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Life Beyond The Horizon: The Universe Was Born In A Black Hole, Zahria Patrick 2024 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Life Beyond The Horizon: The Universe Was Born In A Black Hole, Zahria Patrick

Undergraduate Research Symposium

It is a widely accepted fact that obtaining information about a black hole is a near-impossible task without being stretched like a spaghetti noodle and trapped in one due to its strong gravitational pull. If the universe exists in a black hole, however, it will mean that it could be possible to survive after crossing its inescapable borders. As surprising as all of this may seem, this theory has existed for quite a while amongst a few different physicists. One person that has shed light on and expanded people’s knowledge of this frightening theory is theoretical physicist, Nikodem Poplawski. The …


Opacities Of S-Type Stars: The Singlet B¹⊓−X¹Σ⁺, B¹⊓−A¹Δ, And C¹Σ⁺−X¹Σ⁺ Band Systems Of Zro, Peter F. Bernath, Manish Bhusal, Jacques Liévin 2024 Old Dominion University

Opacities Of S-Type Stars: The Singlet B¹⊓−X¹Σ⁺, B¹⊓−A¹Δ, And C¹Σ⁺−X¹Σ⁺ Band Systems Of Zro, Peter F. Bernath, Manish Bhusal, Jacques Liévin

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The ZrO B1Π–X1Σ+, B1Π–A1Δ, and C1Σ+–X1Σ+ band systems are important opacity sources in the near-infrared and optical spectra of S-type stars. A total of 21 rovibronic bands with v'' ≤ 7 and v' ⩽ 5 were observed and fit for the B1Π–X1Σ+ transition, five bands for the 90ZrO B1Π–A1Δ transition and one band for the 90ZrO C1Σ+X1Σ+ transition. All band …


Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part Ii: Experiment Description, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache 2023 University of New Mexico

Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part Ii: Experiment Description, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

The present article was partly inspired by G. Pollack’s book, and also Dadoloff, Saxena & Jensen (2010). As a senior physicist colleague and our friend, Robert N. Boyd, wrote in a journal (JCFA, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2022), for example, things and Beings can travel between Universes, intentionally or unintentionally [4]. In this short remark, we revisit and offer short remark to Neil Boyd’s ideas and trying to connect them with geometry of musical chords as presented by D. Tymoczko and others, then to Escherian staircase and then to Jacob’s ladder which seems to pointto possibility to interpret Jacob’s vision …


Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part I: Theoretical Underpinning, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache 2023 University of New Mexico

Godel, Escherian Staircase And Possibility Of Quantum Wormhole With Liquid Crystalline Phase Of Iced-Water - Part I: Theoretical Underpinning, Victor Christianto, T. Daniel Chandra, Florentin Smarandache

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

As a senior physicist colleague and our friend, Robert N. Boyd, wrote in a journal (JCFA, Vol. 1,. 2, 2022), Our universe is but one page in a large book [4]. For example, things and Beings can travel between Universes, intentionally or unintentionally. In this short remark, we revisit and offer short remark to Neil’s ideas and trying to connect them with geometrization of musical chords as presented by D. Tymoczko and others, then to Escher staircase and then to Jacob’s ladder which seems to point to possibility to interpret Jacob’s vision as described in the ancient book of Genesis …


Improving Inferences About Exoplanet Habitability, Risinie D. Perera, Kevin H. Knuth 2023 University at Albany, State University of New York

Improving Inferences About Exoplanet Habitability, Risinie D. Perera, Kevin H. Knuth

Physics Faculty Scholarship

Assessing the habitability of exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) is of great importance in deciding which planets warrant further careful study. Planets in the habitable zones of stars like our Sun are sufficiently far away from the star so that the light rays from the star can be assumed to be parallel, leading to straightforward analytic models for stellar illumination of the planet’s surface. However, for planets in the close-in habitable zones of dim red dwarf stars, such as the potentially habitable planet orbiting our nearest stellar neighbor, Proxima Centauri, the analytic illumination models based on the parallel ray approximation …


