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Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman 2021 Lesley University

Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Language in and of the theatre, with its palate of variegated writing styles and playwrights from throughout time, has the potential to be harnessed, focused, and systematized for use as a therapeutic tool within drama therapy – the field’s artistic medium. Drama therapy could benefit from having a specific medium germane to its artform which has the potential to provide practitioners with a common resource and means of communication, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning, as well as align the field with other creative arts therapies. Language encompasses all forms of human communication – speaking, writing, signing, gesturing, expressing facially – and voice ...


Shifting The Perspectival Landscape: Methods For Encoding, Identifying, And Selecting Perspectives, Carolyn Jane Anderson 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Shifting The Perspectival Landscape: Methods For Encoding, Identifying, And Selecting Perspectives, Carolyn Jane Anderson

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the semantics and pragmatics of perspectival expressions. Perspective, or point-of-view, encompasses an individual’s thoughts, perceptions, and location. Many expressions in natural language have components of their meanings that shift depending on whose perspective they are evaluated against. In this dissertation, I explore two sets of questions relating to perspective sensitivity. The first set of questions relate to how perspective is encoded in the semantics of perspectival expressions. The second set of questions relate to how conversation participants treat perspectival expressions: the speaker’s selection of a perspective and the listener’s identification of the speaker’s ...


The Non-Uniformity Of Chinese Wh-Indefinites Through The Lens Of Algebraic Structure, Zhuo Chen 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Non-Uniformity Of Chinese Wh-Indefinites Through The Lens Of Algebraic Structure, Zhuo Chen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates the non-uniformity of Chinese wh-indefinites. The different algebraic structures associated with the different wh-indefinites are shown to play a signif- icant role in determining their possible readings. Specifically, those wh-indefinites that are associated with an unordered algebraic structure can give rise to an epistemic reading in both positive and negative sentences. Those wh-indefinites that are associated with a structure of total ordering never have an epistemic reading. They have an existential reading in posi- tive sentences and generate an insignificance reading under a clausemate negation. Shenme ‘what’ is a special in that it straddles both types of ...


‘Most’ Vs ‘More Than Half’: An Alternatives Explanation, Fausto Carcassi, Jakub Szymanik 2021 University of Amsterdam

‘Most’ Vs ‘More Than Half’: An Alternatives Explanation, Fausto Carcassi, Jakub Szymanik

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

While 'most' and 'more than half' are generally assumed to be truth-conditionally equivalent, the former is usually interpreted as conveying greater proportions than the latter. Previous work has attempted to explain this difference in terms of pragmatic strengthening or variation in meanings. In this paper, we propose a novel explanation that keeps the truth-conditions equivalence. We support this explanation with a computational model of usage in the Rational Speech Act framework. We find that the difference in typical proportions associated with the two expressions can be explained with previously independently motivated semantic and pragmatic mechanisms.


Vowel Harmony Viewed As Error-Correcting Code, Yvo Meeres, Tommi A. Pirinen 2021 University of Hamburg, Germany

Vowel Harmony Viewed As Error-Correcting Code, Yvo Meeres, Tommi A. Pirinen

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Robustness reduces the risk of information loss. At present the notion of error-correcting codes (ECCs) is used to achieve robustness in technical fields only. Viewing fault-tolerant natural systems as systems equipped with error-correcting codes permits a formal comparison of natural and technical robustness.

Instancing natural language (NL), we show differences in technical and natural error-correcting approaches. By picking a specific grammar phenomenon which some NLs exhibit – vowel harmony (VH) – we show that (1) VH can be formalized as an ECC as well as (2) VH adds to the robustness of its NL. We provide empirical as well as formal evidence ...


Every Ambiguity Isn’T Syntactic In Nature: Testing The Rational Speech Act Model Of Scope Ambiguity, Sherry Yong Chen, Bob van Tiel 2021 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Every Ambiguity Isn’T Syntactic In Nature: Testing The Rational Speech Act Model Of Scope Ambiguity, Sherry Yong Chen, Bob Van Tiel

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Utterances like ‘Every guest didn’t leave’ are ambiguous between a reading according to which no guest left and a reading according to which not all of the guests left. This ambiguity is often explained by assuming that ‘every-not’ utterances have two different syntactic parses. However, experimental studies have shown that pragmatic factors, such as prior probabilities and the question under discussion, also play an important role in the interpretation of ambiguous ‘every-not’ utterances. Recently, Scontras and Pearl (2020) put forward a probabilistic model of ambiguity resolution that makes it possible to quantify the relative contribution of syntactic and pragmatic ...


Predicting Scalar Inferences From "Or" To "Not Both" Using Neural Sentence Encoders, Elissa Li, Sebastian Schuster, Judith Degen 2021 Stanford University

Predicting Scalar Inferences From "Or" To "Not Both" Using Neural Sentence Encoders, Elissa Li, Sebastian Schuster, Judith Degen

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


The Occurrence Of Fluency Disorders In Individuals With Down Syndrome And Autism Spectrum Disorders, Julia Thomas 2021 The University of Akron

The Occurrence Of Fluency Disorders In Individuals With Down Syndrome And Autism Spectrum Disorders, Julia Thomas

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Including a comprehensive literature review of research studies in fluency disorders, this project will aim to observe how stuttering and fluency disorders affects individuals with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders. The literature reviews will include case studies where the goal was to add techniques to everyday speech which reduced the overall occurrence of stuttering behavior and the negative psychosocial impacts on the individuals in the case studies. After thorough review of the case studies and other related literature, two surveys will be developed for possible administration to caretakers for people with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders who stutter ...


