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029— Calculating Gravitational Waves In A Black Hole Binary System, Nami Nishimura 2021 SUNY Geneseo

029— Calculating Gravitational Waves In A Black Hole Binary System, Nami Nishimura

GREAT Day

Our ultimate goal is to compute the gravitational waves in an extreme mass-ratio binary system. Since gravitational perturbations are difficult to calculate, we model the compact object as a point carrying a scalar charge q and moving around a spinning black holes.

In this project, we take advantage of symmetry under rotation around the spin axis in order to separate φ variables and leverage the periodicity of the source to separate t variable with a Fourier series. The remaining differential equations will be solved numerically with an appropriate discretization considering a grid of points in r-θ plane


Formation Of Supermassive Black Holes In The Early Universe, Arpan Das 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Formation Of Supermassive Black Holes In The Early Universe, Arpan Das

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to understand the formation and growth of the seeds of the supermassive black holes in early universe. Supermassive black holes (SMBH) with masses larger than 108MSun have been observed when the Universe was only 800 Myr old. The formation and accretion history of the seeds of these supermassive black holes are a matter of debate. We consider the scenario of massive seed black hole formation which allows gas to directly collapse into a black hole (DCBH) of similar mass. Considering this scenario, we show that the mass ...


Comparing Dust In Other Galaxies To Dust In Our Galaxy, Fatima Elkhatib 2021 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Comparing Dust In Other Galaxies To Dust In Our Galaxy, Fatima Elkhatib

Senior Theses

Interstellar dust in galaxies has a profound effect on the galaxies’ light output and apparent properties as well as on the physical processes connected to star formation. Therefore, to understand the true properties of the galaxies around us, it is important to understand the dust in those galaxies and compare it to the dust in our galaxy. To do this, we study the effects of dust on background quasars by analyzing interstellar reddening and extinction. It has been shown that many quasars look redder and dimmer than the average quasar when observing them from Earth, due to the dust in ...


Monitoring Agns With H-Beta Asymmetry: Markarian 841, Samuel J. Schonsberg 2021 University of Montana

Monitoring Agns With H-Beta Asymmetry: Markarian 841, Samuel J. Schonsberg

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Quasars are among the most luminous objects in the Universe, and the mechanism behind their luminosity was shrouded in mystery decades after their discovery. Since then, we have found that these objects are active galactic nuclei (AGN), which are powered by actively-feeding super massive black holes at the center of a galaxy. But we still know fairly little about the structure and motion of the material surrounding active super massive black holes, and most of these objects are not resolvable by conventional observations. We use a technique called reverberation mapping, which is traditionally used only as a mass determination method ...


A Detailed X-Ray Analysis Of The Cold Front In Relics Cluster A2163, Anne Poy 2021 Claremont Colleges

A Detailed X-Ray Analysis Of The Cold Front In Relics Cluster A2163, Anne Poy

CMC Senior Theses

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Studying them can teach us about how they merge and grow, which in turn provides unparalleled information about the history of the evolution of the Universe. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters have uncovered substructure in the hot, X-ray emitting gas known as the intracluster mediums (ICM). Substructure indicates that the ICM has been churned up, possibly by a significant off-axis merger event. This substructure includes cold fronts, sloshing spirals, and shocks. We present deep Chandra observations of the merging cluster Abell 2163. We investigate the global spectrum and find ...


Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei From Differential Photometry, Nicholas Steven Yee 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei From Differential Photometry, Nicholas Steven Yee

Physics

The Seoul AGN Monitoring Project, or SAMP for short, is an international project (PI Jonghak Woo from Korea) with the goal of measuring the masses of black holes residing in the center of massive active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs are some of the brightest objects in the universe. Their light is attributed to the accretion of material onto the black hole. However, these objects are too distant to spatially resolve the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole directly. Instead, we use a technique called reverberation mapping which observes the variability of the AGN power-law continuum emission and the ...