Probing The Physical Mechanisms Responsible For Brown Dwarf And Giant Planet Formation, Sarah Betti 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Probing The Physical Mechanisms Responsible For Brown Dwarf And Giant Planet Formation, Sarah Betti

Doctoral Dissertations

The disks that form around young stellar objects provide the essential material for their continued growth as well as the formation of planets, making them ideal laboratories to investigate the mechanisms and environments key for substellar and planetary formation. In this dissertation, I explore two main formation processes: the transportation of water necessary for giant planet formation, and the accretion and growth of young brown dwarfs. First, I study the water ice content in the circumstellar disk of AB Aurigae, a young Herbig Ae star. I detect and map icy grains on the disk surface using high contrast observations taken …


Understanding The Nature Of Pulsars And Characterizing Propagation Effects Using Pulsar Timing, Pratik Kumar 2023 University of New Mexico

Understanding The Nature Of Pulsars And Characterizing Propagation Effects Using Pulsar Timing, Pratik Kumar

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Pulsars are highly magnetized stellar remnants, among the densest known objects, and primarily produce radio emission in the form of lighthouse beams sweeping across the line of sight as a regular train of pulses. Apart from providing tests for matter in high-density regimes, general relativity, and plasma emission; perhaps the most notable characteristic is their applicability as precise astronomical clocks to measure various effects. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are galactic scale detectors analogous to ground-based detectors of Gravitational Waves (GWs) like LIGO, with the aim of detecting low-frequency nano-Hz GWs from coalescing binary supermassive black holes. PTAs consist of a …


Rotation Period Distributions And Light Curve Morphologies Of Low Mass Stars And Young Associations, Mark Popinchalk 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Rotation Period Distributions And Light Curve Morphologies Of Low Mass Stars And Young Associations, Mark Popinchalk

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is centered around the rotation periods of low-mass stars and association of young stars. Rotation periods are a link to the age of the star, as they lose angular momentum over time. To understand how this angular momentum evolves requires understanding the rotation period distributions of a range of stellar types and ages. Traditionally, M dwarf stars and young stars were challenging to describe due to their intrinsic faintness and dispersed sky positions respectively. I approached this subject from several directions.


Delving Deep: A Population Of Extremely Dusty Dwarfs Observed By Jwst, L. Bisigello, G. Gandolfi, A. Grazian, G. Rodighiero, L. Costantin, A. R. Cooray, A. Feltre, C. Gruppioni, N. P. Hathi, Benne W. Holwerda, A. M. Koekemoer, R. A. Lucas, J. A. Newman, P. G. Pérez-González, L. Y. A. Yung, A. de la Vega, P. Arrabal Haro, M. B. Bagley, M. Dickinson, S. L. Finkelstein, J. S. Kartaltepe, C. Papovich, N. Pirzkal, S. Wilkins 2023 University of Louisville

Delving Deep: A Population Of Extremely Dusty Dwarfs Observed By Jwst, L. Bisigello, G. Gandolfi, A. Grazian, G. Rodighiero, L. Costantin, A. R. Cooray, A. Feltre, C. Gruppioni, N. P. Hathi, Benne W. Holwerda, A. M. Koekemoer, R. A. Lucas, J. A. Newman, P. G. Pérez-González, L. Y. A. Yung, A. De La Vega, P. Arrabal Haro, M. B. Bagley, M. Dickinson, S. L. Finkelstein, J. S. Kartaltepe, C. Papovich, N. Pirzkal, S. Wilkins

