Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Forensic Science and Technology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,043 Full-Text Articles 1,401 Authors 551,775 Downloads 65 Institutions

All Articles in Forensic Science and Technology

Faceted Search

1,043 full-text articles. Page 6 of 44.

Dna Mixture Statistics Using A Likelihood Ratio Software Tool: Effect Of Variations In Drop-Out Rates And Number Of Contributors, Felicia M. Lucero 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Dna Mixture Statistics Using A Likelihood Ratio Software Tool: Effect Of Variations In Drop-Out Rates And Number Of Contributors, Felicia M. Lucero

Student Theses

Complex DNA mixtures can be very probative evidence, but comparisons to a person of interest can be affected by allelic drop-out and uncertainty regarding the number of individuals having contributed DNA to a sample. Scientific organizations such as the International Society of Forensic Genetics (Gill et al., 2006) recommend that likelihood ratios should be used to provide a statistical weight when a positive association is made between the DNA profile of a person of interest and an evidentiary DNA sample. To this effect the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) developed a software program, Forensic Statistical Tool ...


Evaluation Of A Novel Dna Collection Matrix Designed To Improve Recovery Of Touch Dna From Non-Porous Surfaces, Eric Ramirez 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Evaluation Of A Novel Dna Collection Matrix Designed To Improve Recovery Of Touch Dna From Non-Porous Surfaces, Eric Ramirez

Student Theses

The collection of touch DNA from evidence has been a challenge in the field of Forensic Biology for decades. There are numerous collection protocols, substrates, and solutions that have been used to varying levels of success. Currently, no single method or substrate stands out as the single most effective collection protocol. The Gene Link Omni Matrix™ K105 solution is a novel collection method that can be sprayed onto the surface of non-porous evidence. The matrix dries into a film, capturing cells and cell-free DNA which can be scraped off and collected into a tube. During extraction, the matrix dissolves into ...


Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui

Student Theses

Environmental factors, such as heavy metal exposures, have been suggested to have an impact not only on neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson’s disease, but also on psychostimulants abuse and their toxicity. In this study, two questions were addressed: 1) effects of mercuric chloride on parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced cytotoxicity and 2) effects of mercuric chloride on cell surface dopamine transporter. Pheochromocytorma cells (PC12) were treated with various concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.02~2.0 ppm) for 4 hours with and without 0.1 mM MPP+. Significant potentiation of toxicity was observed when there was co-treatment with 0 ...


Catching Killers With Consumer Genetic Information, Angela Hackstadt 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Catching Killers With Consumer Genetic Information, Angela Hackstadt

University Libraries Faculty Scholarship

In April 2018, Joseph James D'Angelo was arrested as a suspect in the Golden State Killer case. DNA evidence collected at a 1980 crime scene finally shed light on the murderer's identity in early 2018 when investigators turned to GEDMatch, a service that allows users to upload and share DNA data obtained from consumer genetic tests. Consumer genetic testing, DNA collection, and familial DNA searching all raise ethical and privacy concerns. If investigators are using genetic genealogy to solve cold cases, where does that leave consumers?


A University-Based Forensics Training Center As A Regional Outreach, Education, And Research Activity, Rayford B. Vaughn, David A. Dampier 2019 Marshall University

A University-Based Forensics Training Center As A Regional Outreach, Education, And Research Activity, Rayford B. Vaughn, David A. Dampier

David Dampier

This paper describes a university-based Forensics Training Center (FTC) established by a Department of Justice grant for the purpose of improving the ability of state and local law enforcement in the Southeastern part of the United States to address the rising incidence of computer based crime. The FTC effort is described along with supporting evidence of its need. The program is not only a service activity, but also contributes to the Mississippi State University (MSU) security program pedagogy, and research effort.


Forensicloud: An Architecture For Digital Forensic Analysis In The Cloud, Cody Miller, Dae Glendowne, David Dampier, Kendall Blaylock 2019 Marshall University

Forensicloud: An Architecture For Digital Forensic Analysis In The Cloud, Cody Miller, Dae Glendowne, David Dampier, Kendall Blaylock

David Dampier

The amount of data that must be processed in current digital forensic examinations continues to rise. Both the volume and diversity of data are obstacles to the timely completion of forensic investigations. Additionally, some law enforcement agencies do not have the resources to handle cases of even moderate size. To address these issues we have developed an architecture for a cloud-based distributed processing platform we have named Forensicloud. This architecture is designed to reduce the time taken to process digital evidence by leveraging the power of a high performance computing platform and by adapting existing tools to operate within this ...


