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The Recreation Of Wound Patterns Using Various Tissue Simulants For Crime Scene Reconstruction, Breanne Steimle 2020 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

The Recreation Of Wound Patterns Using Various Tissue Simulants For Crime Scene Reconstruction, Breanne Steimle

Forensic Science Master's Projects

Within the field of forensic science, there are limited reliable methods for the simulation of pattern injuries on human skin and tissue that may aid in aspects of crime scene reconstruction. The tissue simulant must be of sufficient integrity for recording blunt force trauma and bite mark impressions, electrocution, cutting, and gunshot wound related injuries for the purpose of re-enactment, court exhibition, and distance determination. For wound reenactments (such as blunt force trauma, bite mark impressions and electrocution), dead skin and tissue from human cadavers do not show wounding patterns that would occur on live tissue. This study examines different ...


Statistical Methods For The Forensic Analysis Of Geolocated Event Data, Christopher Galbraith, Padhraic Smyth, Hal S. Stern 2020 University of California, Irvine

Statistical Methods For The Forensic Analysis Of Geolocated Event Data, Christopher Galbraith, Padhraic Smyth, Hal S. Stern

CSAFE Publications

A common question in forensic analysis is whether two observed data sets originated from the same source or from different sources. Statistical approaches to addressing this question have been widely adopted within the forensics community, particularly for DNA evidence. Here we investigate the application of statistical approaches to same-source forensic questions for spatial event data, such as determining the likelihood that two sets of observed GPS locations were generated by the same individual. We develop two approaches to quantify the strength of evidence in this setting. The first is a likelihood ratio approach based on modeling the spatial event data ...


Psychometric Analysis Of Forensic Examiner Behavior, Amanda Luby, Anjali Mazumder, Brian Junker 2020 Swarthmore College

Psychometric Analysis Of Forensic Examiner Behavior, Amanda Luby, Anjali Mazumder, Brian Junker

CSAFE Publications

Forensic science often involves the comparison of crime-scene evidence to a known-source sample to determine if the evidence and the reference sample came from the same source. Even as forensic analysis tools become increasingly objective and automated, final source identifications are often left to individual examiners’ interpretation of the evidence. Each source identification relies on judgements about the features and quality of the crime-scene evidence that may vary from one examiner to the next. The current approach to characterizing uncertainty in examiners’ decision-making has largely centered around the calculation of error rates aggregated across examiners and identification tasks, without taking ...


Psychometric Analysis Of Forensic Examiner Behavior, Amanda Luby, Anjali Mazumder, Brian Junker 2020 Swarthmore College

Psychometric Analysis Of Forensic Examiner Behavior, Amanda Luby, Anjali Mazumder, Brian Junker

CSAFE Publications

Forensic science often involves the comparison of crime-scene evidence to a known-source sample to determine if the evidence and the reference sample came from the same source. Even as forensic analysis tools become increasingly objective and automated, final source identifications are often left to individual examiners’ interpretation of the evidence. Each source identification relies on judgements about the features and quality of the crime-scene evidence that may vary from one examiner to the next. The current approach to characterizing uncertainty in examiners’ decision-making has largely centered around the calculation of error rates aggregated across examiners and identification tasks, without taking ...


Psychometric Analysis Of Forensic Examiner Behavior, Amanda Luby, Anjali Mazumber, Brian Junker 2020 Swarthmore College

Psychometric Analysis Of Forensic Examiner Behavior, Amanda Luby, Anjali Mazumber, Brian Junker

CSAFE Publications

Forensic science often involves the comparison of crime-scene evidence to a known-source sample to determine if the evidence and the reference sample came from the same source. Even as forensic analysis tools become increasingly objective and automated, final source identifications are often left to individual examiners’ interpretation of the evidence. Each source identification relies on judgements about the features and quality of the crime-scene evidence that may vary from one examiner to the next. The current approach to characterizing uncertainty in examiners’ decision-making has largely centered around the calculation of error rates aggregated across examiners and identification tasks, without taking ...