Faculty Scholarship

Aims. We take advantage of the NIRCam photometric observations available as part of the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science survey (CEERS) to identify and analyse very red sources in an effort to discover very dusty star forming galaxies. Methods. We select red galaxies as objects with a S / N > 3 at 4.4 μm and a S / N < 2 in all JWST and HST filters at λ ≤ 2 μm, which corresponds to [ F 200 W ]−[ F 444 W ]> 1.2 considering CEERS depths. This selection is ideal to identify very dusty ( A V > 1 mag) galaxies with stellar masses between 10 6 and 10 10 M ⊙ at z < 5, more massive dusty galaxies at z = 5 − 18 and galaxies at z > 18 due to the Lyman absorption, independently of their dust …


Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda 2023 Clemson University

Cosmic Diffuse Neutrino And Gamma-Ray Backgrounds In The Mev Regime, Ilukpitiye Samalka Anandagoda

All Dissertations

Cosmic Multi-Messenger backgrounds include relic diffuse components created in the early Universe and contributions from individual sources. In this dissertation, I present the work done in Anandagoda (2019); Anandagoda et al. (2020, 2023) where type Ia (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) contributions to the diffuse neutrino and gamma-ray backgrounds in the MeV regime are studied. These backgrounds are referred to as DSNB and DSGB respectively. Based on this work, the diffuse SN Ia background is ~106 times lower (for electron antineutrinos) than the CCSN background making it negligible. The predicted DSNB electron antineutrino flux at earth in the …


Connecting The Optical Regime To The X-Ray In Neutron Star Low Mass X-Ray Binaries, Alexander B. Igl 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Connecting The Optical Regime To The X-Ray In Neutron Star Low Mass X-Ray Binaries, Alexander B. Igl

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and Otto Struve Telescope data of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) Cyg X-2 and Sco X-1, the optical regime’s relationship to the X-ray was investigated through several angles. Discrete cross correlations using the optical and X-ray data revealed evidence of reprocessing in both datasets. These were more consistently present in Sco X-1, where both small and obvious features were seen at less than 4 s of optical lag. The size of these lags makes it likely that most of the reprocessing is taking place on the accretion disk. Parameterization of the Z tracks led to …


Development And Testing Of A New Method For Velocity-Selecting White Dwarfs From Gaia By Galactic Population, Joseph Hammill 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Development And Testing Of A New Method For Velocity-Selecting White Dwarfs From Gaia By Galactic Population, Joseph Hammill

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

The detailed processes by which spiral galaxies form remains an open question in modern cosmology. Observations of the current configuration of spiral galaxies including the Milky Way reveal thin and thick disk and halo populations which must all be accounted for in formation theories and likely have distinct ages. Using the Milky Way as an example to probe this question, we are studying the formation history of these structures.

This work details our approach to age-dating the galaxy, velocity-selecting targets from a sample of white dwarfs from the Gaia DR3 catalog that have also been age-analysed using BASE-9. BASE-9 uses …


Bayesian Inference For The White Dwarf Initial-Final Mass Relation, Nathan Stein, Ted von Hippel, David van Dyk, Steven DeGennaro, Elizabeth Jeffery, Bill Jefferys 2023 Harvard University

Bayesian Inference For The White Dwarf Initial-Final Mass Relation, Nathan Stein, Ted Von Hippel, David Van Dyk, Steven Degennaro, Elizabeth Jeffery, Bill Jefferys

Publications

Stars lose mass as they age, and understanding mass loss is important for understanding stellar evolution. The initial-final mass relation (IFMR) is the relationship between a white dwarf’s initial mass on the main sequence and its final mass. We have developed a new method for fitting the IFMR based on a Bayesian analysis of photometric observations, combining deterministic models of stellar evolution in an internally coherent way. No mass data are used. Our method yields precise inferences (with uncertainties) for a parameterized linear IFMR. Our method can also return posterior distributions of white dwarf initial and final masses.