A Method To Determine Area Of Origin Of Blood Spatter Patterns With Curved Trajectories And Statistical Uncertainties, Daniel Attinger 2019 Iowa State University

A Method To Determine Area Of Origin Of Blood Spatter Patterns With Curved Trajectories And Statistical Uncertainties, Daniel Attinger

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Processing Stamp Bags For Latent Prints: Impact Of Rubric Selection And Gray-Scaling On Experimental Results, B. Barnes, J. Clark, J. Kadane, M. Priestley, D. Tator, D. Wauthier 2019 Allegheny County Office of the Medical Examiner

Processing Stamp Bags For Latent Prints: Impact Of Rubric Selection And Gray-Scaling On Experimental Results, B. Barnes, J. Clark, J. Kadane, M. Priestley, D. Tator, D. Wauthier

CSAFE Publications

We report data on two open issues in our previous experimentation seeking an effective method for development of latent prints on glassine drug bags: (1) the choice of rubric to assess the quality of fingerprints and (2) the choice of whether to use color or gray-scale images. Two research projects were performed to evaluate the impact of the rubric choice and the color adjustments applied. The Dove rubric is preferable to the modified rubric previously used. Analysts report a more uniform application and a more thorough analysis resulting in an upward trend in scores. Although gray-scaling in experimentation is necessary ...


Latent Fingerprint Essentials, William C. Thompson 2019 University of California, Irvine

Latent Fingerprint Essentials, William C. Thompson

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Haplotype Analysis For Irish Ancestry, Heather Miller Coyle, Robert Whiting 2019 University of New Haven

Haplotype Analysis For Irish Ancestry, Heather Miller Coyle, Robert Whiting

Forensic Science Publications

Forensic haplotype analysis of the male Y chromosome is currently used to establish the number of male donors in sexual assaults, the number of male bleeders in blood pattern analysis, and for ancestry correlation to genetic founder populations in biogeographic studies. In forensic laboratory applications, its primary use is for DNA profile generation with trace amounts of male DNA in the presence of excess female DNA (e.g. spermatozoa identification, male component of fingernail scrapings). Our study supports the potential use of the Y chromosome in a “dragnet” approach (most haplotypes are unique) similar to that described by Kayser in ...


Research Toward A Partially-Automated, And Crime Specific Digital Triage Process Model, Gary Cantrell, David Dampier, Yoginder S. Dandass, Nan Niu, Chris Bogen 2019 Marshall University

Research Toward A Partially-Automated, And Crime Specific Digital Triage Process Model, Gary Cantrell, David Dampier, Yoginder S. Dandass, Nan Niu, Chris Bogen

David Dampier

The digital forensic process as traditionally laid out begins with the collection, duplication, and authentication of every piece of digital media prior to examination. These first three phases of the digital forensic process are by far the most costly. However, complete forensic duplication is standard practice among digital forensic laboratories.

The time it takes to complete these stages is quickly becoming a serious problem. Digital forensic laboratories do not have the resources and time to keep up with the growing demand for digital forensic examinations with the current methodologies. One solution to this problem is the use of pre-examination techniques ...


An Exploratory Perception Analysis Of Consensual And Nonconsensual Image Sharing, Jin Ree Lee, Steven Downing 2019 Bridgewater State University

An Exploratory Perception Analysis Of Consensual And Nonconsensual Image Sharing, Jin Ree Lee, Steven Downing

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Limited research has considered individual perceptions of moral distinctions between consensual and nonconsensual intimate image sharing, as well as decision making parameters around why others might engage in such behavior. The current study conducted a perception analysis using mixed-methods online surveys administered to 63 participants, inquiring into their perceptions of why individuals engage in certain behaviors surrounding the sending of intimate images from friends and partners. The study found that respondents favored the concepts of (1) sharing images with romantic partners over peers; (2) sharing non-intimate images over intimate images; and (3) sharing images with consent rather than without it ...


Blockchain Security: Situational Crime Prevention Theory And Distributed Cyber Systems, Nicholas J. Blasco, Nicholas A. Fett 2019 Bridgewater State University

Blockchain Security: Situational Crime Prevention Theory And Distributed Cyber Systems, Nicholas J. Blasco, Nicholas A. Fett

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The authors laid the groundwork for analyzing the crypto-economic incentives of interconnected blockchain networks and utilize situational crime prevention theory to explain how more secure systems can be developed. Blockchain networks utilize smaller blockchains (often called sidechains) to increase throughput in larger networks. Identified are several disadvantages to using sidechains that create critical exposures to the assets locked on them. Without security being provided by the mainchain in the form of validated exits, sidechains or statechannels which have a bridge or mainchain asset representations are at significant risk of attack. The inability to have a sufficiently high cost to attack ...


The Future Of Cybercrime Prevention Strategies: Human Factors And A Holistic Approach To Cyber Intelligence, Sinchul Back, Jennifer LaPrade 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Future Of Cybercrime Prevention Strategies: Human Factors And A Holistic Approach To Cyber Intelligence, Sinchul Back, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

New technology is rapidly emerging to fight increasing cybercrime threats, however, there is one important component of a cybercrime that technology cannot always impact and that is human behavior. Unfortunately, humans can be vulnerable and easily deceived making technological advances alone inadequate in the cybercrime fight. Instead, we must take a more holistic approach by using technology and better understanding the human factors that make cybercrime possible. In this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, three studies contribute to our knowledge of human factors and emerging cybercrime technology so that more effective comprehensive cybercrime prevention strategies ...


