the cumulative influence of these often irreversible actions in providing the type of resources needed by cranes at …


Sandhill Cranes Of Coastal British Columbia: Results Of Helicopter Surveys And Preliminary Observations Of Habitat Use, KRISTA ROESSINGH, BRIONY PENN 2010 University of Victoria

Sandhill Cranes Of Coastal British Columbia: Results Of Helicopter Surveys And Preliminary Observations Of Habitat Use, Krista Roessingh, Briony Penn

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

A pilot study on sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) was conducted on the central coast of British Columbia in May 2006, followed by 2 summers of inventory and observation in 2007 and 2008. Fieldwork consisted of gathering local knowledge of crane locales, helicopter and boat surveys, and observations from blinds. We located 29 nest sites on 14 different islands and 1 mainland peninsula, as well as several beach foraging areas and bog roost sites. Observed average crane and nest density in areas of suitable habitat was 0.21/km2 and 0.044/km2, respectively, for 2007 and 2008. Nest and …


Thirty Years Of Mortality Assessment In Whooping Crane Reintroductions: Patterns And Implications, BARRY K. HARTUP, MARILYN G. SPALDING, NANCY J. THOMAS, GRETCHEN A. COLE, YOUNG JUN KIM 2010 International Crane Foundation

Thirty Years Of Mortality Assessment In Whooping Crane Reintroductions: Patterns And Implications, Barry K. Hartup, Marilyn G. Spalding, Nancy J. Thomas, Gretchen A. Cole, Young Jun Kim

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We reviewed postmortem data to identify primary causes of mortality in reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) and assess their potential for mitigation in future reintroduction efforts. In total, 240 cases from 3 populations were reviewed for causes of death, including the Rocky Mountain migratory population (n = 24, release dates 1975-1989), the Florida resident population (n = 186, 1993-2005), and the Wisconsin migratory population (n = 30, 2001-ongoing). Traumatic injury was the leading cause of mortality among the reintroduced whooping cranes, most commonly from predation (n = 120 or 50%, range 8-58% per project) or collision with fixed …


Morbidity And Mortality Of Captive Whooping Cranes At The International Crane Foundation 1976-2008, BARRY K. HARTUP, JENNIFER N. NIEMUTH, BRIDGET FITZPATRICK, MAUREEN FOX, CRISTIN KELLEY 2010 International Crane Foundation

Morbidity And Mortality Of Captive Whooping Cranes At The International Crane Foundation 1976-2008, Barry K. Hartup, Jennifer N. Niemuth, Bridget Fitzpatrick, Maureen Fox, Cristin Kelley

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Tracking the incidence of morbidity and mortality in captive animal collections helps inform husbandry and preventive medicine programs aimed at improving population health and viability. Carpenter and Derrickson (1982) and Olsen et al. (1997) published summary reports of captive whooping crane (Grus americana) mortality that served to identify key problem areas for the primary breeding flock and potential reintroduction programs involving this endangered species. We expanded on this approach and conducted an initial evaluation of morbidity and mortality factors for whooping cranes at the International Crane Foundation (ICF). The purpose of our study was to identify overrepresented factors …


Methods To Reduce Crop Depredation By Cranes In Siberia (Trans-Baikal Region), OLEG A. GOROSHKO 2010 Daursky State Nature Biosphere Reserve, Chita Institute of Natural Resources

Methods To Reduce Crop Depredation By Cranes In Siberia (Trans-Baikal Region), Oleg A. Goroshko

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Methods of reducing crop depredation by cranes were tested in Daursky State Nature Biosphere Reserve on the steppes of southern Siberia. The Torey Lakes and numerous small lakes support autumn gathering of cranes and waterfowl. Croplands (mainly oats and wheat) attract staging cranes, geese, and ducks. Up to 42,000 demoiselle (Anthropoides virgo) and 1,100 hooded cranes (Grus monacha) (>10% of world populations for these species) can feed in the fields near the reserve and cause significant damage (up to 70% in some wheat fields). We investigated the problem during 1992-2004 and suggested various methods to …