Quantifying The Similarity Of 2d Images Using Edge Pixels: An Application To The Forensic Comparison Of Footwear Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry 2020 Iowa State University

Quantifying The Similarity Of 2d Images Using Edge Pixels: An Application To The Forensic Comparison Of Footwear Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

We propose a novel method to quantify the similarity between an impression (Q) from an unknown source and a test impression (K) from a known source. Using the property of geometrical congruence in the impressions, the degree of correspondence is quantified using ideas from graph theory and maximum clique (MC). The algorithm uses the x and y coordinates of the edges in the images as the data. We focus on local areas in Q and the corresponding regions in K and extract features for comparison. Using pairs of images with known origin, we train a random forest to classify pairs ...


Statistical Methods For The Forensic Analysis Of Geolocated Event Data, Christopher Galbraith, Padhraic Smyth, Hal S. Stern 2020 University of California, Irvine

Statistical Methods For The Forensic Analysis Of Geolocated Event Data, Christopher Galbraith, Padhraic Smyth, Hal S. Stern

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

A common question in forensic analysis is whether two observed data sets originated from the same source or from different sources. Statistical approaches to addressing this question have been widely adopted within the forensics community, particularly for DNA evidence. Here we investigate the application of statistical approaches to same-source forensic questions for spatial event data, such as determining the likelihood that two sets of observed GPS locations were generated by the same individual. We develop two approaches to quantify the strength of evidence in this setting. The first is a likelihood ratio approach based on modeling the spatial event data ...


Comparing And Implementing Digital Evidence Applications To Reduce Cyber Crime Losses, Colleen Lim 2020 California State University - San Bernardino

Comparing And Implementing Digital Evidence Applications To Reduce Cyber Crime Losses, Colleen Lim

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

A massive problem within the United States is the financial loss that occurs through cybercrime. Before a cybercrime investigation can be solved, there needs to be enough gathered evidence. One way to obtain evidence is through processing the individual’s digital files from any electronic device or source, this is called digital evidence. Digital evidence can be obtained through the use of multiple software such as Forensic Toolkit (FTK), Magnet, or Autopsy. Although each software is used for the same goal, to obtain valuable information that can be used as evidence to support an existing case, there are unique features ...


A Database Of Two-Dimensional Images Of Footwear Outsole Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry 2020 Iowa State University

A Database Of Two-Dimensional Images Of Footwear Outsole Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Footwear outsole images were obtained from 150 pairs of used shoes. The motivation for constructing the database was to enable a statistical analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of shoe outsoles, to understand within shoe (between replicate images of the same shoe) and between shoe variability, and to develop methods for the evaluation of forensic pattern evidence of shoeprints. Since we scanned the outsole of the used shoes, the images capture not only the outsole pattern design but also the marks that arise from wear and tear and that may help identify the shoe that made the impression. Each shoe in ...


Differences In Characteristics Of Criminal Behavior Between Solo And Team Serial Killers, Matthew Woster 2020 National Louis University

Differences In Characteristics Of Criminal Behavior Between Solo And Team Serial Killers, Matthew Woster

Dissertations

Criminal Profiling and classification of serial killers has been an expanding area of research for decades. Recent research has called into question the accuracy and utility of these systems, and calls for further research and development. This study aims to use the Serial Killer Database (SKDB) to examine and classify differences in criminal behavior between serial killers who act alone versus those who act in pairs, groups, or teams. The specific aim of this study is to examine whether there are significant differences between Solo Serial Killers and Team Serial Killers in the Number of Victims, Length of Career, Method ...


Semi-Quantitative Detection Of Signature Peptides In Body Fluids By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Tebah N. Browne 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Semi-Quantitative Detection Of Signature Peptides In Body Fluids By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Tebah N. Browne

Student Theses

This study covers a modified semi-quantitative approach for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) signature peptide detection for body fluid identification. Peptide concentrations were measured based on synthetic peptide standards. Samples were processed with varying trypsin digestion and purification protocols, including a three-hour trypsin digestion and Microcon membrane filtration. The Microcon filtration method generates polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compatible DNA and peptide fractions that can be analyzed without any further purification. Preliminary validation tests covered stains on different substrates, semen/ saliva mixtures, minimum sample volume, and repeatability. All signature peptides in the multiplex were present at different concentrations and varied ...


Investigation Of The History Of Fingerprinting, Advancements In The Field, And Development Of Potential Methods That Could Improve The Detection Of Endogenous And Exogenous Drugs In Latent Prints, Kristen Malloy 2020 University of Mississippi

Investigation Of The History Of Fingerprinting, Advancements In The Field, And Development Of Potential Methods That Could Improve The Detection Of Endogenous And Exogenous Drugs In Latent Prints, Kristen Malloy

Honors Theses

When someone thinks of fingerprinting, they are most likely going to picture how a latent print is matched to the fingerprint of a suspect based on ridge pattern analysis. However, there is much more information that can be obtained from a latent print. The work performed in this thesis focuses the detection of exogenous and endogenous drugs in latent prints. The experiments performed analyzed fingerprints from volunteers that were contaminated with one of three common painkillers: acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and ibuprofen. Three different instruments were tested for this purpose: MALDI-MS, ATR-FTIR, and LC-MS. Based on the results gathered, it ...


Discrimination Of Monozygotic Twins Using Dna Methylation Levels Of One Cpg Site At Chromosome 3, Dino O. Robinson 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Discrimination Of Monozygotic Twins Using Dna Methylation Levels Of One Cpg Site At Chromosome 3, Dino O. Robinson

Student Theses

Conventional STR typing, commonly used in forensics for human identification, poses a problem in criminal cases and paternity disputes involving monozygotic (MZ) twins because they share identical DNA sequences. To date, no routine method is available in forensics to differentiate between individuals of MZ pairs. Recently, epigenetic methods measuring differential DNA methylation patterns have been applied to MZ twin differentiation. In this study, we investigated the potential to identify MZ twins using a previously identified DNA methylation site in chromosome 3, cg18562578, in a sample of 129 MZ and 37 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. We used bisulfite converted saliva DNA ...


Implementation Of A Blind Quality Control Program In A Forensic Laboratory, Callan Hundl, Maddisen Neuman, Alicia Rairden, Preshious Rearden, Peter Stout 2020 Houston Forensic Science Center

Implementation Of A Blind Quality Control Program In A Forensic Laboratory, Callan Hundl, Maddisen Neuman, Alicia Rairden, Preshious Rearden, Peter Stout

CSAFE Publications

A blind quality control (QC) program was successfully developed and implemented in the Toxicology, Seized Drugs, Firearms, Latent Prints (Processing and Comparison), Forensic Biology, and Multimedia (Digital and Audio/Video) sections at the Houston Forensic Science Center (HFSC). The program was put into practice based on recommendations set forth in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report and is conducted in addition to accreditation required annual proficiency tests. The blind QC program allows HFSC to test its entire quality management system and provides a real‐time assessment of the laboratory’s proficiency. To ensure the blind QC cases mimicked real ...


Discrimination Of Soil Organic Matter Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance In Conjunction With Principal Component Analysis, Victoria G. Hsieh 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Discrimination Of Soil Organic Matter Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance In Conjunction With Principal Component Analysis, Victoria G. Hsieh

Student Theses

The characterization of trace evidence is key to the field of forensic science. Trace evidence can take many forms, such as glass, fiber, and soil. Traditionally, forensic soil analysis has been painted as one of the more tedious applications, which conventionally studies the mineral composition of soil samples. In this study, we present another avenue of soil analysis that takes advantage of understudied factor of soil: soil organic matter (SOM). Using both proton (1H NMR) and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) separately and applying principal component analysis (PCA) to both types of spectra, we sought to determine ...


Analysis Of Cannabinoids In Serum By Gc-Ms/Ms, Christie Cannarozzi 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Analysis Of Cannabinoids In Serum By Gc-Ms/Ms, Christie Cannarozzi

Student Theses

Due to recent changes in federal and state legislations, the availability and consumption of cannabis products have increased in the United States. The expanded use of recreational and medicinal cannabis products increases the importance of implementing sensitive and selective instrumental methods in toxicological laboratories, as legal implications may arise in forensic cases, such as driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-validation for the quantitative analysis of cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) in serum by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GCTQ). This method was fully ...


Analyses Of Prosecutorial Power And Discretion In Mississippi: Evaluating Proposals To Address Misconduct And Abuse, Lucy Pruitt 2020 University of Mississippi

Analyses Of Prosecutorial Power And Discretion In Mississippi: Evaluating Proposals To Address Misconduct And Abuse, Lucy Pruitt

Honors Theses

This thesis seeks to create a policy proposal in order to address incidences of prosecutorial misconduct and abuse of discretion in the Mississippi criminal justice system. To do so, the author has summarized and analyzed seven criminal cases in which defendants have become victims of prosecutorial misconduct in order to shed light on the lack of prosecutorial accountability in the state’s criminal justice system. In an attempt to solve the problem, the author has developed a novel grading rubric in order to objectively and systematically analyze and evaluate previously proposed policy recommendations by legal experts and justice organizations. The ...


Error Rates, Likelihood Ratios, And Jury Evaluation Of Forensic Evidence, Brandon L. Garrett, William E. Crozier, Rebecca Grady 2020 Duke University

Error Rates, Likelihood Ratios, And Jury Evaluation Of Forensic Evidence, Brandon L. Garrett, William E. Crozier, Rebecca Grady

CSAFE Publications

Forensic examiners regularly testify in criminal cases, informing the jurors whether crime scene evidence likely came from a source. In this study, we examine the impact of providing jurors with testimony further qualified by error rates and likelihood ratios, for expert testimony concerning two forensic disciplines: commonly used fingerprint comparison evidence and a novel technique involving voice comparison. Our method involved surveying mock jurors in Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 897 laypeople) using written testimony and judicial instructions. Participants were more skeptical of voice analysis and generated fewer “guilty” decisions than for fingerprint analysis (B = 2.00, OR = 7.06, p =


The Costs And Benefits Of Forensics, Brandon L. Garrett 2020 Duke University Law School

The Costs And Benefits Of Forensics, Brandon L. Garrett

CSAFE Publications

Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis famously wrote that states can be laboratories for experimentation in law and policy. Disappointingly, however, the actual laboratories that states and local governments run are not a home for experimentation. We do not have adequate information about either the costs or the benefits of forensic testing or allocation of resources. Increased spending and expansion of crime laboratories has perversely accompanied growing backlogs. Poor quality control has resulted in a series of audits and even closures of crime laboratories. In response to these problems, however, some laboratories and some entire states have developed new approaches toward ...


Digital Forensic Readiness: An Examination Of Law Enforcement Agencies In The State Of Maryland, James B. McNicholas III 2020 Dakota State University

Digital Forensic Readiness: An Examination Of Law Enforcement Agencies In The State Of Maryland, James B. Mcnicholas Iii

Masters Theses & Doctoral Dissertations

Digital forensic readiness within the law enforcement community, especially at the local level, has gone mostly unexplored. As a result, a current lack of data exists that examines the digital forensic readiness of individual agencies, the possibility of proximity relationships, and correlations between readiness and backlogs. This quantitative, crosssectional research study sought to explore these issues by focusing on the state of Maryland. The study resulted in the creation of a digital forensic readiness scoring model that was then used to assign digital forensic readiness scores to thirty (30) of the one-hundred-forty-one (141) law enforcement agencies throughout Maryland. It was ...


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