Exploring The Mass To Light Ratio Of Massive Galaxies With The Rubin Dp0 Preview Dataset, Denvir Joy Higgins 2023 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Exploring The Mass To Light Ratio Of Massive Galaxies With The Rubin Dp0 Preview Dataset, Denvir Joy Higgins

Physics

The Vera C. Rubin Observatory will perform the 10-year long Legacy Survey of Space and Time expected to begin in 2024. LSST will cover the Southern Hemisphere, collecting over two million images with an 8.4-meter telescope and 3200-pixel camera. In collaboration with the scientific community and based on the Outer Rim Simulation \citep{heit19}, the Rubin Observatory released a simulated dataset (DP0) of the data that is expected to be in hand at the 5-year mark. Using this simulated dataset, I have explored the number and luminosity of the most massive local galaxies. Using a sample of the brightest, closest galaxies …


Du Undergraduate Showcase: Research, Scholarship, And Creative Works, Caitlyn Aldersea, Justin Bravo, Sam Allen, Anna Block, Connor Block, Emma Buechler, Maria de los Angeles Bustillos, Arianna Carlson, William Christensen, Olivia Kachulis, Noah Craver, Kate Dillon, Muskan Fatima, Angel Fernandes, Emma Finch, Colleen Cassidy, Amy Fishman, Andrea Francis, Stacia Fritz, Simran Gill, Emma Gries, Rylie Hansen, Shannon Powers, Jacqueline Martinez, Zachary Harker, Ashley Hasty, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Kathleen Hopps, Adelaide Kerenick, Colin Kleckner, Ci Koehring, Elijah Kruger, Braden Krumholz, Maddie Leake, Lyneé Alves, Seraphina Loukas, Yatzari Lozano Vazquez, Haley Maki, Emily Martinez, Sierra McKinney, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Audrey Mitchell, Kipling Newman, Audrey Ng, Megan Lucyshyn, Andrew Nguyen, Stevie Ostman, Casandra Pearson, Alexandra Penney, Julia Gielczynski, Tyler Ball, Anna Rini, Christina Rorres, Simon Ruland, Helayna Schafer, Emma Sellers, Sarah Schuller, Claire Shaver, Kevin Summers, Isabella Shaw, Madison Sinar, Claudia Pena, Apshara Siwakoti, Carter Sorensen, Madi Sousa, Anna Sparling, Alexandra Revier, Brandon Thierry, Dylan Tyree, Maggie Williams, Lauren Wols 2023 University of Denver

Du Undergraduate Showcase: Research, Scholarship, And Creative Works, Caitlyn Aldersea, Justin Bravo, Sam Allen, Anna Block, Connor Block, Emma Buechler, Maria De Los Angeles Bustillos, Arianna Carlson, William Christensen, Olivia Kachulis, Noah Craver, Kate Dillon, Muskan Fatima, Angel Fernandes, Emma Finch, Colleen Cassidy, Amy Fishman, Andrea Francis, Stacia Fritz, Simran Gill, Emma Gries, Rylie Hansen, Shannon Powers, Jacqueline Martinez, Zachary Harker, Ashley Hasty, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Kathleen Hopps, Adelaide Kerenick, Colin Kleckner, Ci Koehring, Elijah Kruger, Braden Krumholz, Maddie Leake, Lyneé Alves, Seraphina Loukas, Yatzari Lozano Vazquez, Haley Maki, Emily Martinez, Sierra Mckinney, Mykaela Tanino-Springsteen, Audrey Mitchell, Kipling Newman, Audrey Ng, Megan Lucyshyn, Andrew Nguyen, Stevie Ostman, Casandra Pearson, Alexandra Penney, Julia Gielczynski, Tyler Ball, Anna Rini, Christina Rorres, Simon Ruland, Helayna Schafer, Emma Sellers, Sarah Schuller, Claire Shaver, Kevin Summers, Isabella Shaw, Madison Sinar, Claudia Pena, Apshara Siwakoti, Carter Sorensen, Madi Sousa, Anna Sparling, Alexandra Revier, Brandon Thierry, Dylan Tyree, Maggie Williams, Lauren Wols

