A Bayesian-Influence Model For Error Probability Analysis Of Combine Operations In Harvesting, 2016 Iowa State University
A Bayesian-Influence Model For Error Probability Analysis Of Combine Operations In Harvesting, Yu Du, Michael Dorneich, Brian L. Steward, Cameron A. Mackenzie
Brian L. Steward
Harvesting is one of the most important agricultural operations because it captures the value from the entire cropping season. In modern agriculture, grain harvesting has been mechanized through the combine harvester. A combine harvester enables highly productive crop harvesting. Combine harvesting performance depends on the highly variable skill of combine operators and associated operator error. An approach was developed to analyze the risk of the combine harvesting operation as it relates to operator error. Specifically, a risk analysis model was built based on a task analysis from operator interviews and estimates of the probability of operator error. This paper employs ...
Methodology For Assessing Measurement Error For Casting Surface Inspection, 2016 Iowa State University
Methodology For Assessing Measurement Error For Casting Surface Inspection, G. Daricilar, Frank E. Peters
Frank E. Peters
Visual assessment of objects is critical to many fields including metalcasting. While the output for such a task is often a simple attribute, theproblem studied here is for inspection tasks requiring an output that defines shape, size and location of anomalous areas, which are random and are not defined a priori. This paper defines a methodology to quantify the amount of repeatability and reproducibility variation. The application of the methodology for the visual surface assessment of steel castings reveals significant repeatability and reproducibility error. The work presented here is the impetus for current efforts that are defining the capabilities of ...
Effect Of Mould Expansion On Pattern Allowances In Sand Casting Of Steel, 2016 Iowa State University
Effect Of Mould Expansion On Pattern Allowances In Sand Casting Of Steel, Frank E. Peters, Robert Voigt, Shouzhu Ou, Christoph Beckermann
Frank E. Peters
For steel castings produced in sand moulds, the expansion of the sand and have a significant impact on the final size and shape of the casting. Experiments are conducted using a cylindrical casting to study this effect for different sands (silica and zircon) and different sand binder systems (phenolic urethane and sodium silicate). The type of sand has a significant effect on the final casting dimensions, in particular because the expansion of silica sand can be irreversible. The sand expansion effect is enhanced by the presence of sodium silicate binder. In addition, the size of the core, which in the ...
Visual Inspection Of Casting Surfaces, 2016 Iowa State University
Visual Inspection Of Casting Surfaces, Frank E. Peters, Richard T. Stone, Kristopher Patrick Watts, Peihan Zhong, Alexander John Clemons
Frank E. Peters
Visual inspection of casting surfaces is a critical processing step in the metalcasting process. Measurement error can be significant, causing overprocessing or poor quality received by the customer. Many factors affect the human operator's ability to effectively inspect castings. Cognitive ability is one such factor, which can be identified through a simple test. Rastering training was shown to improve the percentage of casting surface which gets inspected. Discrimination between acceptable and unacceptable surfaces continues to be problematic.
Multi-Agent Distributed Optimization Via Inexact Consensus Admm, 2016 National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Multi-Agent Distributed Optimization Via Inexact Consensus Admm, Tsung-Hui Chang, Mingyi Hong, Xiangfeng Wang
Multi-agent distributed consensus optimization problems arise in many signal processing applications. Recently, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) has been used for solving this family of problems. ADMM based distributed optimization method is shown to have faster convergence rate compared with classic methods based on consensus subgradient, but can be computationally expensive, especially for problems with complicated structures or large dimensions. In this paper, we propose lowcomplexity algorithms that can reduce the overall computational cost of consensus ADMM by an order of magnitude for certain large-scale problems. Central to the proposed algorithms is the use of an inexact step ...
Evaluation Of Designer Feedback Systems In Design For Manufacturability, 2016 Iowa State University
Evaluation Of Designer Feedback Systems In Design For Manufacturability, Prashant Barnawal, Michael C. Dorneich, Frank E. Peters, Matthew C. Frank
Matthew C. Frank
The research study introduces a new designer feedback tool called Three Dimensional Integrated Feedback (3DIF) tool to convey manufacturability analysis results early in the conceptual design phase. The study evaluates and compares different modalities of manufacturability feedback given to de-sign engineers. The conceptual design stage is critical in deter-mining the feasibility of the whole production process. Providing designers with early suggestions and feedback about the manu-facturability of product designs will help to improve their design and save time and cost to manufacture. Feedback given to the design engineers could be in any form text, 2D markups, 3D data or verbal ...
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Biobased Chemicals Production Via Integrated Catalytic Processing, 2016 Iowa State University
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Biobased Chemicals Production Via Integrated Catalytic Processing, Tristan Brown, Yanan Zhang, Guiping Hu, Robert C. Brown
We evaluate the economic feasibility of a fast pyrolysis facility producing biobased commodity chemicals based on various manifestations of Integrated Catalytic Processing (ICP). Five scenarios are analyzed: fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of whole pyrolysis oil (WPO); one-stage hydrotreating and FCC of WPO; FCC of the aqueous phase of pyrolysis oil (APPO); one-stage hydrotreating and FCC of the APPO; and two-stage hydrotreating followed by FCC of the APPO.
