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White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis 2022 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis

Articles

Although the United States tends to treat crimes against humanity as a danger that exists only in authoritarian or war-torn states, in fact, there is a real risk of crimes against humanity occurring within the United States, as illustrated by events such as systemic police brutality against Black Americans, the federal government’s family separation policy that took thousands of immigrant children from their parents at the southern border, and the dramatic escalation of White supremacist and extremist violence culminating in the January 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol. In spite of this risk, the United States does ...


Taking Restorative Justice Seriously, Adriaan Lanni 2021 Harvard Law School

Taking Restorative Justice Seriously, Adriaan Lanni

Buffalo Law Review

Those seeking to reduce mass incarceration have increasingly pointed to restorative justice—an approach that typically brings thoseaffected by a criminal offense together in an attempt to address the harmcaused by the offense rather than to mete out punishment. This Article is an attempt to think seriously about incorporating restorative justice throughout the criminal legal system. For restorative justice proponents, expanding these practices raises a host of questions: Does the opportunity to alleviate mass incarceration justify collaboration with a deeply flawed criminal legal system? Will the threat of criminal prosecution destroy the voluntariness and sincerity that is essential for a ...


Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal 2021 Portland State University

Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal

University Honors Theses

In this brief prospectus, the focus is on the many arguments for why it should be a requirement for all law enforcement officers to have a higher education background. Given light to recent events, the importance for more highly trained and educated officers has become more dire as people call for justice in an attempt to right the wrongs that have been done. The articles found all address the manner in which higher education can help with better judgement calls, analyze and respond to situations better, and the overall perception officers have, who have a form of higher education, on ...


Crime Patterns In Bend, Oregon Over A Twenty-Year Period, Holly Schorr 2021 Portland State University

Crime Patterns In Bend, Oregon Over A Twenty-Year Period, Holly Schorr

University Honors Theses

Most of the public’s understanding of crime is based on mainstream media coverage, which is often tainted by sensationalism and oversimplification. News coverage tends to focus on shorter-term trends that can exaggerate crime patterns and obscure important contextual details. Although there are large quantities of data that can be used to analyze crime over long periods of time and in great detail, long-term analyses are often overlooked due to the ever-present need for shorter-term analyses to inform local policies and policing strategies. In this report, we will utilize UCR and NIBRS data to analyze both the nature of individual ...


Police Union Contracts And Impediments To Accountability: A Case Study Analysis Of Ppa Bargaining Agreements, Elizabeth Rachel Iva Ott 2021 Portland State University

Police Union Contracts And Impediments To Accountability: A Case Study Analysis Of Ppa Bargaining Agreements, Elizabeth Rachel Iva Ott

University Honors Theses

Despite a growing widespread recognition that police unions represent a major component of policing and have major influences on aspects of policing such as disciplinary procedures, day-to-day management, and police-community relations, they have until recently been largely ignored by police scholars. In light of significant gaps in knowledge regarding police unions and the impacts that they have on law enforcement behavior and police accountability, this paper utilizes a case study approach to analyze all existing union contracts between the Portland Police Association (PPA) and the City of Portland in order to explore the prevalence of particular contract provisions that critics ...


Quantitative And Qualitative Assessment Of Interrogation Expectations, Shereen R. Lewis 2021 CUNY John Jay College

Quantitative And Qualitative Assessment Of Interrogation Expectations, Shereen R. Lewis

Student Theses

Interrogation expectations (IE) is a construct that suggests expectations of custodial interrogations affect suspects’ Miranda waiver decisions while under interrogation. Prior research has examined IE quantitatively but there has been no prior research examining IE qualitatively. This current research conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of IE using a sample of 335 participants from the United States. This research took the form of an online survey using Prolific (www.prolific.co) to recruit participants, Qualtrics (www.qualtrics.com) to record data, and SPSS and Nvivo to analyze quantitative qualitative data. It was hypothesized that substantial individual variation in IE ...


