Exploring The Early Solar System: Cometary Chemical Fingerprints: A Study Of Comet C/2022 E3 (Ztf) Via Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, 2024 University of Missouri, St. Louis

#### Exploring The Early Solar System: Cometary Chemical Fingerprints: A Study Of Comet C/2022 E3 (Ztf) Via Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Grace Puchalski

*Undergraduate Research Symposium*

Comets are small, icy remnants from the solar system formation (4.5 billion years ago). Their interior composition should reflect the composition and conditions presented in the mid-plane of the protoplanetary region where (and when) they formed. These small objects predominantly reside in two major reservoirs, the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt. Comets coming from the Oort cloud have long orbital periods while comets from the Kuiper belt have short orbital periods (< 200 years). An overarching goal in astronomy is to understand the conditions presented in the planetary region in the early solar system. Since comets lack a known mechanism of self internal heating, any processes that have changed their composition should only affect a few meters deep, which is believed to be excavated over a course of a perihelion passage into the inner parts of the solar system. As comets get closer to the Sun, solar irradiation causes their ices to sublime, leaving a formation of a freely expanding atmosphere (coma). Depending on the science interest, astrophysicists use different techniques for data collection, a common one being spectroscopy. Using iSHELL spectrograph at the NASA-Near-Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we examine the primary chemical composition (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, C2H2, H2CO, NH3, CH3OH, OCS, and OH) of cometary coma in bright comet C/2022 E3 (ZTF). Our preliminary results indicate the H2O production rate of ~3.4E28 (molecules per second), which corresponds to the rotational temperature of 86 (K). Cometary atmospheres are dense enough that molecules in the inner coma are thermalized by collision (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium), thus 86 (K) is a physical parameter of coma. We compared the production of the rest of species with that of water (in %) and our results indicated that comet E3 was typical (close to average) in mixing ratios of all volatile species. By mapping the intensity of light with distance from the nucleus,we were able to examine the spatial distribution of volatiles and dust in E3’s coma which were consistent with production directly from the nucleus.

General Relativistic Gravity In Core-Collapse Supernova Simulations, 2024 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

#### General Relativistic Gravity In Core-Collapse Supernova Simulations, James Nicholas Roberts Ii

*Doctoral Dissertations*

Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are some of the most extreme and complex phenomena in the universe. The toolkit for high-order neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics (thornado) is being developed to simulate CCSNe which will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying these events. The thornado framework is a collection of modules used to calculate the effects of gravity, hydrodynamics, neutrino transport, and nuclear physics through the Weaklib equation of state table. This dissertation will present the development of the Poseidon code, which provides the general relativistic gravity solver for the thornado framework.

The Poseidon code solves for the general relativistic metric using the xCFC formulation …

Einstein Field Equations And The Solutions For Uncharged Black Holes, 2024 Western Michigan University

#### Einstein Field Equations And The Solutions For Uncharged Black Holes, Yogesh Mahat

*Masters Theses*

The General Theory of Relativity, formulated by the brilliant mind of Albert Einstein, stands as one of the most fundamental and revolutionary pillars of modern physics. This elegant theory of gravity not only offers a comprehensive explanation of the workings of the universe on a large scale, but it has also paved the way for groundbreaking advancements in the field of mathematics. This thesis begins by providing a concise overview of the key mathematical principles that are crucial to understanding Einstein’s theory. These principles form the basis for deriving the field equations that Einstein introduced. From there, these equations are …

Linking The Population Of Binary Black Holes With The Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background, 2024 Macalester College

#### Linking The Population Of Binary Black Holes With The Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background, Olivia X. Laske

*Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy*

The astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) is the product of overlapping waveforms that create a single unresolvable background. While current LIGO sensitivity is insufficient to uncover the SGWB, future space-based detectors and Third Generation (3G) experiments are expected to probe deep enough for detection. Predictions of the SGWB can constrain future searches as well as provide insight into star formation, merger history, and mass distribution. Here, three primary methods are used to calculate a theoretical SGWB. The first method integrates over a precomputed mass distribution probability grid, while the second and third employ Monte Carlo integration with simulated data. After …

Technology Innovation Is The Key To Future Space Science Missions, 2024 National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

#### Technology Innovation Is The Key To Future Space Science Missions, Ji Wu

*Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)*

Space science is one of the important space activities of China together with space technology and space application. Although it is a space program aimed at scientific discovery and breakthrough, with the development of technology and the increasing number of achievements received in the past, space science missions require more and more technological innovation to achieve their goals. This study first reviews the development trend of space science missions since their birth, then analyzes the cultivation process of space science mission proposals with technological innovation and the responsibilities of the chief scientist leading such tasks, and finally analyzes and proposes …

Analysis Of Bayesian Transfer Function Fitting Method - A Potential Tool For Estimating Interferometer Uncertainty, 2024 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

#### Analysis Of Bayesian Transfer Function Fitting Method - A Potential Tool For Estimating Interferometer Uncertainty, Caden Swain