We calculate the internal rate of return (IRR) for each scenario as functions of the costs of feedstock, hydrogen, and catalyst, and projected revenues for the facility. The assumed feedstock cost is $83 ...
Technoeconomic Sensitivity Of Biobased Hydrocarbon Production Via Fast Pyrolysis To Government Incentive Programs, Tristan Brown, Guiping Hu
Fast pyrolysis and upgrading is a promising thermochemical pathway that produces pyrolysis oil that can be upgraded via hydroprocessing into hydrocarbon-based transportation fuels (drop-in biofuels). The internal rate of return (IRR) of a fast pyrolysis and upgrading facility is a function of feedstock cost and projected revenues. We calculate the IRR of a fast pyrolysis and upgrading facility under six different policy scenarios: (1)a baseline scenario in which the facility receives no government support; (2)a scenario in which cap-and-trade (H.R. 2454) is enacted with both carbon price and offsets; (3)a scenario in which the Volumetric Ethanol ...
Potential Competition For Biomass Between Biopower And Biofuel Under Rps And Rfs2, 2016 Iowa State University
Potential Competition For Biomass Between Biopower And Biofuel Under Rps And Rfs2, Mohammad Rahdar, Lizhi Wang, Guiping Hu
Driven by Renewable Portfolio Standards and Renewable Fuel Standard, biopower generation and biofuel production will increasingly compete for the same biomass resource over the next two decades. We use a linear programming model to study this competition as well as other interactions between the two policies. Our model describes the U.S. renewable energy portfolio by explicitly accounting for all major renewable energy resources, unique resource availability and policy requirements in all 50 states and Washington, DC, and policy deadlines set by all RPS and RFS2 policies within a 2013-2035 modeling horizon. Our modeling results were used to address five ...
Supply Chain Design Under Uncertainty For Advanced Biofuel Production Based On Bio-Oil Gasification, 2016 Iowa State University
Supply Chain Design Under Uncertainty For Advanced Biofuel Production Based On Bio-Oil Gasification, Qi Li, Guiping Hu
An advanced biofuels supply chain is proposed to reduce biomass transportation costs and take advantage of the economics of scale for a gasification facility. In this supply chain, biomass is converted to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, and after bio-oil gasification, the syngas is upgraded to transportation fuels at a centralized biorefinery. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to maximize biofuel producers' annual profit considering uncertainties in the supply chain for this pathway. The first stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants as well as the centralized ...
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Advanced Biofuel Production Based On Bio-Oil Gasification, 2016 Iowa State University
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Advanced Biofuel Production Based On Bio-Oil Gasification, Qi Li, Yanan Zhang, Guiping Hu
This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of a hybrid production pathway combining fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification. The conversion process is simulated with Aspen Plus® for a 2000 t d-1 facility. Techno-economic analysis of this fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification pathway has been conducted to assess the economic feasibility. A total capital investment of $438 million has been estimated and the minimum fuel selling price (MSP) is $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis shows that the MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return, fuel yield, biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital investment. Monte-Carlo simulation ...
Market Competition And Social Welfare Analysis For E10 And E85 With A 1 Game Theory Model, 2016 Iowa State University
Market Competition And Social Welfare Analysis For E10 And E85 With A 1 Game Theory Model, Minwen Yang, Guiping Hu
With the increasing concerns about the petroleum reserve, and the global warming, people have been looking for renewable and environmental friendly energy sources to supplement and replace fossil fuels. Ethanol has been an appropriate substitute to fossil fuels. Currently, E10 and E85 are two of the main transportation fuels with ethanol and they are competing in the market. This study investigates the competition between E10 and E85 with an oligopoly Cournot model and derives three indicators from the equilibrium to measure the performance of the market: E85's market share, E85 price premium which indicate the consumers' additional willingness to ...
Supply Chain Design And Operational Planning Models For Biomass To Drop-In Fuel Production, 2016 Iowa State University
Supply Chain Design And Operational Planning Models For Biomass To Drop-In Fuel Production, Leilei Zhang, Guiping Hu
Renewable fuel is playing an increasingly important role as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified pyrolysis based platforms as promising biofuel production pathways. In this paper, we present a general biofuel supply chain model with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) methodology to investigate the biofuel supply chain facility location, facility capacity at strategic levels, and biofuel production decisions at operational levels. In the model, we accommodate different biomass supplies and biofuel demands with biofuel supply shortage penalty and storage cost. The model is then applied to corn stover fast pyrolysis pathway ...
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Monosaccharide Production Via Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, 2016 Iowa State University
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Monosaccharide Production Via Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Yanan Zhang, Tristan Brown, Guiping Hu, Robert C. Brown
The economic feasibility of a facility producing monosaccharides, hydrogen and transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis and upgrading pathway was evaluated by modeling a 2000 dry metric ton biomass/day facility using Aspen PlusÂ®. Equipment sizing and cost were based on Aspen Economic EvaluationÂ® software. The results indicate that monosaccharide production capacity could reach 338 metric tons/day. Co-product yields of hydrogen and gasoline were 23.4 and 141 metric tons/day, respectively. The total installed equipment and total capital costs were estimated to be $210 million and $326 million, respectively. A facility internal rate of return (IRR) of 11.4 ...