Disinhibition And Persistent Maladaptive Behavior, Angela T. West 2021 CUNY John Jay College

Disinhibition And Persistent Maladaptive Behavior, Angela T. West

Student Theses

Objective: There is an urgent need to reduce overpopulation in U.S. prisons, which are inundated with individuals needing substance use treatment. Research on both substance use and antisocial behaviors highlight maladaptive beliefs and behaviors, while also implicating disinhibition as an important factor. Disinhibition is a dynamic trait that can be targeted with therapeutic interventions. The current study explored the relationships between neurocognitive disinhibition, substance use, and recidivism among incarcerated men. The study hypothesized that disinhibition would be associated with history of substance use, history of antisocial behavior, and institutional misconduct, as well as predicting recidivism over and above history ...


To “Defund” The Police, Jessica M. Eaglin 2021 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

To “Defund” The Police, Jessica M. Eaglin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Much public debate circles around grassroots activists’ demand to “defund the police,” raised in public consciousness in the summer of 2020. Yet confusion about the demand is pervasive. This Essay adopts a literal interpretation of “defund” to clarify and distinguish four alternative, substantive policy positions that legal reforms related to police funding can validate. It argues that the policy debates between these positions exist on top of the ideological critique launched by grassroots activists, who use the term “defund the police” as a discursive tactic to make visible deeper transformations in government practices that normalize the structural marginalization of black ...


Critical Thinking In Law Enforcement Training Academies: A Phenomenological Study Of Officer Experiences, Billy J. Spruill 2021 Abilene Christian University

Critical Thinking In Law Enforcement Training Academies: A Phenomenological Study Of Officer Experiences, Billy J. Spruill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recently, law enforcement officer use of force incidents resulting in death has seemingly become more prevalent. Generally, the educational requirement for a law enforcement officer is a high school diploma or general education development degree. One must question if this requirement is sufficient for a law enforcement officer to be successful in a modern world as the law enforcement training academy may be the law enforcement officer’s only postsecondary education. Critical thinking is a needed skill identified by high-stress professions such as the military, nursing, and disaster management, yet there is limited study regarding critical thinking in law enforcement ...


Book Review: Criminalizing Atrocity: The Global Spread Of Criminal Laws Against International Crimes, Verónica Michel 2021 John Jay College of Criminal Justice–CUNY

Book Review: Criminalizing Atrocity: The Global Spread Of Criminal Laws Against International Crimes, Verónica Michel

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Book review of the book Criminalizing Atrocity: The Global Spread of Criminal Laws against International Crimes by Mark S. Berlin.


Why Does An Ex-Offender Reoffend?, Jacob Rybak 2021 Kennesaw State University

Why Does An Ex-Offender Reoffend?, Jacob Rybak

Symposium of Student Scholars

What leads an offender to go back to prison? This researcher has lived in the Georgia State prison system for 3.5 years. Using personal insights as well as analytics, this researcher analyzes Iowa state’s six-year data set tracking recidivism of released offenders and recommends changes to the prison system to address the analytical findings.

The Iowa recidivism data set includes the following information for all offenders: age group, type of release (parole vs different discharges), release year, original offense, and whether they recidivated. For the recidivating offenders, the data set includes the days to return to prison, the ...


Victims Of Crime, Kellie A. Parkin 2021 Marshall University

Victims Of Crime, Kellie A. Parkin

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

An exploratory analysis of victims of crime, their rights in the criminal justice system, and the shortcomings of resources. The first section will highlight important milestones throughout the victim rights movement in history. After analyzing the research, it is clear the United States was behind in offering these rights to victims. The paper goes on to identify the lack of uniformity and lack of resources victims must endure. Lastly, the paper will offer a common counterargument to one very important right victim’s frequently practice, that is the right to be heard.


Improving Policing: Criticisms And Supports, Hannah M. Stephens 2021 West Virginia University at Parkersburg

Improving Policing: Criticisms And Supports, Hannah M. Stephens

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

In today's society, there are many critical factors surrounding the profession of law enforcement. In the midst of allegations such as corruption, racism, and use of force, policing has lost its favor in the eyes of the public. By taking a closer look at these issues and the various ways of correcting their problems, perhaps true policing can once again be a source of effectiveness and pride in our criminal justice system. Traditional policing holds many values that have been lost. If our justice system and the public's trust in it is to be restored, education, various approaches ...


Diversity In Criminal Justice Education, Cody Salvatore 2021 West Virginia University at Parkersburg

Diversity In Criminal Justice Education, Cody Salvatore

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

The absence of a proper understanding of diversity feeds into an already poor relationship between the criminal justice system and marginalized communities who often harbor fear and resentment towards the criminal justice system. This can be linked to the overall lack of diversity courses within criminal justice curriculums, as the absence of these courses leads to a lessened quality of education for criminal justice professionals and distrust from marginalized communities. The LGBT community exemplifies this, and its history and current relationship with the criminal justice system are presented in this study. While criminal justice education is successful in its endeavors ...


Nigeria's Plight: The Causes, Crimes, And Casualties Of Boko Haram, Brandi Dunfee 2021 Marshall University

Nigeria's Plight: The Causes, Crimes, And Casualties Of Boko Haram, Brandi Dunfee

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

This paper provides a brief history of Boko Haram including one of the group’s infamous attacks, the Nigerian government’s response to the insurgency, and whether the group has succeeded in promoting their ideals. The group has a long history of condemning Western education and encouraging an Islamic state. Since Boko Haram has been active, they have displaced thousands of Nigerians from their homes, in some cases even kidnapping them. A large kidnapping of schoolgirls from a university is one of their most notorious terrorist acts. Their motives for the kidnappings were to enforce Islam nationwide and to free ...


Examining The Quality Of Representation By Public Defenders Compared To Private Attorneys, Brianna M. Ovalle 2021 Marshall University

Examining The Quality Of Representation By Public Defenders Compared To Private Attorneys, Brianna M. Ovalle

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

The overwhelming majority of federal and state defendants are indigent, meaning counsel must be obtained on behalf of them. If public defenders were not made available for these types of defendants, the defendants could not afford representation on their own. Because limited options are available for indigent defendants, public defenders are often appointed to represent them. Due to the nature of public defenders, critics question public defender credibility and the quality of representation they offer. Studies have attempted to examine this very topic, and while the majority have found no differences between public defenders and private attorneys in terms of ...


Examining Cyberstalking Victimization Using Routine Activities And Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theories: A Critical Literature Review, Katie J. Nutter 2021 Marshall University

Examining Cyberstalking Victimization Using Routine Activities And Lifestyle-Routine Activities Theories: A Critical Literature Review, Katie J. Nutter

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

Lifestyle and routine activities models are often used in criminological research to examine crime victimization. Routine activities and lifestyle-routine activities theories both propose crime occurs when there is a physical convergence of time and space between a motivated offender and a suitable target, with the absence of a capable guardian. However, crimes committed in cyberspace are without the proposed physical interaction. Due to the emergence of the Internet, stalking victimization has been rapidly occurring in the realm of cyberspace, which is a disorganized environment for crime to occur. In this critical literature review, a review of pertinent research will be ...


Editors' Welcome, Cassandra B. Whyte Dr., Stephen Young 2021 Marshall University

Editors' Welcome, Cassandra B. Whyte Dr., Stephen Young

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

No abstract provided.


A Look Into Wrongful Conviction Within The U.S. Justice System, Isabella T. Likos 2021 Cleveland State University

A Look Into Wrongful Conviction Within The U.S. Justice System, Isabella T. Likos

The Downtown Review

The United States justice system has principles in place in order to prevent wrongful convictions such as the presumption of innocence and having to prove beyond a reasonable doubt. However, even with these principles in places there are times that people are wrongfully convicted. There are multiple reasons why wrongful conviction occur, including false confessions and erroneous eyewitness testimony. Wrongful conviction impacts not only the wrongfully convicted, but their family, friends, and the victims. While wrongful convictions do happen, there are steps that can be taken going forward that can help prevent them and exonerate the wrongfully convicted.


White Racial Identity And Its Impact On Punitive Attitudes Towards Juvenile Offenders, Rossol Gharib 2021 John Jay College of Criminal Justice

White Racial Identity And Its Impact On Punitive Attitudes Towards Juvenile Offenders, Rossol Gharib

Student Theses

White Racial Identity is a relatively new concept with little to no consensus as to the operationalization of such identity. The first ever White Racial Identity model was developed by Janet E. Helms in 1990. The role of White racial identity has been studied in the context of the racial gap in employment and its influence on racial attitudes, but it has yet to be studied in the context of the juvenile justice system. The criminal justice system is racially imbalanced, with Black males imprisoned 5.5 times more than White males. One of the factors contributing to this imbalance ...


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