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Near-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis Of The Primary Volatile Composition Of Long And Short-Period Comets, Younas Khan 2023 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Near-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis Of The Primary Volatile Composition Of Long And Short-Period Comets, Younas Khan

Dissertations

Comets are among the most well-preserved objects that formed in the protosolar nebula ∼4.5 Gyr ago. Hence, they are important for understanding various aspects of the formation, evolution, and habitability of the solar system. Multiple primary volatiles (molecules directly sublimating into the coma from the nucleus) emit via rovibrational transitions in the near-IR, providing opportunities to calculate their abundances. To date, only ∼50 comets have been characterized for their primary volatiles, with the short-period Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) being significantly underrepresented. In contrast, hundreds of comets have been sampled at optical/UV wavelengths, primarily for the composition of daughter species, leading to …


Dataset Of Optical And Electronic Properties For Mos Browzine Journal Cover 2-Graphene Vertical Heterostructures And Mos2-Graphene-Au Heterointerfaces, Sanju Gupta, Panagiota Pimenidou, Miguel Garcia, Shivanshi Das, Nicholas Dimakis 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Dataset Of Optical And Electronic Properties For Mos Browzine Journal Cover 2-Graphene Vertical Heterostructures And Mos2-Graphene-Au Heterointerfaces, Sanju Gupta, Panagiota Pimenidou, Miguel Garcia, Shivanshi Das, Nicholas Dimakis

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

The computational and experimental data presented in this paper refer to the research article "First-Principles Calculations Integrated with Experimental Optical and Electronic Properties for MoS2-graphene Heterostructures and MoS2-graphene-Au Heterointerfaces". The computational data includes structural information, electronic and optical properties, and data to calculate the work functions for various molybdenum disulfide and graphene heterostructures and their heterointerfaces with gold. The optical properties calculations include the frequency-dependent dielectric function, the refractive index, the reflectivity, the extinction coefficient, and the energy loss function. These properties were calculated using the independent particle approximation (IPA). As for the experimental optoelectronic properties, we measured photoluminescence spectra …


Bayesian Inference For The White Dwarf Initial-Final Mass Relation, Nathan Stein, Ted von Hippel, David van Dyk, Steven DeGennaro, Elizabeth Jeffery, Bill Jefferys 2023 Harvard University

Bayesian Inference For The White Dwarf Initial-Final Mass Relation, Nathan Stein, Ted Von Hippel, David Van Dyk, Steven Degennaro, Elizabeth Jeffery, Bill Jefferys

Publications

Stars lose mass as they age, and understanding mass loss is important for understanding stellar evolution. The initial-final mass relation (IFMR) is the relationship between a white dwarf’s initial mass on the main sequence and its final mass. We have developed a new method for fitting the IFMR based on a Bayesian analysis of photometric observations, combining deterministic models of stellar evolution in an internally coherent way. No mass data are used. Our method yields precise inferences (with uncertainties) for a parameterized linear IFMR. Our method can also return posterior distributions of white dwarf initial and final masses.


Databases And Inter-Connectivity In Ground-Based Astronomy, Ted von Hippel, C. M. Mountain 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Databases And Inter-Connectivity In Ground-Based Astronomy, Ted Von Hippel, C. M. Mountain

Publications

Optical and infrared ground-based astronomy is undergoing a renaissance. Advances in material technology, system modeling, and the ability to correct atmospheric distortions in real time have produced a new generation of powerful, large telescopes. An equally profound revolution stems from the availability of large observational databases that span the electromagnetic spectrum. The increased use of such databases as well as the need to operate the new telescopes efficiently requires the development of a National or International Virtual Observatory to set standards for astronomical database formats, data quality assurance, and access protocols, and also to provide all-inclusive centers for data products.


