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Automated Identification And Mapping Of Interesting Mineral Spectra In Crism Images, Arun M. Saranathan 2024 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Automated Identification And Mapping Of Interesting Mineral Spectra In Crism Images, Arun M. Saranathan

Doctoral Dissertations

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has proven to be an invaluable tool for the mineralogical analysis of the Martian surface. It has been crucial in identifying and mapping the spatial extents of various minerals. Primarily, the identification and mapping of these mineral spectral-shapes have been performed manually. Given the size of the CRISM image dataset, manual analysis of the full dataset would be arduous/infeasible. This dissertation attempts to address this issue by describing an (machine learning based) automated processing pipeline for CRISM data that can be used to identify and map the unique mineral signatures present in …


Dayside Pulsating Diffuse Aurora And The Interplanetary Magnetic Field, Thomas Lewer, Gerard J. Fasel, Maxwell Fargo, Ethan Swonger, S. Lee, Aidan Hulbert, Owen Bradley, Arman Manookian, Tommy Cleaveland, B. Yonano, John Mann, F. Sigernes, D. Lorentzen 2024 Pepperdine University

Dayside Pulsating Diffuse Aurora And The Interplanetary Magnetic Field, Thomas Lewer, Gerard J. Fasel, Maxwell Fargo, Ethan Swonger, S. Lee, Aidan Hulbert, Owen Bradley, Arman Manookian, Tommy Cleaveland, B. Yonano, John Mann, F. Sigernes, D. Lorentzen

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation can affect pulsations in the dayside aurora. It has been reported that multiple dayside arcs(Pc 5 band) were replaced by diffuse pulsating aurora (Pc 3-4 band) when the IMF turned northward. Dayside green (557.7 nm emission) pulsating aurora had been reported to occur between 0800 and 1100 MLT (0500-0800 UT) in patches. The pulsations are normally associated with Pc 3-5 range. This statistical study examines pulsating green aurora using ground-based optical data are obtained from the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) in Longyearbyen, Svalbard (GEO: N, E; AACGM: N, E). All-Sky Camera images …


Ratification Of The Base Of The Ics Geological Time Scale: The Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (Gssa) For The Hadean Lower Boundary, Janna Halla, Nora Noffke, Humberto Reis, Stanley Awramik, Andrey Bekker, Alexander Brasier, Flávia Callefo, Adrita Choudhury, Jan-Peter Duda, Christopher Fedo, Douglas Galante, Jessica Haddock, Peter Haines, Linda Hinnov, Axel Hofmann, Martin Homann, David Huston, Simon Johnson, Linda Kah, Martin Whitehouse, et al. 2024 Finnish Museum of Natural History

Ratification Of The Base Of The Ics Geological Time Scale: The Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (Gssa) For The Hadean Lower Boundary, Janna Halla, Nora Noffke, Humberto Reis, Stanley Awramik, Andrey Bekker, Alexander Brasier, Flávia Callefo, Adrita Choudhury, Jan-Peter Duda, Christopher Fedo, Douglas Galante, Jessica Haddock, Peter Haines, Linda Hinnov, Axel Hofmann, Martin Homann, David Huston, Simon Johnson, Linda Kah, Martin Whitehouse, Et Al.

OES Faculty Publications

The base of the ICS (International Commission on Stratigraphy) Geological Time Scale was ratified in 2022 by defining a new Global Stratigraphic Standard Age (GSSA) for the lower boundary of the Hadean Eon (formerly 4000-3600 Ma); the age of the Solar System based on the oldest solids, calcium-aluminium inclusions (CAIs), generated in the protoplanetary disk. The formal GSSA for the Hadean base is the oldest reliable, weighted mean U-corrected Pb-Pb age of 4567.30 ± 0.16 Ma obtained for CAIs in primitive meteorites Allende and Efremovka. This age is supported by the 4568-4567 Ma U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of chondrules in Northwest …


Studying The Impact Of The Geospace Environment On Solar Lithosphere Coupling And Earthquake Activity, Dimitar Ouzounov, Galina Khachikyan 2023 Chapman University