A Mildly Relativistic Outflow From The Energentic, Fast-Rising Blue Optical Transient Css161010 In A Dwarf Galaxy, Deanne L. Coppejans, R. Margutti, G. Terreran, A. J. Nayana, E. R. Coughlin, T. Laskar, K. D. Alexander, M. Bietenholz, D. Caprioli, P. Chandra, M. R. Drout, D. Frederiks, C. Frohmaier, K. H. Hurley, C. S. Kochanek, M. MacLeod, A. Meisner, P. E. Nugent, A. Ridnaia, D. J. Sand, D. Svinkin, C. Ward, S. Yang, A. Baldeschi, I. V. Chilingarian, Y. Dong, C. Esquivia, W. Fong, C. Guidorzi, P. Lundqvist, D. Milisavljevic 2020 Northwestern University

A Mildly Relativistic Outflow From The Energentic, Fast-Rising Blue Optical Transient Css161010 In A Dwarf Galaxy, Deanne L. Coppejans, R. Margutti, G. Terreran, A. J. Nayana, E. R. Coughlin, T. Laskar, K. D. Alexander, M. Bietenholz, D. Caprioli, P. Chandra, M. R. Drout, D. Frederiks, C. Frohmaier, K. H. Hurley, C. S. Kochanek, M. Macleod, A. Meisner, P. E. Nugent, A. Ridnaia, D. J. Sand, D. Svinkin, C. Ward, S. Yang, A. Baldeschi, I. V. Chilingarian, Y. Dong, C. Esquivia, W. Fong, C. Guidorzi, P. Lundqvist, D. Milisavljevic

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present X-ray and radio observations of the Fast Blue Optical Transient CRTS-CSS161010 J045834−081803 (CSS161010 hereafter) at t = 69–531 days. CSS161010 shows luminous X-ray (L x ~ 5 × 1039 erg s−1) and radio (L ν ~ 1029 erg s−1 Hz−1) emission. The radio emission peaked at ~100 days post-transient explosion and rapidly decayed. We interpret these observations in the context of synchrotron emission from an expanding blast wave. CSS161010 launched a mildly relativistic outflow with velocity Γβc ≥ 0.55c at ~100 days. This is faster than the non-relativistic AT 2018cow (Γβc ~ 0.1c) and closer to ZTF18abvkwla ...


The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" And The Observational Consequences Of Episodi Accretion, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, Ruobing Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu 2020 Clemson University

The Planetary Luminosity Problem: " Missing Planets" And The Observational Consequences Of Episodi Accretion, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, Ruobing Dong, Zhaohuan Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The high occurrence rates of spiral arms and large central clearings in protoplanetary disks, if interpreted as signposts of giant planets, indicate that gas giants commonly form as companions to young stars (Myr) at orbital separations of 10–300 au. However, attempts to directly image this giant planet population as companions to more mature stars (>10 Myr) have yielded few successes. This discrepancy could be explained if most giant planets form by "cold start," i.e., by radiating away much of their formation energy as they assemble their mass, rendering them faint enough to elude detection at later times. In ...


Computational Astronomy: Classification Of Celestial Spectra Using Machine Learning Techniques, Gayatri Milind Hungund 2020 San Jose State University

Computational Astronomy: Classification Of Celestial Spectra Using Machine Learning Techniques, Gayatri Milind Hungund

Master's Projects

Lightyears beyond the Planet Earth there exist plenty of unknown and unexplored stars and Galaxies that need to be studied in order to support the Big Bang Theory and also make important astronomical discoveries in quest of knowing the unknown. Sophisticated devices and high-power computational resources are now deployed to make a positive effort towards data gathering and analysis. These devices produce massive amount of data from the astronomical surveys and the data is usually in terabytes or petabytes. It is exhaustive to process this data and determine the findings in short period of time. Many details can be missed ...


Formation Pathways In Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Measuring The Distribution Of Ages, Metallicities, And Hydrodynamics Of Stellar Populations, Priscilla E. Holguin West 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Formation Pathways In Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Measuring The Distribution Of Ages, Metallicities, And Hydrodynamics Of Stellar Populations, Priscilla E. Holguin West

Physics

Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) are the most massive galaxies in the local universe and have had the full age of the universe to build. This makes their formation and evolution history particularly interesting as they offer a glimpse at potential evolutionary pathways for younger systems. We present the radial profile of ages, metallicities, and preliminary classification of companions to 23 BCGs observed using the SparsePak instrument on WIYN by running the STARLIGHT stellar population synthesis models. This analysis of the BCGs’ stellar populations is done by separating each BCG into different regions, and preliminary results of the stellar populations for ...