Cosmological Vector Fields And Constraining The Neutrino Masses, Avery J. Tishue 2023 Dartmouth College

Cosmological Vector Fields And Constraining The Neutrino Masses, Avery J. Tishue

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

In this thesis I explore two main topics: the role and consequences of cosmological vector fields, and new ideas for constraining fundamental physics with state-of-the-art experiments. These topics are disparate in content and technique but unified in their attempt to leverage novel approaches to better understand longstanding questions in cosmology. These questions, such as ``What is causing the universe to accelerate today?'' and ``What are the neutrino masses?'', underpin the modern cosmological paradigm. They play a key role in our understanding of cosmic history, the formation of structure, and the fate of our universe. Answers to or hints about these …


Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Comparing Visually And Spectroscopically Identified Galaxy Merger Samples, Alice Desmons, Sarah Brough, Cristina Martínez-Lombilla, Roberto De Propris, Benne Holwerda, Ángel R. López-Sánchez 2023 University of Louisville

Galaxy And Mass Assembly (Gama): Comparing Visually And Spectroscopically Identified Galaxy Merger Samples, Alice Desmons, Sarah Brough, Cristina Martínez-Lombilla, Roberto De Propris, Benne Holwerda, Ángel R. López-Sánchez

Faculty Scholarship

We conduct a comparison of the merging galaxy populations detected by a sample of visual identification of tidal features around galaxies as well as spectroscopically detected close pairs of galaxies to determine whether our method of selecting merging galaxies biases our understanding of galaxy interactions. Our volume-limited parent sample consists of 852 galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey in the redshift range 0.04 ≤ z ≤ 0.20 and stellar mass range 9.50 ≤ log 10(M⋆/M⊙)≤ 11.0" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: normal; font-family: inherit; font-optical-sizing: inherit; font-kerning: inherit; …


Constraints On The Cosmic Expansion History From Gwtc–3, R. Abbott, H. Abe, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, N. Adhikari, M. G. Benjamin, Teviet Creighton, Mario C. Diaz, F. Llamas, Soma Mukherjee, Gaukhar Nurbek, Volker Quetschke, Wenhui Wang 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Constraints On The Cosmic Expansion History From Gwtc–3, R. Abbott, H. Abe, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, N. Adhikari, M. G. Benjamin, Teviet Creighton, Mario C. Diaz, F. Llamas, Soma Mukherjee, Gaukhar Nurbek, Volker Quetschke, Wenhui Wang

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use 47 gravitational wave sources from the Third LIGO–Virgo–Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector Gravitational Wave Transient Catalog (GWTC–3) to estimate the Hubble parameter H(z), including its current value, the Hubble constant H0. Each gravitational wave (GW) signal provides the luminosity distance to the source, and we estimate the corresponding redshift using two methods: the redshifted masses and a galaxy catalog. Using the binary black hole (BBH) redshifted masses, we simultaneously infer the source mass distribution and H(z). The source mass distribution displays a peak around 34 M⊙, followed by a drop-off. Assuming …


Development Of A Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation For Weakly Ionized Plasmas, Xiaochuan (Chloe) Zheng, James Doyle 2023 Macalester College

Development Of A Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation For Weakly Ionized Plasmas, Xiaochuan (Chloe) Zheng, James Doyle

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

A plasma is a gaseous system that contains large numbers of electrons and ions that are subject to forces produced by electric and magnetic fields. Weakly ionized plasmas, where the plasma density is much lower than the background gas density, are common in laboratory, atmospheric, and astrophysical situations. Theoretical calculations of plasma properties are challenging due to the complexity of the differential equations used to characterize fundamental physics. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations bypass the mathematical difficulties associated with analytic models, at the expense of more complex and time-consuming computer calculations. In this work we developed a one dimensional PIC simulation of …


Tools For Refining The Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation, Ezra D. Wolf 2023 Macalester College

Tools For Refining The Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation, Ezra D. Wolf

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

This paper discusses the development of tools for galactic photometry using wise, and for reduction and analysis of 21cm galaxy spectra. These Python-based tools can then be applied to selected data in order to refine the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation. This relation, between baryonic mass and rotational velocity of a galaxy, proves useful for extragalactic research, particularly in calculating redshift-independent distances. While these tools could be further improved, they provide a robust process for calculation of particular galaxy characteristics.


Hydrosphere: Modeling The Planetary Structure Of Ocean Planets And Icy Moons, Karlee R. Taylor 2023 Macalester College

Hydrosphere: Modeling The Planetary Structure Of Ocean Planets And Icy Moons, Karlee R. Taylor

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

In recent years, “water worlds” have become increasingly of interest to astrobiologists due to their high potential for habitability, as the large amount water on their surfaces is not only necessary for life, but also promises long-term climatic stability. However, also necessary for life is the exchange of chemical compounds between the geosphere and the hydrosphere - something which may be ob- structed by the presence of high pressure ices on these ocean planets and icy moons. In order to explore the habitability of bodies with various surface temperatures, water masses, and core radii, this project develops a model of …