The Emptiness Of The Present: Fronting Constructions As A Window To The Semantics Of Tense, Petr Kusliy 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Emptiness Of The Present: Fronting Constructions As A Window To The Semantics Of Tense, Petr Kusliy

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation is devoted to the temporal interpretation of fronting constructions in English and the phenomenon of the Sequence of Tense. It provides and analyzes previously unobserved data from verb phrase fronting constructions in which the simultaneous interpretation of a present tense embedded under a matrix past tense is available. These data are theoretically unexpected and challenging because most theories of English tense disallow this interpretation for Present-under-Past configurations.

An account that captures the new data is proposed. It establishes a connection between the simultaneous interpretation of Present-under-Past and the mode of semantic composition between a verb and its complement ...


Talking About Her(Self): Ambiguity Avoidance And Principle B. A Theoretical And Psycholinguistic Investigation Of Romanian Pronouns, Rudmila-Rodica Ivan 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Talking About Her(Self): Ambiguity Avoidance And Principle B. A Theoretical And Psycholinguistic Investigation Of Romanian Pronouns, Rudmila-Rodica Ivan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation answers a deceivingly simple question: why can her in Hermione talked about her refer to the sentence subject in Romanian, but not in English? The Romanian facts, which are surprising for both classic and competition-based accounts of the Binding Theory over the last 40 odd years, bring us to the following overarching question: what are the constraints on pronominal reference? To address these main questions, I carry out a psycholinguistic investigation of Romanian pronouns and argue that the distribution and interpretation of pronominal forms is jointly determined by pragmatic and morphosyntactic constraints.

I discuss evidence from four experiments ...


Representing Context: Presupposition Triggers And Focus-Sensitivity, Alexander Goebel 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Representing Context: Presupposition Triggers And Focus-Sensitivity, Alexander Goebel

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the role of Focus-sensitivity for a typology of presupposition triggers. The central hypothesis is that Focus-sensitive triggers require a linguistic antecedent in the discourse model, whereas presuppositions of triggers lacking Focus-sensitivity are satisfied as entailments of the Common Ground. This hypothesis is supported by experimental evidence from two borne out predictions. First, Focus-sensitive triggers are sensitive to the salience of the antecedent satisfying their presupposition, as operationalized via the Question Under Discussion, and lead to interference-type effects, while triggers lacking Focus-sensitivity are indifferent to the QUD-structure. Second, Focus-sensitive triggers are harder to globally accommodate than triggers lacking ...


Language Learning From The Developmental And Neurocognitive Perspective: An Examination Of The Impact Of Music On Second Language Acquisition, Shelby Grimm 2020 Murray State University

Language Learning From The Developmental And Neurocognitive Perspective: An Examination Of The Impact Of Music On Second Language Acquisition, Shelby Grimm

Honors College Theses

This literature review aims to analyze the influence of music as a learning tool throughout the process of second language acquisition. Through the compilation and analysis of recent research conducted on the academic, cultural, and linguistic impacts of music on the four modes of language, which include reading, speaking, writing, and listening, this thesis will demonstrate the effects of incorporating music into the second language learning curriculum. Definitions of both music and language, as well as a description of the components of both areas will be included. An examination of the neurocognitive relationship between music and language, as well as ...


La Dialogicidad En La Tesis Doctoral Y El Artículo De Investigación Escritos En Inglés Y Español En Medicina, David Sánchez-Jiménez 2020 CUNY New York City College of Technology

La Dialogicidad En La Tesis Doctoral Y El Artículo De Investigación Escritos En Inglés Y Español En Medicina, David Sánchez-Jiménez

Publications and Research

Resumen

Esta investigación presenta una perspectiva intercultural (español e inglés) en el ámbito de la escritura científica médica sobre la interacción que ocurre entre el escritor y la audiencia que recibe el texto. De modo más específico, se estudian las diferencias dialógicas que ocurren en los géneros de la tesis doctoral y el artículo de investigación en Medicina desde el modelo metadiscursivo interpersonal propuesto por Hyland (2005, 2008). El corpus se compone de 40 textos, divididos en 20 escritos expertos (artículos) y 20 de posgrado (tesis). Se analizan los rasgos pragmalingüísticos que contribuyen a la construcción y la negociación de ...


On The Acquisition Of The Aspects In Italian, Angeliek van Hout, Bart Hollebrandse 2020 Groningen University

On The Acquisition Of The Aspects In Italian, Angeliek Van Hout, Bart Hollebrandse

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


Perfect And Perfective Aspect In African-American English, J. Michael Terry 2020 University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Perfect And Perfective Aspect In African-American English, J. Michael Terry

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


Quantification Without Qualification Without Plausible Dissent, Koji Sugisaki, Miwa Isobe 2020 University of Connecticut

Quantification Without Qualification Without Plausible Dissent, Koji Sugisaki, Miwa Isobe

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


Two Positions With Distinct Semantic Interpretations In Asl, Christian Rathmann 2020 The University of Texas at Austin

Two Positions With Distinct Semantic Interpretations In Asl, Christian Rathmann

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


The Scopal Properties Of Distributive Quantifier Phrases In Brazilian Portuguese, Esmeralda Vailati Negrão 2020 Universidade de São Paulo

The Scopal Properties Of Distributive Quantifier Phrases In Brazilian Portuguese, Esmeralda Vailati Negrão

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


Genericity And The Denotation Of Common Nouns In Brazilian Portuguese, Ana Müller 2020 University of São Paulo

Genericity And The Denotation Of Common Nouns In Brazilian Portuguese, Ana Müller

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


A Salish Stage In The Acquisition Of English Determiners: Unfamiliar 'Definites', Lisa Matthewson, Tim Bryant, Tom Roeper 2020 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

A Salish Stage In The Acquisition Of English Determiners: Unfamiliar 'Definites', Lisa Matthewson, Tim Bryant, Tom Roeper

Semantics of Under-Represented Languages in the Americas

No abstract provided.


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