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On Outflows Due To Radiation, Randall Cody Dannen 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

On Outflows Due To Radiation, Randall Cody Dannen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Observations of ionized AGN outflows have provided compelling evidence that the radiation field transfers both momentum and energy to the plasma. At parsec scale distances in AGN, energy transfer can dominate, in which case the only force needed to launch an outflow is due to gas pressure. Much closer to the black hole, gravity dominates thermal energy due to insufficient heating by the radiation and the gas is in the so-called ’cold wind solution’ regime. Only magnetic or radiation forces can lead to outflow, but it is unclear how these forces depend on the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the …


Joint Constraints On Kepler-36 From Kepler And New Keck-Hires Data, Nicholas Juliano 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Joint Constraints On Kepler-36 From Kepler And New Keck-Hires Data, Nicholas Juliano

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

I analyze new HIRES Radial Velocity (RV) data in conjunction with transit mid-times and uncertainties from the full 17 quarters of Kepler data to reassess the orbital parameters of the Kepler-36 system. Six additional RV measurements were taken by the Keck-HIRES spectrograph from September 21, 2021 to October 11, 2021. I carry out a differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based (DEMCMC) analysis to infer improved orbital elements for the two known planets in the system. Leveraging additional information provided by the new RV measurements, I extend this DEMCMC analysis to a possible three-planet configuration. I explore the likelihood of a …


Simulating Radial Ring Structure With An Ambipolar Elsasser (Am) Bump In Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics Of Protoplanetary Disks, Aleksey S. Mohov 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Simulating Radial Ring Structure With An Ambipolar Elsasser (Am) Bump In Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics Of Protoplanetary Disks, Aleksey S. Mohov

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Rings are one of the most ubiquitous substructures observed in protoplanetary disks. They are known to be a robust site for planetesimal formation; thus we look for mechanisms that can originate stable rings. From chemical modelling of snow lines, we expect a bump in the Ambipolar Diffusion (AD) Elssaser number (Am) in the radial direction. We use the Athena++ code to model the non-ideal Magentohydrodynamics (MHD) behavior of an Am bump. We explore a parameter space of Gaussian bumps with Am = 5, 1, 0.5 peak strength and σ = 0.25, 1, 5. The Gaussian profile is inserted into the …


Inferring The Compositions And Interior Structures Of Small Planets, David R. Rice 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Inferring The Compositions And Interior Structures Of Small Planets, David R. Rice

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Although there are now over 10,000 confirmed and candidate extrasolar planets, accurate masses and radii have been determined for around 200 planets of less than 10 Earth-masses. This number will grow exponentially over the next decade as extreme precision radial velocity spectrographs see first light. The densities of small planets hint at a diverse range of compositions for terrestrial worlds from super-Mercuries to super-Ganymedes. Uncertainty in density is as low as 3% in the Trappist-1 system. To determine composition from observed parameters, the community uses a variety of interior structure models. Underlying these models are multiple computational techniques, numerous experimental …


Testing The Interaction Between A Substellar Companion And A Debris Disk In The Hr 2562 System, Stella Yimiao Zhang, Gaspard Duchêne, Robert J. De Rosa, Megan Ansdell, Quinn Konopacky, Thomas Esposito, Eugene Chiang, Malena Rice, Brenda Matthews, Paul Kalas, Bruce Macintosh, Franck Marchis, Stan Metchev, Jenny Patience, Julien Rameau, Kimberly Ward-Duong, Schuyler Wolff, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Vanessa P. Bailey, Travis S. Barman, Joanna Bulger, Christine H. Chen, Jeffrey K. Chilcotte, Tara Cotten, René Doyon, Katherine B. Follette, Benjamin L. Gerard, Stephen Goodsell, James R. Graham, Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, Pascale Hibon, Li Wei Hung 2023 Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences

Testing The Interaction Between A Substellar Companion And A Debris Disk In The Hr 2562 System, Stella Yimiao Zhang, Gaspard Duchêne, Robert J. De Rosa, Megan Ansdell, Quinn Konopacky, Thomas Esposito, Eugene Chiang, Malena Rice, Brenda Matthews, Paul Kalas, Bruce Macintosh, Franck Marchis, Stan Metchev, Jenny Patience, Julien Rameau, Kimberly Ward-Duong, Schuyler Wolff, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Vanessa P. Bailey, Travis S. Barman, Joanna Bulger, Christine H. Chen, Jeffrey K. Chilcotte, Tara Cotten, René Doyon, Katherine B. Follette, Benjamin L. Gerard, Stephen Goodsell, James R. Graham, Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, Pascale Hibon, Li Wei Hung

Astronomy: Faculty Publications

The HR 2562 system is a rare case where a brown dwarf companion resides in a cleared inner hole of a debris disk, offering invaluable opportunities to study the dynamical interaction between a substellar companion and a dusty disk. We present the first ALMA observation of the system as well as the continued Gemini Planet Imager monitoring of the companion's orbit with six new epochs from 2016 to 2018. We update the orbital fit, and in combination with absolute astrometry from GAIA, place a 3σ upper limit of 18.5 M J on the companion's mass. To interpret the ALMA observations, …


Evaluation Of Black Holes In An Evolving Universe, John P. Naan 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Evaluation Of Black Holes In An Evolving Universe, John P. Naan

Theses and Dissertations

There are various solutions to the Einstein field equations that represent different physical assumptions, but how to represent multiple black holes within an expanding universe remains an area of open interest. The first step to resolving this question involves evaluating spacetime models that contain a single black hole in an expanding universe. Here, we are primarily interested in understanding the energy distribution of black hole models by solving Einstein's equations using the associated spacetime metric and comparing the propagation of waves within the model against other known spacetime models. Specifically, we will evaluate the combined Schwarschild-de Sitter solution under a …


The Quantum Computational Utility Of Symmetry-Protected Topological Order: From Near-Term Advantages To Universal Measurement-Based Quantum Computing, Austin Kevin Daniel 2023 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

The Quantum Computational Utility Of Symmetry-Protected Topological Order: From Near-Term Advantages To Universal Measurement-Based Quantum Computing, Austin Kevin Daniel

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Quantum computers offer new avenues to approach difficult problems by taking advantage of the strange and often nonintuitive phenomena present in quantum physics. Though many quantum algorithms are believed or known to outperform the best known classical algorithms, the fundamental mechanism granting them their power remains elusive. In measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC), two key resources have been show to enable universal and provably nonclassical quantum computations, respectively. These are symmetry-protected topological order (SPTO), a notion describing a class of quantum magnets with hidden long-range correlations in their entanglement structure, and quantum contextuality, the fact that a quantum measurement outcome inherently …


Analysis On High Mass X-Ray Binary Spectral Shape Dependence On Luminosity For Ngc3310, Izabela Pavel 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Analysis On High Mass X-Ray Binary Spectral Shape Dependence On Luminosity For Ngc3310, Izabela Pavel

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In most normal galaxies, the most X-ray luminous sources are high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which are binary star systems that contain compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) accreting from massive (> 8M⊙) companion stars. These HMXBs are thought to have been important sources of ionizing emission within star-forming galaxies that may have contributed to the heating of the intergalatic medium (gas over large cosmic scales) in the early Universe. When studying how HMXBs contribute to interstellar medium feedback, a single spectral shape of an absorbed power-law is typically assumed to be universal. The goal of this thesis is to …


Another Shipment Of Six Short-Period Giant Planets From Tess, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Samuel N. Quinn, Andrew Vanderburg, George Zhou, Jason D. Eastman, Erica Thygesen, Bryson Cale, David R. Ciardi, Phillip A. Reed, Ryan J. Oelkers 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Another Shipment Of Six Short-Period Giant Planets From Tess, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Samuel N. Quinn, Andrew Vanderburg, George Zhou, Jason D. Eastman, Erica Thygesen, Bryson Cale, David R. Ciardi, Phillip A. Reed, Ryan J. Oelkers

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We present the discovery and characterization of six short-period, transiting giant planets from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) -- TOI-1811 (TIC 376524552), TOI-2025 (TIC 394050135), TOI-2145 (TIC 88992642), TOI-2152 (TIC 395393265), TOI-2154 (TIC 428787891), and TOI-2497 (TIC 97568467). All six planets orbit bright host stars (8.9 <G < 11.8, 7.7 <K < 10.1). Using a combination of time-series photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations from the TESS Follow-up Observing Program Working Group, we have determined that the planets are Jovian-sized (RP = 0.99--1.45 RJ), have masses ranging from 0.92 to 5.26 MJ, and orbit F, G, and K stars (4766 ≤ Teff ≤ 7360 K). We detect a significant orbital …


Spinning Up A Daze: Tess Uncovers A Hot Jupiter Orbiting The Rapid Rotator Toi-778, J. T. Clark, B. C. Addison, J. Okumura, S. Vach, A. Errico, A. Heitzmann, J. E. Rodriguez, D. J. Wright, M. Clerté, C. J. Brown, T. Fetherolf, R. A. Wittenmyer, P. Plavchan, S. R. Kane, J. Horner, J. F. Kielkopf, A. Shporer, C. G. Tinney, L. Hui-Gen, S. Ballard, B. P. Bowler, M. W. Mengel, G. Zhou, A. S. Lee, A. David, J. Heim, M. E. Lee, V. Sevilla, N. E. Zafar, N. R. Hinkel, B. E. Allen, D. Bayliss, A. Berberyan, P. Berlind, A. Bieryla, F. Bouchy, R. Brahm, E. M. Bryant, J. L. Christiansen, D. R. Ciardi, K. N. Ciardi, K. A. Collins, J. Dallant, A. B. Davis, M. R. Díaz, C. D. Dressing, G. A. Esquerdo, J.-V. Harre, S. B. Howell, J. M. Jenkins, Eric L.N. Jensen, M. I. Jones, A. Jordán, D. W. Latham, M. B. Lund, J. McCormac, L. D. Nielsen, J. Otegi, S. N. Quinn, D. J. Radford, G. R. Ricker, R. P. Schwarz, S. Seager, A. M. S. Smith, C. Stockdale, T.-G. Tan, S. Udry, R. Vanderspek, M. N. Günther, S. Wang, G. Wingham, J. N. Winn 2023 Swarthmore College

Spinning Up A Daze: Tess Uncovers A Hot Jupiter Orbiting The Rapid Rotator Toi-778, J. T. Clark, B. C. Addison, J. Okumura, S. Vach, A. Errico, A. Heitzmann, J. E. Rodriguez, D. J. Wright, M. Clerté, C. J. Brown, T. Fetherolf, R. A. Wittenmyer, P. Plavchan, S. R. Kane, J. Horner, J. F. Kielkopf, A. Shporer, C. G. Tinney, L. Hui-Gen, S. Ballard, B. P. Bowler, M. W. Mengel, G. Zhou, A. S. Lee, A. David, J. Heim, M. E. Lee, V. Sevilla, N. E. Zafar, N. R. Hinkel, B. E. Allen, D. Bayliss, A. Berberyan, P. Berlind, A. Bieryla, F. Bouchy, R. Brahm, E. M. Bryant, J. L. Christiansen, D. R. Ciardi, K. N. Ciardi, K. A. Collins, J. Dallant, A. B. Davis, M. R. Díaz, C. D. Dressing, G. A. Esquerdo, J.-V. Harre, S. B. Howell, J. M. Jenkins, Eric L.N. Jensen, M. I. Jones, A. Jordán, D. W. Latham, M. B. Lund, J. Mccormac, L. D. Nielsen, J. Otegi, S. N. Quinn, D. J. Radford, G. R. Ricker, R. P. Schwarz, S. Seager, A. M. S. Smith, C. Stockdale, T.-G. Tan, S. Udry, R. Vanderspek, M. N. Günther, S. Wang, G. Wingham, J. N. Winn

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission has been uncovering a growing number of exoplanets orbiting nearby, bright stars. Most exoplanets that have been discovered by TESS orbit narrow-line, slow-rotating stars, facilitating the confirmation and mass determination of these worlds. We present the discovery of a hot Jupiter orbiting a rapidly rotating (v sin (i) = 35.1 ± 1.0 km s⁻¹) early F3V-dwarf, HD 115447 (TOI-778). The transit signal taken from Sectors 10 and 37 of TESS's initial detection of the exoplanet is combined with follow-up ground-based photometry and velocity measurements taken from Minerva-Australis, TRES, CORALIE, and …


Cosmology, Lensing, And Modified Gravity With Gravitational Waves, Ignacio Magana Hernandez 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Cosmology, Lensing, And Modified Gravity With Gravitational Waves, Ignacio Magana Hernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Since the first detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes in 2015, the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA (LVK) Collaboration has accumulated over 90 observations of mergers involving neutron stars and black holes. With the upcoming observing runs for the LVK network of GW detectors, many more binary mergers are expected to be detected. The increasing size of gravitational wave catalogs has enabled the study of their population, its cosmic expansion history, signatures of gravitational wave lensing, and how well these observations agree with general relativity. In this dissertation, I will discuss my contributions to gravitational wave cosmology. …


Numerical Simulations Of Tidal Disruption Events, Alexandra Elise Spaulding 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Numerical Simulations Of Tidal Disruption Events, Alexandra Elise Spaulding

Theses and Dissertations

The detection of supermassive black holes (SMBH) in our universe has proven to be a challenge. One way to find an SMBH in a quiescent, inactive galaxy is through a tidal disruption event, or a TDE. A TDE occurs when a star is slightly perturbed and is subsequently disrupted by the SMBH. When this happens, part of the debris from the disrupted star remains bound to the SMBH while the rest is unbound. The SMBH accretes the bound matter and reveals their presence by a temporary X-ray flare, lasting a few months. Using conservation of energy, the fallback rate of …


A Comparison Of Automated Bolide Detection Methods, Maxine Thembi Khumalo 2023 Florida Institute of Technology

A Comparison Of Automated Bolide Detection Methods, Maxine Thembi Khumalo

Theses and Dissertations

Bolide recording and analysis are crucial so meteoroid fragments can be found, a lightcurve analyzed, and its trajectory calculated. The Spalding Allsky Camera Network (SACN) generates videos and composite images of the night sky that are potential meteors based on changes in brightness. The best way to ensure quick identification is to automate the detection of bolides (and all meteors) using computational techniques. This project tested three algorithms to sort events between those with and without meteors - a Traditional Hough Detection Method, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and YOLOv5 against the previous technique from 2018 by Elena Botella. All the …


Mach And Froude Numbers On Mars., Camella-Rosa Nasr 2023 University of Louisville

Mach And Froude Numbers On Mars., Camella-Rosa Nasr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mars atmospheric global circulation models exhibit transonic jet streaks during
northern winter, which motivates this study of the Mach number, Ma (the ratio of
flow speed to the speed of sound), and the Froude number, Fr (the ratio of flow
speed to the speed of buoyancy waves), as a function of season and location. Two
global reanalyses spanning Mars Years (MY) 24 to 33 are used as input, EMARS
and OpenMARS. The study’s vertical coordinate is the isentropic variable potential
temperature, θ, ranging from θ = 125 to 1100 K, which corresponds to altitudes
ranging on average from z ≈ …


Analysis Of A Controlled Approximation For Explicit Integrations Of Stiff Thermonuclear Networks, Nicholas Brey 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analysis Of A Controlled Approximation For Explicit Integrations Of Stiff Thermonuclear Networks, Nicholas Brey