From Experiment To Theory: Investigate The Effect Of Pump Beam Size On Photovoltaic Material Behavior, Dengyu Tu 2023 Macalester College

From Experiment To Theory: Investigate The Effect Of Pump Beam Size On Photovoltaic Material Behavior, Dengyu Tu

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

In orde to investigate the effect of the pump beam size on an ultrafast conductivity measurement experiment, an experiment using Femto XL-500 laser and a simulation using Mathematica were performed. From the experiment data, we found that as the size of the pump beam decreases beyond certain limit, the Drude model can not accurately predict the relationship between conductivity and frequency. In addition, the simulation results corroborate with the experiment result that there is a limit for the size of the pump beam.


Machine Learning Refinements To Metallicity-Dependent Isotopic Abundances, Haoxuan Sun 2023 Macalester College

Machine Learning Refinements To Metallicity-Dependent Isotopic Abundances, Haoxuan Sun

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The project aims to use machine learning algorithms to fit the free parameters of an isotopic scaling model to elemental observations. The processes considered are massive star nucleosynthesis, Type Ia SNe, the s-process, the r-process, and p-isotope production. The analysis on the successful fits seeks to minimize the reduced chi squared between the model and the data. Based upon the successful refinement of the isotopic parameterized scaling model, a table providing the 287 stable isotopic abundances as a function of metallicity, separated into astrophysical processes, is useful for identifying the chemical history of them. The table provides a complete averaged …


Machine Learning Applications For Materials Science: Predicting Properties Of Two-Dimensional Magnetic Materials, Paige Stevenson 2023 Macalester College

Machine Learning Applications For Materials Science: Predicting Properties Of Two-Dimensional Magnetic Materials, Paige Stevenson

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We trained successful neural networks to predict the formation energy and magnetic moment of 2-dimensional ferromagnetic materials of similar structure to Cr2Ge2Te6. We collect elemental data on materials with known and unknown properties from easily accessible sources to screen for viable materials for use in future research. Random forest regressors were used to identify the most important predictors of our target qualities, which perform better on predictions of formation energy than magnetic moment. We predict the properties of 1225 materials that are candidates for further research in two-dimensional magnetism and identify several potential sources of error in our models that …


Fabricating Perovskite Solar Cells: Fabrication Guide For Limited Lab Capabilities, Erin F. S. Leary 2023 Macalester College

Fabricating Perovskite Solar Cells: Fabrication Guide For Limited Lab Capabilities, Erin F. S. Leary

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Within the realm of emerging photovoltaics, Perovskite cells are one of the most intriguing technologies. Within a little over a decade, Perovskite solar cells have rivaled the efficiencies of traditional silicon solar cells and strongly outpaced other emerging photovoltaic technologies. This paper aims to show a fabrication guide for creating Perovskite solar cells in a limited lab setting. The fabrication guide created structures with strong physical reliability, but limited electrical reliability. More research is needed to ensure greater reliability and proper electrical function.


Solar Radio Bursts —Deployable Low-Band Ionosphere And Transients Experiment (Dlite) Arrays, Jonathan M. Kazor, Jason Kooi 2023 Macalester College

Solar Radio Bursts —Deployable Low-Band Ionosphere And Transients Experiment (Dlite) Arrays, Jonathan M. Kazor, Jason Kooi

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Solar radio bursts, phenomenon that often accompany CME, solar flares and other solar events, can be detected on earth and used in the prediction of solar weather that affects earth systems in several ways. As part of the NREIP Program supporting the Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, approximately ten interns participated in the analysis of data collected by DLITE and WAVES radio data. Data from DLITE is often used as a complement to data from WAVES due to differences in frequency range and resolution. The analysis helps to correlate the DLITE data with the data collected from other sources. …


Mapping The Tesseral Field Of Saturn, Aurora Hiveley 2023 Macalester College

Mapping The Tesseral Field Of Saturn, Aurora Hiveley

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Saturn's rotation rate is still uncertain, and while it is theorized to exhibit differential rotation much like Jupiter, this claim is somewhat disputed. By analyzing the properties of waves in the ring system of Saturn as measured by the Cassini spacecraft, we aim to provide observational evidence of this phenomenon. The results of wave analysis allow us to characterize the perturbers responsible for the production of these waves, which are believed to be mass anomalies in the interior of Saturn itself. By calculating the masses of these anomalies and attempting to pinpoint their locations inside of the planet, we provide …