Impacts Of Global And Regional Climate On Whooping Crane Demography: Trends And Extreme Events, KARINE GIL, WILLIAM GRANT, R. DOUGLAS SLACK, ENRIQUE WEIR 2010 Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust

Impacts Of Global And Regional Climate On Whooping Crane Demography: Trends And Extreme Events, Karine Gil, William Grant, R. Douglas Slack, Enrique Weir

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We analyzed long-term demographic and environmental data to understand the role of large scale climatic factors (the Pacific Decadal Oscillations [PDO]) and environmental factors in 3 regions of North America on natality and mortality of the remnant migratory whooping crane (Grus americana) population. This is an endangered species that spends winters at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Texas, breeds at Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP) in Canada and “…uses Nebraska as a primary stopover”. Long term data (27 years) of demography and environmental factors (PDO index, temperature and precipitation at WBNP, Nebraska and ANWR, pond water depth …


An Individual Whooping Crane's Family History, KARINE GIL, FELIPE CHAVEZ-RAMIREZ, BRIAN W. JOHNS, THOMAS V. STEHN, ROBIN SILVA 2010 Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust

An Individual Whooping Crane's Family History, Karine Gil, Felipe Chavez-Ramirez, Brian W. Johns, Thomas V. Stehn, Robin Silva

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Between 1977 and 1988, 12 cohorts (134 individuals) of whooping cranes (Grus americana) were banded in Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP, Canada-breeding ground) and monitored from Canada to Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR, Texas-wintering ground). During 2004, historical data on banded individuals was analyzed to estimate population parameters and life table of the wild population. This study used information from one of the few banded cranes known to be alive in 2008 since 1978. A genealogy tree (Family Tree Maker software) was developed from individual RwR-nil to represent its descendents and relatives, as well as a map (GIS) …


Pedigree Analyses Of The Mississippi Sandhill Crane, JESSICA R. HENKEL 2010 University of New Orleans

Pedigree Analyses Of The Mississippi Sandhill Crane, Jessica R. Henkel

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The genetic status of the critically endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was analyzed using 2008 studbook data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managed captive breeding and release program. Since the captive breeding program was established in 1964, gene diversity has decreased 6%, average mean kinship is at the level of first cousin, and inbreeding coefficients have been observed as high as 0.375. These high inbreeding levels were correlated with lower survivorship, and an analysis of the mate suitability of current pairs at the release site revealed poor mate suitability indices. These factors may be …


Habitat Selection Of Eastern Migratory Whooping Cranes On Their Wintering Grounds, LARA E. A. FONDOW, STANLEY A. TEMPLE 2010 International Crane Foundation

Habitat Selection Of Eastern Migratory Whooping Cranes On Their Wintering Grounds, Lara E. A. Fondow, Stanley A. Temple

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

As a monitoring technician for the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership, I (LEAF) noted that birds in years following release selected wintering habitats that differed greatly from those into which they were initially released. An analysis of the habitat preferences of these birds was needed in order to determine any possible implications to the reintroduction efforts. During the winters of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, I recorded the locations, habitat use, social associations, and behaviors of all migratory whooping cranes (Grus americana) at known locations in Florida. I used compositional analysis to determine whether habitat use was random at the following …


Longevity Records Of Rocky Mountain Greater Sandhill Cranes Banded During 1969-1987 In Idaho, Montana, Utah, And Wyoming, RODERICK C. DREWIEN, WENDY M. BROWN, KENT R. CLEGG 2010 Hornocker Wildlife Research Institute

Longevity Records Of Rocky Mountain Greater Sandhill Cranes Banded During 1969-1987 In Idaho, Montana, Utah, And Wyoming, Roderick C. Drewien, Wendy M. Brown, Kent R. Clegg

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Cranes species throughout the world are renowned for their longevity; however, most records are based on individuals in captivity. We compiled longevity records for wild Rocky Mountain greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) banded in Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during 1969-1987. Our analysis was based on over 180 band recoveries and over 1,700 visual observations of known-age individually marked birds from 1969 to 2008. We present only those birds of age >20 years for this summary. Our results yielded 56 birds known to be >20 yrs of age when killed or last observed. Of 7 band recoveries, …


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