A Test Of Structural Model For Fear Of Crime In Social Networking Sites, Seong-Sik Lee, Kyung-shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Elizabeth Englander 2019 Bridgewater State University

A Test Of Structural Model For Fear Of Crime In Social Networking Sites, Seong-Sik Lee, Kyung-Shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Elizabeth Englander

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This study constructed a structural model which consists of social demographic factors, experience of victimization, opportunity factors, and social context factors to explain the public’s fear of crime on social networking sites (SNS). The model is based on the risk interpretation model, which predicts that these factors influence users’ fear of crime victimization. Using data from 486 university students in South Korea, an empirically-tested model suggests that sex and age have direct and significant effects on fear of victimization, supporting the vulnerability hypothesis. Among opportunity factors, the level of personal information and the number of offending peers have significant ...


Perceptions And Estimates Of Error Rates In Forensic Science: A Survey Of Forensic Analysts, Daniel C. Murrie, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Kellyn Biasdell 2019 University of Virginia

Perceptions And Estimates Of Error Rates In Forensic Science: A Survey Of Forensic Analysts, Daniel C. Murrie, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Kellyn Biasdell

CSAFE Publications

Every scientific technique features some error, and legal standards for the admissibility of scientific evidence (e.g., Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1993; Kumho Tire Co v. Carmichael, 1999) guide trial courts to consider known error rates. However, recent reviews of forensic science conclude that error rates for some common techniques are not well-documented or even established (e.g., NAS, 2009; PCAST, 2016). Furthermore, many forensic analysts have historically denied the presence of error in their field. Therefore, it is important to establish what forensic scientists actually know or believe about errors rates in their disciplines. We surveyed 183 ...


What Do Forensic Analysts Consider Relevant To Their Decision Making?, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Daniel C. Murrie, Itiel E. Dror 2019 University of Virginia

What Do Forensic Analysts Consider Relevant To Their Decision Making?, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Daniel C. Murrie, Itiel E. Dror

CSAFE Publications

In response to research demonstrating that irrelevant contextual information can bias forensic science analyses, authorities have increasingly urged laboratories to limit analysts' access to irrelevant and potentially biasing information (Dror and Cole (2010) [3]; National Academy of Sciences (2009) [18]; President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2016) [22]; UK Forensic Science Regulator (2015) [26]). However, a great challenge in implementing this reform is determining which information is task-relevant and which is task-irrelevant. In the current study, we surveyed 183 forensic analysts to examine what they consider relevant versus irrelevant in their forensic analyses. Results revealed that analysts ...


A Microspectra Analysis Of Synthetic Wig Fibers, Jaclyn R. Beshlian 2019 CUNY John Jay College

A Microspectra Analysis Of Synthetic Wig Fibers, Jaclyn R. Beshlian

Student Theses

The goal of this study was to determine whether differentiation between 20 visually similar light brown synthetic wig fibers was possible with the use of a microspectrophotometer (MSP). Visually similar fibers were chosen to display the power of the instrument over the human eye. An MSP is an instrument that has the ability to aid in the analysis of certain microscopical samples. With this particular instrument one is able to collect the absorption and fluorescence spectra of microscopical colored samples without destroying the piece of evidence itself. Prior to any analysis with the MSP, the material of the fibers was ...


Dna Recovery From Handwritten Documents Using A Novel Vacuum Technique, Patrick M. McLaughlin 2019 CUNY John Jay College

Dna Recovery From Handwritten Documents Using A Novel Vacuum Technique, Patrick M. Mclaughlin

Student Theses

Investigations of many crimes such as robberies, kidnappings, and terrorism are often associated with the recovery of a paper document which has been written by the perpetrator. Paper can provide a variety of forensic evidence such as DNA, latent fingermarks, and indented writing. The focus of this study was the collection of probative DNA profiles from the text region of a handwritten note through a vacuum suction device without altering or destroying the document. Collection of DNA evidence was carried out in two separate groups. The first group involved 11 volunteers providing a handwritten note sample with unwashed hands. The ...


An Exploration Of Protein And Dna Components In Fingerprint Residue, Ashley Borrego 2019 CUNY John Jay College

An Exploration Of Protein And Dna Components In Fingerprint Residue, Ashley Borrego

Student Theses

The main focus of this project was to investigate the protein and DNA components in both sebaceous and eccrine fingerprints. This study investigated the relative content of DNA and proteins in eccrine fingerprints to sebaceous fingerprints. All volunteers were instructed to wash and dry their hands prior to depositing parallel thumbprints. Twenty volunteers were instructed to touch their face to produce sebaceous prints, and 5 volunteers were instructed to wear gloves over a heat source to produce sweaty or eccrine prints. Microscopy was used to score the cellular debris of the right fingerprint on a scale of 1-4 based on ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress