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Digital Forensics Tools Integration, Alexander D. Kim 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Digital Forensics Tools Integration, Alexander D. Kim

Theses and Dissertations

As technology has become pervasive in our lives we record our daily activities both intentionally and unintentionally. Because of this, the amount of potential evidence found on digital media is staggering. Investigators have had to adapt and change their methods of conducting investigations to address the data volume. Digital forensics examiners current process consists of performing string searches to identify potential evidentiary items. Items of interest must then go through association, target comparison, and event reconstruction processes. These are manual and time consuming tasks for an examiner. This thesis presents a user interface that combines both the string searching capabilities ...


The Effects Of The Evidence Preservation System (Eps) On The Storage Of Dna Samples, Devin Doyle 2020 Duquesne University

The Effects Of The Evidence Preservation System (Eps) On The Storage Of Dna Samples, Devin Doyle

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Storage of collected samples is a concern for all disciplines of forensic science. Without proper storage, especially DNA samples, the DNA will become unusable as it could become degraded, cross contaminated with other samples, etc. Much of the preliminary research revealed that there were very few studies on the storage of forensic samples regarding ideal protocols, let alone those that involved combining as many controlled storage aspects such as temperature, humidity, and UV exposure. This research focuses on the Evidence Preservation System (EPS) by Forensic Solutions, Inc., which is a controlled environment able to be programmed to control temperature and ...


How Do Latent Print Examiners Perceive Proficiency Testing? An Analysis Of Examiner Perceptions, Performance, And Print Quality, Sharon Kelley, Brett O. Gardner, Daniel C. Murrie, Karen D.H. Pan, Karen Kafadar 2020 University of Virginia

How Do Latent Print Examiners Perceive Proficiency Testing? An Analysis Of Examiner Perceptions, Performance, And Print Quality, Sharon Kelley, Brett O. Gardner, Daniel C. Murrie, Karen D.H. Pan, Karen Kafadar

CSAFE Publications

Proficiency testing has the potential to serve several important purposes for crime laboratories and forensic science disciplines. Scholars and other stakeholders, however, have criticized standard proficiency testing procedures since their implementation in laboratories across the United States. Specifically, many experts label current proficiency tests as non-representative of actual casework, at least in part because they are not sufficiently challenging (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4]. In the current study, we surveyed latent print examiners (n = 322) after they completed a Collaborative Testing Services proficiency test about their perceptions of test items. We also evaluated respondents’ test performance and used a ...


Comparison Of Three Similarity Scores For Bullet Lea Matching, Susan Vanderplas, Melissa Nally, Tylor Klep, Cristina Cadevall, Heike Hofmann 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Comparison Of Three Similarity Scores For Bullet Lea Matching, Susan Vanderplas, Melissa Nally, Tylor Klep, Cristina Cadevall, Heike Hofmann

CSAFE Publications

Recent advances in microscopy have made it possible to collect 3D topographic data, enabling more precise virtual comparisons based on the collected 3D data as a supplement to traditional comparison microscopy and 2D photography. Automatic comparison algorithms have been introduced for various scenarios, such as matching cartridge cases[1],[2] or matching bullet striae[3],[4],[5]. One key aspect of validating these automatic comparison algorithms is to evaluate the performance of the algorithm on external tests, that is, using data which were not used to train the algorithm. Here, we present a discussion of the performance of the matching ...


Book Review: The Cyber Risk Handbook By Domenic Antonucci, Stanley Mierzwa 2020 Bridgewater State University

Book Review: The Cyber Risk Handbook By Domenic Antonucci, Stanley Mierzwa

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


A Reverse Digital Divide: Comparing Information Security Behaviors Of Generation Y And Generation Z Adults, Scott M. Debb, Daniel R. Schaffer, Darlene G. Colson 2020 Bridgewater State University

A Reverse Digital Divide: Comparing Information Security Behaviors Of Generation Y And Generation Z Adults, Scott M. Debb, Daniel R. Schaffer, Darlene G. Colson

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

How individuals conceptualize their accountability related to digital technology. There may also be age-based vulnerabilities resulting from personal perceptions about the importance of engaging in best-practices. However, age may not be as critical as experience when it comes to implementation of these behaviors. Using the Cybersecurity Behaviors subscale of the Online Security Behaviors and Beliefs Questionnaire (OSBBQ), this study compared the self-reported cybersecurity attitudes and behaviors across college-aged individuals from Generation Y and Generation Z. Data were derived from a convenience sample of predominantly African-American and Caucasian respondents (N=593) recruited from two public universities in Virginia, USA. Four of ...


An Empirical Study To Determine The Role Of File-System In Modification Of Hash Value, Kumarshankar Raychaudhuri, M. George Christopher 2020 Bridgewater State University

An Empirical Study To Determine The Role Of File-System In Modification Of Hash Value, Kumarshankar Raychaudhuri, M. George Christopher

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

In digital forensics, maintaining the integrity of digital exhibits is an essential aspect of the entire investigation and examination process, which is established using the technique of hashing. Lack of knowledge, while handling digital exhibits, might lead to unintentional alteration of computed hash, rendering the exhibit unacceptable in the court of Law. The hash value of a physical drive does not solely depend upon the data files present in it but also its file-system. Therefore, any change to the file-system might result in the change of the disk hash, even when the data files within it remain untouched. In this ...


Illegal Gambling And Its Operation Via The Darknet And Bitcoin: An Application Of Routine Activity Theory, Sinyong Choi, Kyung-Shick Choi, Yesim Sungu-Eryilmaz, Hee-Kyung Park 2020 Bridgewater State University

Illegal Gambling And Its Operation Via The Darknet And Bitcoin: An Application Of Routine Activity Theory, Sinyong Choi, Kyung-Shick Choi, Yesim Sungu-Eryilmaz, Hee-Kyung Park

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The Darknet and Bitcoins have been widely utilized by those who wish to anonymously perform illegal activities in cyberspace. Restricted in many countries, gambling websites utilize Bitcoin payments that allow users to freely engage in illegal gambling activities with the absence of a formal capable guardian. Despite the urgency and limited knowledge available to law enforcement regarding this issue, few empirical studies have focused on illegal gambling websites. The current study attempts to examine the characteristics and operations of online gambling websites on both the Darknet and Surface Web, which allow Bitcoin payments. The findings suggest that both websites on ...


Review Of Fundamental To Know About The Future, Hannarae Lee 2020 Marywood University, U.S.A

Review Of Fundamental To Know About The Future, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

What we consider fundamental elements can be easily overlooked or perceived as facts without the process of empirical testing. Especially in the field of cybercrime and cybersecurity, there are more speculations regarding the prevalence and the scope of harm carried out by wrongdoers than empirically tested studies. To fill the void, three articles included in the current issue addresses empirical findings of fundamental concerns and knowledge in the field of cybercrime and cybersecurity.


An Algorithm To Compare Two‐Dimensional Footwear Outsole Images Using Maximum Cliques And Speeded‐Up Robust Feature, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry 2020 Iowa State University

An Algorithm To Compare Two‐Dimensional Footwear Outsole Images Using Maximum Cliques And Speeded‐Up Robust Feature, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Footwear examiners are tasked with comparing an outsole impression (Q) left at a crime scene with an impression (K) from a database or from the suspect's shoe. We propose a method for comparing two shoe outsole impressions that relies on robust features (speeded‐up robust feature; SURF) on each impression and aligns them using a maximum clique (MC). After alignment, an algorithm we denote MC‐COMP is used to extract additional features that are then combined into a univariate similarity score using a random forest (RF). We use a database of shoe outsole impressions that includes images from two ...


A Field Analysis Of Laboratory Case Processing: Latent Print Comparison And Examiner Conclusions, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Maddisen Neuman 2020 Iowa State University

A Field Analysis Of Laboratory Case Processing: Latent Print Comparison And Examiner Conclusions, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Maddisen Neuman

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: The goal of this presentation is to educate attendees about typical procedures and conclusions spanning one calendar year within a large latent print comparison unit. The presentation will also explore sources of variability in sufficiency and identification conclusions


Impact on Forensic Community: This presentation will expand upon a very limited research base and discuss how results can shape future research, policy, and professional practice. Audience members will be encouraged to reflect upon common practices within their own and their laboratory’s casework. Research examining the efficacy and reliability of latent print comparison has expanded in recent years in ...


A Wild Manhunt For Stego Images Created By Modbile Apps., Li Lin, Wenhao Chen, Stephanie Reinders, Min Wu, Jennifer Newman 2020 Iowa State University

A Wild Manhunt For Stego Images Created By Modbile Apps., Li Lin, Wenhao Chen, Stephanie Reinders, Min Wu, Jennifer Newman

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Background: As mobile Internet and telecommunication technology develops at high speed, the digital image forensics academic community is facing a growing challenge. • Mobile applications (Apps) allow a user to easily edit/process an image for a variety of purposes. • Thanks to the improved cameras and editing apps on smartphones, the volume of images presented to digital image forensic practitioners increases every day. • Unfortunately, terrorists, spies and child pornography predators are also taking the advantage of the mobile app ecosystem to exchange illegal files and photos.


Statistical Analysis Of Handwriting: Probabilistic Outcomes For Closed-Set Writer Identification., Amy M. Crawford, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Danica Ommen 2020 Iowa State University

Statistical Analysis Of Handwriting: Probabilistic Outcomes For Closed-Set Writer Identification., Amy M. Crawford, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Danica Ommen

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: The goal of this presentation is to provide insights into features of handwritten documents that are important for statistical modeling with the task of writer identification.


Android™ App Forensic Evidence Database (Androidaed), Chen Shi, Chao-Chun Cheng, Connor Kocolowski, Emmett Kozlowski, Justin Kuennen, Matthew Lawlor, Mitchell Kerr, Jacob Stair, Zhonghao Liao, Zhenqiang Gong, Yong Guan 2020 Iowa State University

Android™ App Forensic Evidence Database (Androidaed), Chen Shi, Chao-Chun Cheng, Connor Kocolowski, Emmett Kozlowski, Justin Kuennen, Matthew Lawlor, Mitchell Kerr, Jacob Stair, Zhonghao Liao, Zhenqiang Gong, Yong Guan

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: After attending this presentation, attendees will better understand how AndroidAED will be beneficial for academic researchers whose studies relate to mobile applications that grant them the ability to search through many of the available applications across various third-party app stores.


Similarity Between Outsole Impressions Using Surf, Soyoung Park 2020 Iowa State University

Similarity Between Outsole Impressions Using Surf, Soyoung Park

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Introduce an objective method to quantify the similarity between two outsole impressions.

Show that algorithm is accurate and reliable even when outsoles share class characteristics and degree of wear.

Show that algorithm is robust even when one image is degraded and partially observed.


Statistical Learning Algorithms For Forensic Scientists, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Heike Hofmann, Michael J. Salyards, Robert M. Thompson 2020 Iowa State University

Statistical Learning Algorithms For Forensic Scientists, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Heike Hofmann, Michael J. Salyards, Robert M. Thompson

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: The goals of this workshop are to: (1) introduce attendees to the basics of supervised learning algorithms in the context of forensic applications, including firearms and footwear examination and trace evidence, while placing emphasis on classification trees, random forests, and, time permitting, neural networks; (2) introduce the concept of a similarity score to quantify the similarity between two items; (3) show how learning algorithms can be trained to classify objects into pre-determined classes; (4) discuss limitations of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and introduce methods for assessing their performance; and (5) discuss the concept of a Score-based Likelihood Ratio ...


Applications Of A Cnn For Automatics Classifications Of Outsole Features, Miranda R. Tilton, Susan Vander Plas 2020 Iowa State University

Applications Of A Cnn For Automatics Classifications Of Outsole Features, Miranda R. Tilton, Susan Vander Plas

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: After attending this presentation, attendees will be familiar with the ways that CNNs can be applied to classify forensic pattern evidence, specifically with shoe outsole features.


A Database Of Handwriting Samples For Applications In Forensic Statistics, Amy Crawford, Anyesha Ray, Alicia L. Carriquiry 2020 Iowa State University

A Database Of Handwriting Samples For Applications In Forensic Statistics, Amy Crawford, Anyesha Ray, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Handwriting samples were collected from 90 adults for the purpose of developing statistical approaches to the evaluation of handwriting as forensic evidence. Each participant completed three data collection sessions, each at least three weeks apart. At each session, a survey was completed and three writing prompts were each transcribed three times. In total, the repository includes 2430 handwriting sample images as well as demographic and session specific information for all 90 participants. The writing samples were scanned and instructional header text was cropped out to obtain the raw writing data as image files. Survey data are provided in table format ...


Quantifying The Association Between Discrete Event Time Series With Applications To Digital Forensics, Christopher Galbraith, Padhraic Smyth, Hal S. Stern 2020 University of California, Irvine

Quantifying The Association Between Discrete Event Time Series With Applications To Digital Forensics, Christopher Galbraith, Padhraic Smyth, Hal S. Stern

CSAFE Publications

We consider the problem of quantifying the degree of association between pairs of discrete event time series, with potential applications in forensic and cybersecurity settings. We focus in particular on the case where two associated event series exhibit temporal clustering such that the occurrence of one type of event at a particular time increases the likelihood that an event of the other type will also occur nearby in time. We pursue a non‐parametric approach to the problem and investigate various score functions to quantify association, including characteristics of marked point processes and summary statistics of interevent times. Two techniques ...


Commentary On: Curley Lj, Munro J, Lages M, Maclean R, Murray J. Assessing Cognitive Bias In Forensic Decisions: A Review And Outlook. J Forensic Sci Doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14220. Epub 2019 Nov 6, William C. Thompson 2020 University of California, Irvine

Commentary On: Curley Lj, Munro J, Lages M, Maclean R, Murray J. Assessing Cognitive Bias In Forensic Decisions: A Review And Outlook. J Forensic Sci Doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.14220. Epub 2019 Nov 6, William C. Thompson

CSAFE Publications

In their recent critical review titled “Assessing Cognitive Bias in Forensic Decisions: A Review and Outlook,” Curley et al. 1 offer a confused and incomplete discussion of “task relevance” in forensic science. Their failure to adopt a clear and appropriate definition of “task relevance” undermines the central conclusion of their article—the assertion that it is not necessarily an error for forensic scientists to rely on task-irrelevant information and that “task-irrelevant contextual information may sometimes aid forensic decision makers.” This conceptual flaw in the article becomes clear when we define “task relevance” appropriately, in the manner it was defined by ...


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