Life Cycle Assessment Of The Production Of Hydrogen And Transportation Fuels From Corn Stover Via Fast Pyrolysis, 2016 Iowa State University
Life Cycle Assessment Of The Production Of Hydrogen And Transportation Fuels From Corn Stover Via Fast Pyrolysis, Yanan Zhang, Guiping Hu, Robert C. Brown
This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET model database and a U.S Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input ...
Mild Catalytic Pyrolysis Of Biomass For Production Of Transportation Fuels: A Techno-Economic Analysis, 2016 Iowa State University
Mild Catalytic Pyrolysis Of Biomass For Production Of Transportation Fuels: A Techno-Economic Analysis, Rajeeva Thilakaratne, Tristan Brown, Yihua Li, Guiping Hu, Robert C. Brown
A techno-economic analysis of mild catalytic pyrolysis (CP) of woody biomass followed by upgrading of the partially deoxygenated pyrolysis liquid is performed to assess this pathway’s economic feasibility for the production of hydrocarbon-based biofuels. The process achieves a fuel yield of 17.7 wt% and an energy conversion of 39%. Deoxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid requires 2.7 wt% hydrogen while saturation of aromatic rings in the pyrolysis liquid increases total hydrogen consumption to 6.4 wt%. Total project investment is $457 million with annual operating costs of $142 million for a 2000 metric ton per day facility. A ...
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Fast Pyrolysis And Upgrading Facilities Employing Two Depolymerization Pathways, 2016 Iowa State University
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Fast Pyrolysis And Upgrading Facilities Employing Two Depolymerization Pathways, Yanan Zhang, Tristan Brown, Guiping Hu, Robert C. Brown
We evaluate the economic feasibility of fast pyrolysis and upgrading facilities 11 employing either of two depolymerization pathways: two-stage hydrotreating 12 followed by a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) stage or single-stage hydrotreating 13 followed by a hydrocracking stage. In the hydrotreating/FCC pathway, two options 14 are available as the hydrogen source for hydrotreating: merchant hydrogen or 15 hydrogen from natural gas reforming. The primary products of the hydrotreating/FCC 16 pathway are commodity chemicals whereas the primary products for the 17 hydrotreating/hydrocracking pathway are transportation fuels and hydrogen. The two 18 pathways are modeled using Aspen Plus® for ...
Regional Differences In The Economic Feasibility Of Advanced Biorefineries: Fast Pyrolysis And Hydroprocessing, 2016 Iowa State University
Regional Differences In The Economic Feasibility Of Advanced Biorefineries: Fast Pyrolysis And Hydroprocessing, Tristan Brown, Rajeeva Thilakaratne, Robert C. Brown, Guiping Hu
This analysis identifies the sensitivity of the fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing pathway to facility location. The economic feasibility of a 2000 metric ton per day fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing biorefinery is quantified based on 30 different state-specific facility locations within the United States. We calculate the 20-year internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) for each location scenario as a function of state- and region-specific factors. This analysis demonstrates that biorefinery IRR and NPV are very sensitive to bio-oil yield, feedstock cost, location capital cost factor, and transportation fuel market value. The IRRs and NPVs generated for ...
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Co-Located Corn Grain And Corn Stover Ethanol Plants, 2016 Iowa State University
Techno-Economic Analysis Of Co-Located Corn Grain And Corn Stover Ethanol Plants, Longwen Ou, Tristan Brown, Rajeeva Thilakaratne, Guiping Hu, Robert C. Brown
The goal of this paper is to evaluate the economic performance of co-located corn grain ethanol (Gen 1) and cellulosic ethanol (Gen 2) facilities. We present six scenarios to evaluate the impact of stover-to-grain mass (SGM) ratios on overall minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). For the Gen 1 plant, MESP is $3.18/ gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) while for the Gen 2 plant it is $5.64/GGE. Co-located Gen 1 and Gen 2 plants operating at the lowest SGM ratio of 0.4 generates the lowest overall MESP of $3.73/GGE as well as the highest MESP for ...
Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Governmental Policies On The Biofuels Supply Chain Design Under Uncertainty, 2016 Iowa State University
Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Governmental Policies On The Biofuels Supply Chain Design Under Uncertainty, Narges Kazemzadeh, Guiping Hu
There is a growing interest in the use of biomass as a source of energy around the world. In the United States, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) sets policies and mandates to support the production and consumption of biofuels. However, the uncertainties associated with the governmental and local policies and regulations on both production and consumption have imposed significant impacts on the biofuel supply chain network. This study aims to determine the optimal design of the biofuel supply chain to maximize annual profit under the impacts of governmental policies. In this study, two-stage stochastic programming models are developed in which ...