Studying The Impact Of The Geospace Environment On Solar Lithosphere Coupling And Earthquake Activity, Dimitar Ouzounov, Galina Khachikyan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In solar–terrestrial physics, there is an open question: does a geomagnetic storm affect earthquakes? We expand research in this direction, analyzing the seismic situation after geomagnetic storms (GMs) accompanied by the precipitation of relativistic electrons from the outer radiation belt to form an additional radiation belt (RB) around lower geomagnetic lines. We consider four widely discussed cases in the literature for long-lived (weeks, months) RBs due to GMs and revealed that the 1/GMs 24 March 1991 with a new RB at L~2.6 was followed by an M7.0 earthquake in Alaska, 30 May 1991, near footprint L = 2.69; the 2/GMs …


Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part Ii: Experiment Description, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache 2023 University of New Mexico

Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part Ii: Experiment Description, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The present article was partly inspired by G. Pollack’s book, and also Dadoloff, Saxena & Jensen (2010). As a senior physicist colleague and our friend, Robert N. Boyd, wrote in a journal (JCFA, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2022), for example, things and Beings can travel between Universes, intentionally or unintentionally [4]. In this short remark, we revisit and offer short remark to Neil Boyd’s ideas and trying to connect them with geometry of musical chords as presented by D. Tymoczko and others, then to Escherian staircase and then to Jacob’s ladder which seems to pointto possibility to interpret Jacob’s vision …


Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part I: Theoretical Underpinning, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache 2023 University of New Mexico

Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part I: Theoretical Underpinning, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

As a senior physicist colleague and our friend, Robert N. Boyd, wrote in a journal (JCFA, Vol. 1,. 2, 2022), Our universe is but one page in a large book [4]. For example, things and Beings can travel between Universes, intentionally or unintentionally. In this short remark, we revisit and offer short remark to Neil’s ideas and trying to connect them with geometrization of musical chords as presented by D. Tymoczko and others, then to Escher staircase and then to Jacob’s ladder which seems to point to possibility to interpret Jacob’s vision as described in the ancient book of Genesis …


Observation And Modelling Of Meter-Class Earth Impacting Asteroids, David L. Clark 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Observation And Modelling Of Meter-Class Earth Impacting Asteroids, David L. Clark

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Earth is constantly bombarded by solar system objects of a wide variety of sizes, from micron-sized meteoroid stream and sporadic meteor dust, to meter-sized and larger meteoroids observed as fireballs. Fireball event characteristics directly point to the properties and structure of the parent body from which the meteoroid originated. In-atmosphere fireball data paired with in-space observations bring much context to both observations. This thesis centres on three published papers that grew out of my Masters project to identify precovery in-space images of meteoroids first observed as fireballs.

The first article describes the first successful identification of an in-space image of …


Organizing Pmode Dopplergrams Of Jupiter With Matlab, Brady T. Smith, Deborah Gulledge, Cody Shaw, Gerard Williger 2023 University of Louisville

Organizing Pmode Dopplergrams Of Jupiter With Matlab, Brady T. Smith, Deborah Gulledge, Cody Shaw, Gerard Williger

The Cardinal Edge

The interiors of the giant planets are poorly known. At the time of writing, such investigations have been limited to measuring gravitational effects from a handful of orbital probes. The most recent attempt to map the interior is via PMODE (the Planetary Multilevel Oscillations and Dynamics Experiment), designed to explore Jupiter’s core by collecting Dopplergrams. Small radial velocity shifts in Jupiter’s upper cloud decks enable us to map its atmospheric dynamics and consequently its interior via Dioseismology (techniques similar to Helioseismology, applied to Jupiter). This campaign produced a vast dataset with more than 50,000 exposures, every 30 seconds, over 24 …


Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda 2023 Clemson University

Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda

All Dissertations

Cosmic Multi-Messenger backgrounds include relic diffuse components created in the early Universe and contributions from individual sources. In this dissertation, I present the work done in Anandagoda (2019); Anandagoda et al. (2020, 2023) where type Ia (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) contributions to the diffuse neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds in the MeV regime are studied. These backgrounds are referred to as DSNB and DSGB respectively. Based on this work, the diffuse SN Ia background is ~106 times lower (for electron antineutrinos) than the CCSN background making it negligible. The predicted DSNB electron antineutrino flux at earth in the …


What Is A Polygonal Impact Crater? A Proposed Framework Toward Quantifying Crater Shapes, Stuart J. Robbins, Jamie D. Riggs 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

What Is A Polygonal Impact Crater? A Proposed Framework Toward Quantifying Crater Shapes, Stuart J. Robbins, Jamie D. Riggs