*Honors Thesis*

The Response Function of the LIGO Interferometer is central to reconstructing the strain produced by incoming gravitational waves. As a function of the interferometer's response to external stimuli, the Response Function is both analytically modeled and experimentally measured using excitations from the photon calibrator system at discrete frequencies. The uncertainty in each data point is propagated to the residual between the model and measurements, with both the uncertainty and residual being interpolated over a broadband frequency range. This project explores an alternative method to estimating the uncertainty and systematic error present in the Response function model through the utilization of …

The Gravitational Wave Peep: Improved Modeling Of Highly Eccentric Emris For Lisa Signal Confusion Noise, 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### The Gravitational Wave Peep: Improved Modeling Of Highly Eccentric Emris For Lisa Signal Confusion Noise, Daniel J. Oliver

*Graduate Theses and Dissertations*

Scattering events around a massive black hole will occasionally toss a stellar-mass compact object into an orbit around the massive black hole, beginning an extreme mass ratio inspiral. The early stages of such a highly eccentric orbit will not produce detectable gravitational waves as the source will only be in a suitable frequency band briefly when it is close to periapsis during each long-period orbit. This burst of emission, firmly in the millihertz band, is the gravitational wave peep. While a single peep is not likely to be detectable, if we consider an ensemble of such subthreshold sources, spread across …

The Black-To-White Hole Transition, 2024 Western University

#### The Black-To-White Hole Transition, Farshid Soltani

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Classically, an isolated black hole is a stable gravitational object. If however semiclassical effects are taken into account, an isolated black hole can be shown to slowly radiate its mass away in a process called evaporation. At the end of the evaporation process, when the size of the horizon becomes Planckian, the quantum nature of the gravitational field can no longer be neglected and the dynamics of the horizon is governed by quantum gravity. The main objective of this thesis is the systematic investigation of a tentative scenario for the “end of the life” of a black hole: the black-to-white …

Simulating Continuous Gravitational Waves, 2024 Fort Hays State University

#### Simulating Continuous Gravitational Waves, Ivan Mihael Villalba Moran

*SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days*

Using a table-top Michelson Interferometer to replicate Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) arrangement, we use sound waves to simulate Continuous Gravitational Waves (CWs). Using the NumPy package in Python programming, we recover the frequency of the injected sinusoidal signal using the mathematics of the Fourier Transform. Currently, we are trying to implement the Hidden Markov Model along with the Viterbi Algorithm as a method to detect Wandering Continuous Gravitational Waves.

Characterizing And Mitigating Transient Noise In Ligo Observatories For Gravitational Wave Detection, 2024 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

#### Characterizing And Mitigating Transient Noise In Ligo Observatories For Gravitational Wave Detection, Jane Glanzer

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

The existence of gravitational waves is predicted by Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. Commonly referred to as "ripples in spacetime", these waves are generated by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the universe. Despite their theoretical prediction over a century ago, it wasn't until 2015 that the Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) interferometers in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA directly detected gravitational waves for the first time, confirming Einstein's theory and ushering in a new era of astrophysics.

Detecting gravitational waves requires incredible precision. Because of the extreme sensitivity required, it is possible for the gravitational wave data …

Neutrino’S Non-Zero Electric Potential As An Origin Of Gravitation, Domain Structure And Expansion Of The Universe., 2024 Suffolk University

#### Neutrino’S Non-Zero Electric Potential As An Origin Of Gravitation, Domain Structure And Expansion Of The Universe., Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

The axial electric potentials of neutrinos as neutral composite structures, while being very small at large distances, do not vanish, and the same can be said about the neutrino “asymmetric dipoles” (paired neutrinos of not the same kind). Depending on the orientation of the “asymmetric dipole”, its far-field electric potential in some direction can be positive or negative, interacting with other “dipoles” at that large distance attractively or repulsively depending on their mutual orientation. The mutual orientation of the dipoles locally (inside a galaxy) might be such that they are aligned and experience the attractive force toward the local center …

Synchronicity: An Analysis Of Einstein's Halfway Rule, 2024 Wayne State University

#### Synchronicity: An Analysis Of Einstein's Halfway Rule, Preslava Nikolova

*Rushton Journal of Undergraduate Humanities Research*

For the modern world to function, Global Positioning System satellites must synchronize to clocks on Earth. This paper examines a concept that underlies GPS systems, namely Albert Einstein’s halfway rule—the idea that a line of simultaneity exists between two events in different systems. This essay discusses how Einstein used conventionalist methods to establish ½ as a constant value for *σ* to take advantage of the property of symmetry.

Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, 2024 Loyola University Chicago

#### Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, Robert A. Mcnees Iv

*Physics: Faculty Publications and Other Works*

As the name suggests, these notes contain a summary of important conventions, definitions, identities, and various formulas that I often refer to. They may prove useful for researchers working in General Relativity, Supergravity, String Theory, Cosmology, and related areas.