Masters Theses

The current standard method to solve stiff coupled differential equations relies on implicit integration methods. Explicit methods are generally avoided due to the extremely small and limiting timesteps they allow when the equations are stiff. However, implicit methods are computationally expensive because of the complex calculations that need to be done at each time step. An explicit integration method can do these calculations quicker and, if allowed to take comparable timesteps to the implicit ones, would allow the entire calculation to be done faster. Previous work by Dr. Guidry, Dr. Endeve, Dr. Hix and Dr. Billings has shown that, in …


The Search For Heavily Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei In The Local Universe, Ross Silver 2023 Clemson University

The Search For Heavily Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei In The Local Universe, Ross Silver

All Dissertations

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the center of galaxies that accrete surrounding gas and emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. They are the most energetic persistent emitters in the Universe, capable of outshining their host galaxies despite their emission originating from a region smaller than our Solar System. AGN were some of the first sources discovered that helped teach us that there were galaxies outside of our own, and they proved the existence of black holes. Moreover, AGN can give us valuable insights into other branches of astrophysics. For example, they can be used to …


Insights Into Star Formation And Agn Activity In Protocluster Environments From Morphological Studies And Sed Fitting, Erik B. Monson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Insights Into Star Formation And Agn Activity In Protocluster Environments From Morphological Studies And Sed Fitting, Erik B. Monson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I present work done from 2018-2023 to investigate the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBH) in high redshift overdensities (protoclusters) by studying the star-forming galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) population in the SSA22 protocluster. I examined possible environmental sources of the enhanced star formation and AGN activity in the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster using Hubble WFC3 ∼ 1.6 μm observations of the SSA22 field, including new observations centered on eight X-ray selected protocluster AGN. To investigate the role of mergers in the observed AGN and star formation enhancement, quantitative and visual morphological classifications …


On The Impact Of Inclination-Dependent Attenuation On The Derived Star Formation Histories Of Disk Galaxies, Keith Doore 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

On The Impact Of Inclination-Dependent Attenuation On The Derived Star Formation Histories Of Disk Galaxies, Keith Doore

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The physical properties of a galaxy (e.g., its star-formation history and dust content) regulate the distribution of light that is emitted by stars and attenuated by the interstellar gas and dust. This attenuation by dust can have a significant impact on the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) of a disk galaxy, especially when taking into account its viewing angle (i.e., inclination). For example, as the inclination angle of a galactic disk changes from face-on to edge-on (i.e., i = 0 deg to i = 90 deg), the proportion of light that is attenuated along the line of sight increases, due …


Exploring The Dependence Of Bulges In Spiral Galaxies On Their Environment, William Jackson Clark 2023 Old Dominion University

Exploring The Dependence Of Bulges In Spiral Galaxies On Their Environment, William Jackson Clark

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Recent research has shown a relationship between spiral galaxy satellite populations and the size of spiral bulges. The modern cosmological model of our universe (ΛCDM), does not predict this. Instead, ΛCMD predicts that only the total dynamical mass of a host galaxy should be correlated with satellite populations. We investigate this relationship in regimes other than satellites. In this study we compare the bulge to total mass ratios of spiral galaxies to the number of nearby galaxies within “n” Mpc. We use four papers from literature that calculate bulge to total mass ratios of 189 spiral galaxies using …


Constraining H0 Via Extragalactic Parallax, Nicholas Ferree 2023 University of Richmond

Constraining H0 Via Extragalactic Parallax, Nicholas Ferree

Honors Theses

We examine the prospects for measurement of the Hubble parameter 𝐻0 via observation of the secular parallax of other galaxies due to our own motion relative to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. Peculiar velocities make distance measurements to individual galaxies highly uncertain, but a survey sampling many galaxies can still yield a precise 𝐻0 measurement. We use both a Fisher information formalism and simulations to forecast errors in 𝐻0 from such surveys, marginalizing over the unknown peculiar velocities. The optimum survey observes ∼ 102 galaxies within a redshift 𝐻0max = 0.06. The required errors …


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