Trinification With A Bi-Adjoint Higgs Field, Ross Ferguson 2023 Macalester College

Trinification With A Bi-Adjoint Higgs Field, Ross Ferguson

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

In this paper, we propose a novel extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, based on the trinification gauge group $SU(3)_C \times SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$. Symmetry breaking is achieved using a bi-adjoint Higgs field (transforming under the left- and right-handed subgroups) along with a more conventional bi-triplet to ensure the correct breaking and pattern of fermion masses. To preserve a discrete $Z_2$ symmetry (T-parity), we also introduce a right-handed triplet to completely break trinification symmetry to the Standard Model. The minimization conditions and conditions for the boundedness of the potential for this model are calculated. Additionally, the Standard Model …


Adding Classical Novae Contribution To The Isotopic Scaling Model, Mengxi Chen 2023 Macalester College

Adding Classical Novae Contribution To The Isotopic Scaling Model, Mengxi Chen

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The Isotopic Scaling model(West & Heger, 2013) provides a complete average isotopic decomposition for our Milky Way as a function of metallicity and it requires an initial Solar Abundance Decomposition as a starting point. The previous Solar Abundance decomposition work is not perfect(West & Heger, 2013), since Classical Novae abundances are ignored. My research intends to improve the current solar abundance decomposition by adding Classical Novae Abundance contribution, then to update the Isotopic Scaling model.


Exploring The Mass To Light Ratio Of Massive Galaxies With The Rubin Dp0 Preview Dataset, Denvir Joy Higgins 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Exploring The Mass To Light Ratio Of Massive Galaxies With The Rubin Dp0 Preview Dataset, Denvir Joy Higgins

Physics

The Vera C. Rubin Observatory will perform the 10-year long Legacy Survey of Space and Time expected to begin in 2024. LSST will cover the Southern Hemisphere, collecting over two million images with an 8.4-meter telescope and 3200-pixel camera. In collaboration with the scientific community and based on the Outer Rim Simulation \citep{heit19}, the Rubin Observatory released a simulated dataset (DP0) of the data that is expected to be in hand at the 5-year mark. Using this simulated dataset, I have explored the number and luminosity of the most massive local galaxies. Using a sample of the brightest, closest galaxies …


The Giant Accreting Protoplanet Survey (Gaplanets)—Results From A 6 Yr Campaign To Image Accreting Protoplanets, Katherine B. Follette, Laird M. Close, Jared R. Males, Kimberly Ward-Duong, William O. Balmer, Jéa Adams Redai, Julio Morales, Catherine Sarosi, Beck Dacus, Robert J. De Rosa, Fernando Garcia Toro, Clare Leonard, Bruce Macintosh, Katie M. Morzinski, Wyatt Mullen, Joseph Palmo, Raymond Nzaba Saitoti, Elijah Spiro, Helena Treiber, Kevin Wagner, Jason Wang, David Wang, Alex Watson, Alycia J. Weinberger 2023 Amherst College

The Giant Accreting Protoplanet Survey (Gaplanets)—Results From A 6 Yr Campaign To Image Accreting Protoplanets, Katherine B. Follette, Laird M. Close, Jared R. Males, Kimberly Ward-Duong, William O. Balmer, Jéa Adams Redai, Julio Morales, Catherine Sarosi, Beck Dacus, Robert J. De Rosa, Fernando Garcia Toro, Clare Leonard, Bruce Macintosh, Katie M. Morzinski, Wyatt Mullen, Joseph Palmo, Raymond Nzaba Saitoti, Elijah Spiro, Helena Treiber, Kevin Wagner, Jason Wang, David Wang, Alex Watson, Alycia J. Weinberger

Astronomy: Faculty Publications

Accreting protoplanets are windows into planet formation processes, and high-contrast differential imaging is an effective way to identify them. We report results from the Giant Accreting Protoplanet Survey (GAPlanetS), which collected Hα differential imagery of 14 transitional disk host stars with the Magellan Adaptive Optics System. To address the twin challenges of morphological complexity and point-spread function instability, GAPlanetS required novel approaches for frame selection and optimization of the Karhounen-Loéve Image Processing algorithm pyKLIP. We detect one new candidate, CS Cha “c,” at a separation of 68 mas and a modest Δmag of 2.3. We recover the HD 142527 B …


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