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

Impact craters are used for a wide array of investigations of planetary surfaces. A crater form that is somewhat rare, forming only ∼10% of impact craters, is the polygonal impact crater (or PIC). These craters have been visually, manually identified as having at least two rim segments that are best represented as straight lines. Such straight lines or edges are most often used to infer details about the subsurface crust where faults control the structure of the crater cavity as it formed. The PIC literature is scant, but almost exclusively these craters are identified manually, and the potentially straight edges …


Near-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis Of The Primary Volatile Composition Of Long And Short-Period Comets, Younas Khan 2023 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Near-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis Of The Primary Volatile Composition Of Long And Short-Period Comets, Younas Khan

Dissertations

Comets are among the most well-preserved objects that formed in the protosolar nebula ∼4.5 Gyr ago. Hence, they are important for understanding various aspects of the formation, evolution, and habitability of the solar system. Multiple primary volatiles (molecules directly sublimating into the coma from the nucleus) emit via rovibrational transitions in the near-IR, providing opportunities to calculate their abundances. To date, only ∼50 comets have been characterized for their primary volatiles, with the short-period Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) being significantly underrepresented. In contrast, hundreds of comets have been sampled at optical/UV wavelengths, primarily for the composition of daughter species, leading to …


Coronal Magnetometry And Energy Release In Solar Flares, Yuqian Wei 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Coronal Magnetometry And Energy Release In Solar Flares, Yuqian Wei

Dissertations

As the most energetic explosive events in the solar system and a major driver for space weather, solar flares need to be thoroughly understood. However, where and how the free magnetic energy stored in the corona is released to power the solar flares remains not well understood. This lack of understanding is, in part, due to the paucity of coronal magnetic field measurements and the lack of comprehensive understanding of nonthermal particles produced by solar flares. This dissertation focuses on studies that utilize microwave imaging spectroscopy observations made by the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) to diagnose the nonthermal …


Perspective Sky: A New Architectural Typology For Astronomy, Brendan Lydic 2023 Kennesaw State University

Perspective Sky: A New Architectural Typology For Astronomy, Brendan Lydic

Bachelor of Architecture Theses - 5th Year

This thesis aims to reconnect modern humans to the night sky and the universe around us. A connection that has been lost to a multitude of barriers and distractions. Physical barriers like air and light pollution, and distractions like technology and overwhelming world events. I aim to restore this connection by creating a new architectural typology for the observation of and education about the night sky, the cosmos, and astronomy. It will serve as a site of pilgrimage, where visitors of all ages can re-engage with the stars and reintroduce themselves to the perspective of our ancestors. The questions I …


Mach And Froude Numbers On Mars., Camella-Rosa Nasr 2023 University of Louisville

Mach And Froude Numbers On Mars., Camella-Rosa Nasr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mars atmospheric global circulation models exhibit transonic jet streaks during
northern winter, which motivates this study of the Mach number, Ma (the ratio of
flow speed to the speed of sound), and the Froude number, Fr (the ratio of flow
speed to the speed of buoyancy waves), as a function of season and location. Two
global reanalyses spanning Mars Years (MY) 24 to 33 are used as input, EMARS
and OpenMARS. The study’s vertical coordinate is the isentropic variable potential
temperature, θ, ranging from θ = 125 to 1100 K, which corresponds to altitudes
ranging on average from z ≈ …


Euler And Venus' Suspicious Moon, Michael P. Saclolo 2023 St. Edward's University

Euler And Venus' Suspicious Moon, Michael P. Saclolo

Euleriana

This is a brief note on Leonhard Euler's published German translation from the French of two memoirs read by Armand Henri Baudouin de Guémadeuc to the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1761 and published the same year. The memoirs report on observations made of the planet Venus, performed in Limoges, France by Jacques Montaigne, where he claimed to have detected a moon orbiting the Morning and Evening Star.


The Quantitative Microanalysis Explorer: Introducing Web-Based Visualization For Optical, Electron, And Quantitative X-Ray Maps For Studying Lunar Samples, Angelina Minocha 2023 Washington University in St. Louis

The Quantitative Microanalysis Explorer: Introducing Web-Based Visualization For Optical, Electron, And Quantitative X-Ray Maps For Studying Lunar Samples, Angelina Minocha

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

Modern sample imaging techniques produce data in the form of large mosaics, wherein every pixel contains valuable mineralogical information. These heavy data files are challenging for most computers to load and process, furthermore access to lunar and other extraterrestrial samples is limited. We developed the QME Tool to display optical, electron, and quantitative x-ray maps in conjunction with one another to overcome these challenges and advance mineralogy data presentation and analysis. The images and quantitative data was collected using specialized techniques, followed by an extensive image co-registration process. The interface was developed using OpenSeadragon, “An open-source, web-based viewer for high-resolution …


Evolution Of Coronal Magnetic Field Parameters During X5.4 Solar Flare, Seth H. Garland, Benjamin F. Akers, Vasyl B. Yurchyshyn, Robert D. Loper, Daniel J. Emmons 2023 Air Force Institute of Technology

Evolution Of Coronal Magnetic Field Parameters During X5.4 Solar Flare, Seth H. Garland, Benjamin F. Akers, Vasyl B. Yurchyshyn, Robert D. Loper, Daniel J. Emmons

Faculty Publications

The coronal magnetic field over NOAA Active Region 11,429 during a X5.4 solar flare on 7 March 2012 is modeled using optimization based Non-Linear Force-Free Field extrapolation. Specifically, 3D magnetic fields were modeled for 11 timesteps using the 12-min cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager photospheric vector magnetic field data, spanning a time period of 1 hour before through 1 hour after the start of the flare. Using the modeled coronal magnetic field data, seven different magnetic field parameters were calculated for 3 separate regions: areas with surface |Bz| ≥ 300 G, areas of flare brightening seen …


Periodicities And Plasma Density Structure Of Jupiter’S Dawnside Magnetosphere, Xuanye Ma, A.A. Schok, P.A. Delamere, B. Mino, P.A. Damiano, B. Zhang, A. Sciola 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Periodicities And Plasma Density Structure Of Jupiter’S Dawnside Magnetosphere, Xuanye Ma, A.A. Schok, P.A. Delamere, B. Mino, P.A. Damiano, B. Zhang, A. Sciola

Publications

The ability to quantify variations in magnetic field topology and density within Jupiter’s magnetosphere is an important step in understanding the overall structure and dynamics. The Juno spacecraft has provided a rich data set in the dawnside magnetosphere. The recent Grid Agnostic MHD for Extended Research Applications (GAMERA) global simulation study by Zhang et al. (2021) showed a highly structured plasmadisc with closed magnetic field lines mapping between the outer dawn-tail flank and the high latitude polar region. To test these model predictions, we examined Juno’s magnetic field data and electron/energetic particle data to categorize portions of orbits 1-15 into …


Delineating A Stream Network At Gale Crater, Mars, On Arcgis Pro: A Geographic Information Systems Approach, Elpidio Guzman De La Cruz 2023 The Pennsylvania State University

Delineating A Stream Network At Gale Crater, Mars, On Arcgis Pro: A Geographic Information Systems Approach, Elpidio Guzman De La Cruz

West Chester University Master’s Theses

The northwestern region of the Gale crater experienced flooding in the past. Delineation of stream networks for the northwestern region of Gale Crater, Mars employing geographic information systems (GIS) techniques is applied. The stream network produced by the algorithm in the study traverses the clay unit in Gediz Vallis, and visual HiRISE imagery analysis correlates with a topologic cross section of an inverted river channel of 750 meters wide and 90 meters deep. HiRISE imagery analysis further confirms a sulfate and clay stratigraphic unit in a stream 125 meters wide and 25 meters deep. Lastly, data smoothing procedures in the …


Certainty Is Wild And Weaving: Analyzing The Clouds Of Venus, Grace Sanger-Johnson 2023 Bard College

Certainty Is Wild And Weaving: Analyzing The Clouds Of Venus, Grace Sanger-Johnson

Senior Projects Spring 2023

Supposed detection of phosphine as a biosigature in the clouds of Venus has resulted in a flurry of interest in studying the potential habitability of Venus and other Venus-like exoplanets. However, there are still many unanswered questions about the planet's atmosphere. In this senior project, use spectroscopy to better understand the molecular composition and atmospheric dynamics of Venus. To do this, I analyzed partly-processed spectra from a previously unstudied infrared wavelength obtained at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility in July 2021. I developed multiple systems of analysis to extract information from the partly processed data and understand the consequences of this …


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