Possible Evidences For Existence Of An Aether Medium (Or Virtual Inertia/Spin Superfluid Medium), 2024 University of New Mexico

#### Possible Evidences For Existence Of An Aether Medium (Or Virtual Inertia/Spin Superfluid Medium), Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The presentation explores the possibility of an aether medium, also referred to as a virtual inertia/spin superfluid medium, existing to explain certain physical phenomena. While the concept of an aether has been historically rejected by mainstream physics, recent findings and interpretations offer potential justifications for its reconsideration. After discussions with several physicists, notably Robert N. Boyd, PhD and others, we are convinced that aether medium does exist, or may be called virtual inertia/spin superfluid medium.

Celestial Bodies, 2023 Craig Newmark Graduate School of Journalism

#### Celestial Bodies, Rebecca L. Rand, Mark Popinchalk

*Capstones*

**Most of us will never come close to touching space. But space touches us every day. On Celestial Bodies, journalist Rebecca Rand and astronomer Mark Popinchalk explore the ways outer space interacts with life on earth. **

**In Episode 1,** hosts Rebecca Rand and Mark Popinchalk explore how, for millions of years, trees have been recording celestial events in space. Within the rings of their trunks, trees store radiation from solar flares, supernovae, and changes in the earth’s magnetic field. The hosts talk to Dr. Ben Pope to learn more about what we can discover by looking at radioactive molecules …

Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part Ii: Experiment Description, 2023 University of New Mexico

#### Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part Ii: Experiment Description, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The present article was partly inspired by G. Pollack’s book, and also Dadoloff, Saxena & Jensen (2010). As a senior physicist colleague and our friend, Robert N. Boyd, wrote in a journal (JCFA, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2022), for example, things and Beings can travel between Universes, intentionally or unintentionally [4]. In this short remark, we revisit and offer short remark to Neil Boyd’s ideas and trying to connect them with geometry of musical chords as presented by D. Tymoczko and others, then to Escherian staircase and then to Jacob’s ladder which seems to pointto possibility to interpret Jacob’s vision …

Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part I: Theoretical Underpinning, 2023 University of New Mexico

#### Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part I: Theoretical Underpinning, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

As a senior physicist colleague and our friend, Robert N. Boyd, wrote in a journal (JCFA, Vol. 1,. 2, 2022), Our universe is but one page in a large book [4]. For example, things and Beings can travel between Universes, intentionally or unintentionally. In this short remark, we revisit and offer short remark to Neil’s ideas and trying to connect them with geometrization of musical chords as presented by D. Tymoczko and others, then to Escher staircase and then to Jacob’s ladder which seems to point to possibility to interpret Jacob’s vision as described in the ancient book of Genesis …

Tests Of General Relativity Through Searches For Lorentz And Cpt Symmetry Breaking, 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

#### Tests Of General Relativity Through Searches For Lorentz And Cpt Symmetry Breaking, Kellie Ault

*Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses*

An effective field theory framework, the Standard Model Extension (SME), provides an agnostic, systematic test of General Relativity (GR) and its founding spacetime symmetries, Lorentz and CPT symmetry. Violating these symmetries may provide clues toward unifying the physics of the General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics. Part of this work involves the merge of theory, data analysis and experiments with gravitational wave (GW) signals from LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA (LVK) detectors. A modified dispersion relation derived from the SME of GWs is implemented into the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Algorithm Library Suite (LALSuite), where a joint Bayesian inference of the source …

Simulating The Eccentricity Evolution Of Accreting Equal-Mass Binaries: Numerical Sensitivity To The Computational Domain Size And Grid Resolution, 2023 Clemson University

#### Simulating The Eccentricity Evolution Of Accreting Equal-Mass Binaries: Numerical Sensitivity To The Computational Domain Size And Grid Resolution, Zhongtian Hu

*All Theses*

With high resolution hydrodynamics simulations, we show that the optimal values of domain radius and grid resolution for the software *Sailfish* when simulating time-based eccentricity evolution of equal mass, non-circular accreting binaries in a circumbinary disk to be $r_{\rm out} \leq 15a$ and $\delta x / a \le 0.01 $. These values provide a useful guideline for optimizing the performance of simulation runs while maintaining scientific accuracy. Each artificial parameter is probed with 15 runs of 2000 orbits each.

Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, 2023 Clemson University

#### Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda

*All Dissertations*

Cosmic Multi-Messenger backgrounds include relic diffuse components created in the early Universe and contributions from individual sources. In this dissertation, I present the work done in Anandagoda (2019); Anandagoda et al. (2020, 2023) where type Ia (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) contributions to the diffuse neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds in the MeV regime are studied. These backgrounds are referred to as DSNB and DSGB respectively. Based on this work, the diffuse SN Ia background is ~10^{6} times lower (for electron antineutrinos) than the CCSN background making it negligible. The predicted DSNB electron antineutrino flux at earth in the …