Towards Gross-Pitaevskiian Description Of Solar System & Galaxies, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati 2020 University of New Mexico

Towards Gross-Pitaevskiian Description Of Solar System & Galaxies, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In this paper, we argue that Gross-Pitaevskii model can be a more complete description of both solar system and spiral galaxies, especially taking into account the nature of chirality and vortices in galaxies. We also hope to bring out some correspondence among existing models, e.g., the topological vortex approach, Burgers equation in the light of KAM theory, and the Cantorian Navier-Stokes approach. We hope further investigation can be done around this line of approach.


Alma 0.88 Mm Survey Of Disks Around Planetary-Mass Companions, Ya-Lin Wu, Brendan P. Bowler, Patrick D. Sheehan, Sean M. Andrews, Gregory J. Herczeg, Adam L. Kraus, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner, Zhaohuan Zhu 2020 University of Texas at Austin

Alma 0.88 Mm Survey Of Disks Around Planetary-Mass Companions, Ya-Lin Wu, Brendan P. Bowler, Patrick D. Sheehan, Sean M. Andrews, Gregory J. Herczeg, Adam L. Kraus, Luca Ricci, David J. Wilner, Zhaohuan Zhu

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Characterizing the physical properties and compositions of circumplanetary disks can provide important insights into the formation of giant planets and satellites. We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.88 mm (Band 7) continuum observations of six planetary-mass (10–20 M Jup) companions: CT Cha b, 1RXS 1609 b, ROXs 12 b, ROXs 42B b, DH Tau b, and FU Tau b. No continuum sources are detected at the locations of the companions down to 3σ limits of 120–210 μJy. Given these nondetections, it is not clear whether disks around planetary-mass companions indeed follow the disk-flux–host-mass trend in ...


Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine McDaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon 2020 Southern Methodist University

Automated Spectroscopic Detection And Mapping Using Alma And Machine Learningtechniques, Steven Cocke, Andrew Wilkins, Josephine Mcdaniel, John Santerre, Conor Nixon

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we present a methodology for automating theclassification of spectrally resolved observations of multiple emissionlines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).Molecules in planetary atmospheres emit or absorb different wavelengthsof light thereby providing a unique signature for each species. ALMAdata were taken from interferometric observations of Titan made be-tween UT 2012 July 03 23:22:14 and 2012 July 04 01:06:18 as part ofALMA project 2011.0.00319.S. We first employed a greedy set cover algorithm to identify the most probable molecules that would reproducethe set of frequencies with respective flux greater than ...


Host-Galaxy Morphology Of 14 Local Active Galaxies As Imaged By The Hubble Space Telescope, Tomas Henry Snyder 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Host-Galaxy Morphology Of 14 Local Active Galaxies As Imaged By The Hubble Space Telescope, Tomas Henry Snyder

Physics

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are galaxies with super-massive black holes, that are undergoing accretion, at their centers. The study of these objects provides us with a deeper understanding of how the black holes evolved along with their host galaxies since black hole mass is highly correlated with bulge mass. A sample of 66 AGNs were imaged using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and 14 of those are analyzed in this paper to determine their structure, bulge luminosity, and bulge type. The program GALFIT is implemented to determine these parameters, that will be used in further research in the future. These ...


Fast Radio Bursts From Interacting Binary Neutron Star Systems, Bing Zhang 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Fast Radio Bursts From Interacting Binary Neutron Star Systems, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Recent observations of repeating fast radio bursts (FRBs) suggest that some FRBs reside in an environment consistent with that of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers. The bursting rate for repeaters could be very high and the emission site is likely from a magnetosphere. We discuss a hypothesis of producing abundant repeating FRBs in BNS systems. Decades to centuries before a BNS system coalesces, the magnetospheres of the two neutron stars start to interact relentlessly. Abrupt magnetic reconnection accelerates particles, which emit coherent radio waves in bunches via curvature radiation. FRBs are detected as these bright radiation beams point toward Earth ...