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

DU Undergraduate Showcase: Research, Scholarship, and Creative Works


Mapping Galactic Acceleration With Pulsar Timing, Abigail Moran 2023 University of Connecticut

Mapping Galactic Acceleration With Pulsar Timing, Abigail Moran

University Scholar Projects

We have conducted a cross match of objects in Gaia Early Data Release 3 and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the International Pulsar Timing Array’s Data Release 2 (IPTA DR2) to identify binary systems. Gaia has parallax measurements for these optical companions, which we combine with pulsar timing based parallax measurements to calculate new combined MSP distances. Through this crossmatch with IPTA DR2 we improved five distance measurements and found the first parallax measurement for one MSP.

Using this Gaia crossmatch method now with a well-timed subset of the Australia Telescope National Facility’s database, we found three new pulsar distances. We …


Identifying And Analyzing Multi-Star Systems Among Tess Planetary Candidates Using Gaia, Katie E. Bailey 2023 Stephen F Austin State University

Identifying And Analyzing Multi-Star Systems Among Tess Planetary Candidates Using Gaia, Katie E. Bailey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exoplanets represent a young, rapidly advancing subfield of astrophysics where much is still unknown. It is therefore important to analyze trends among their parameters to learn more about these systems. More complexity is added to these systems with the presence of additional stellar companions. To study these complex systems, one can employ programming languages such as Python to parse databases such as those constructed by TESS and Gaia to bridge the gap between exoplanets and stellar companions. Data can then be analyzed for trends in these multi-star exoplanet systems and in juxtaposition to their single-star counterparts. This research was able …


Insights Into Star Formation And Agn Activity In Protocluster Environments From Morphological Studies And Sed Fitting, Erik B. Monson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Insights Into Star Formation And Agn Activity In Protocluster Environments From Morphological Studies And Sed Fitting, Erik B. Monson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I present work done from 2018-2023 to investigate the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes (SMBH) in high redshift overdensities (protoclusters) by studying the star-forming galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) population in the SSA22 protocluster. I examined possible environmental sources of the enhanced star formation and AGN activity in the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster using Hubble WFC3 ∼ 1.6 μm observations of the SSA22 field, including new observations centered on eight X-ray selected protocluster AGN. To investigate the role of mergers in the observed AGN and star formation enhancement, quantitative and visual morphological classifications …


Constraining H0 Via Extragalactic Parallax, Nicholas Ferree 2023 University of Richmond

Constraining H0 Via Extragalactic Parallax, Nicholas Ferree

Honors Theses

We examine the prospects for measurement of the Hubble parameter 𝐻0 via observation of the secular parallax of other galaxies due to our own motion relative to the cosmic microwave background rest frame. Peculiar velocities make distance measurements to individual galaxies highly uncertain, but a survey sampling many galaxies can still yield a precise 𝐻0 measurement. We use both a Fisher information formalism and simulations to forecast errors in 𝐻0 from such surveys, marginalizing over the unknown peculiar velocities. The optimum survey observes ∼ 102 galaxies within a redshift 𝐻0max = 0.06. The required errors …


The Magnetic Field Of Protostar-Disk-Outflow Systems, Mahmoud Sharkawi 2023 Western University

The Magnetic Field Of Protostar-Disk-Outflow Systems, Mahmoud Sharkawi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recent observations of protostellar cores reveal complex magnetic field configurations that are distorted in the innermost disk region. Unlike the prestellar phase, where the magnetic field geometry is simpler with an hourglass configuration, magnetic fields in the protostellar phase are sculpted by the formation of outflows and rapid rotation. This gives rise to a significant azimuthal (or toroidal) component that has not yet been analytically modelled in the literature. Moreover, the onset of outflows, which act as angular momentum transport mechanisms, have received considerable attention in the past few decades. Two mechanisms: 1) the driving by the gradient of a …


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