Asteroid Belt Survival Through Stellar Evolution: Dependence On The Stellar Mass, Rebecca G. Martin, Mario Livio, Jeremy L. Smallwood, Cheng Chen 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Asteroid Belt Survival Through Stellar Evolution: Dependence On The Stellar Mass, Rebecca G. Martin, Mario Livio, Jeremy L. Smallwood, Cheng Chen

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Polluted white dwarfs are generally accreting terrestrial-like material that may originate from a debris belt like the asteroid belt in the Solar system. ... See full text for complete abstract.


Extreme Ultraviolet Quasar Colours From Galex Observations Of The Sdss Dr14q Catalogue, Daniel E. Vanden Berk, Sarah C. Wesolowski, Mary J. Yeckley, Joseph M. Marcinik, Jean M. Quashnock, Lawrence M. Machia, Jian Wu 2020 Old Dominion University

Extreme Ultraviolet Quasar Colours From Galex Observations Of The Sdss Dr14q Catalogue, Daniel E. Vanden Berk, Sarah C. Wesolowski, Mary J. Yeckley, Joseph M. Marcinik, Jean M. Quashnock, Lawrence M. Machia, Jian Wu

Computer Science Faculty Publications

The rest-frame far to extreme ultraviolet (UV) colour–redshift relationship has been constructed from data on over 480,000 quasars carefully cross-matched between SDSS Data Release 14 and the final GALEX photometric catalogue. UV matching and detection probabilities are given for all the quasars, including dependencies on separation, optical brightness, and redshift. Detection limits are also provided for all objects. The UV colour distributions are skewed redward at virtually all redshifts, especially when detection limits are accounted for. The median GALEX far-UV minus near-UV (FUV − NUV) colour–redshift relation is reliably determined up to z ≈ 2.8, corresponding to rest-frame ...


Significance Of Gravitational Nonlinearities On The Dynamics Of Disk Galaxies, Alexandre Deur, Corey Sargent, Balša Terzić 2020 Old Dominion University

Significance Of Gravitational Nonlinearities On The Dynamics Of Disk Galaxies, Alexandre Deur, Corey Sargent, Balša Terzić

Physics Faculty Publications

The discrepancy between the visible mass in galaxies or galaxy clusters and that inferred from their dynamics is well known. The prevailing solution to this problem is dark matter. Here we show that a different approach, one that conforms to both the current standard model of particle physics and general relativity (GR), explains the recently observed tight correlation between the galactic baryonic mass and the measured accelerations in the galaxy. Using direct calculations based on GR's Lagrangian and parameter-free galactic models, we show that the nonlinear effects of GR make baryonic matter alone sufficient to explain this observation. Our ...


New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd 2019 University of New Mexico

New Foundation In The Sciences: Physics Without Sweeping Infinities Under The Rug, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory. For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows: “What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can ...


Spatially Resolved Stellar Kinematics Of The Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44. Ii. Constraints On Fuzzy Dark Matter, Asher Wasserman, Pieter van Dokkum, Aaron Romanowsky, Jean Brodie, Shany Danieli, Duncan Forbes, Roberto Abraham, Christopher Martin, Matt Matuszewski, Alexa Villaume, John Tamanas, Stefano Profumo 2019 University of California, Santa Cruz

Spatially Resolved Stellar Kinematics Of The Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44. Ii. Constraints On Fuzzy Dark Matter, Asher Wasserman, Pieter Van Dokkum, Aaron Romanowsky, Jean Brodie, Shany Danieli, Duncan Forbes, Roberto Abraham, Christopher Martin, Matt Matuszewski, Alexa Villaume, John Tamanas, Stefano Profumo

Faculty Publications

Given the absence of directly detected dark matter (DM) as weakly interacting massive particles, there is strong interest in the possibility that DM is an ultralight scalar field, here denoted as "fuzzy" DM. Ultra-diffuse galaxies, with the sizes of giant galaxies and the luminosities of dwarf galaxies, have a wide range of DM halo masses, thus providing new opportunities for exploring the connections between galaxies and their DM halos. Following up on new integral field unit spectroscopic observations and dynamics modeling of the DM-dominated ultra-diffuse galaxy Dragonfly 44 in the outskirts of the Coma Cluster, we present models of fuzzy ...


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