Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,506 Full-Text Articles 5,783 Authors 324,611 Downloads 38 Institutions

All Articles in Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health

Faceted Search

2,506 full-text articles. Page 3 of 63.

Surveys For Ticks On Wildlife Hosts And In The Environment At Asian Longhorned Tick (Haemaphysalis Longicornis)-Positive Sites In Virginia And New Jersey, 2018, Seth A. White, Sarah N. Bevins, Mark G. Ruder, David Shaw, Stacey L. Vigil, Adam Randall, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kristen Dominguez, Alec T. Thompson, James W. Mertins, Jeffrey T. Alfred, Michael J. Yabsley 2021 University of Georgia

Surveys For Ticks On Wildlife Hosts And In The Environment At Asian Longhorned Tick (Haemaphysalis Longicornis)-Positive Sites In Virginia And New Jersey, 2018, Seth A. White, Sarah N. Bevins, Mark G. Ruder, David Shaw, Stacey L. Vigil, Adam Randall, Thomas J. Deliberto, Kristen Dominguez, Alec T. Thompson, James W. Mertins, Jeffrey T. Alfred, Michael J. Yabsley

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Haemaphysalis longicornis, the Asian longhorned tick (ALT), is native to eastern Asia, but it has become invasive in several countries, including Australia, New Zealand and recently in the eastern United States (US). To identify wild mammal and avian host species in the US, we conducted active wildlife surveillance in two states with known ALT infestations (Virginia and New Jersey). In addition, we conducted environmental surveys in both states. These surveillance efforts resulted in detection of 51 ALTinfested individuals from seven wildlife species, including raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), woodchuck (Marmota monax), eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus ...


A Sonic Net Reduces Damage To Sunflower By Blackbirds (Icteridae): Implications For Broad-Scale Agriculture And Crop Establishment, Amanda K. Werrell, Page E. Klug, Romuald N. Lipcius, John P. Swaddle 2021 William & Mary

A Sonic Net Reduces Damage To Sunflower By Blackbirds (Icteridae): Implications For Broad-Scale Agriculture And Crop Establishment, Amanda K. Werrell, Page E. Klug, Romuald N. Lipcius, John P. Swaddle

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Blackbirds, such as red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), are notorious agricultural pests and damage crops at multiple stages of growth. Our aim was to test a novel deterrent, the use of sound designed to mask communication among birds (termed a “Sonic Net”), to deter blackbirds (Icteridae) from target areas of maturing sunflower crops. The Sonic Net masks communication of a target species by delivering “pink noise” that overlaps with the frequencies that the species uses for acoustic communication. If birds cannot hear predators or conspecific warning calls their perceived predation risk increases, and they relocate to an area with lower predation ...


Evaluating Lethal Toxicant Doses For The Largest Individuals Of An Invasive Vertebrate Predator With Indeterminate Growth, Shane R. Siers, Scott M. Goetz, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Melia G. Nafus 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Evaluating Lethal Toxicant Doses For The Largest Individuals Of An Invasive Vertebrate Predator With Indeterminate Growth, Shane R. Siers, Scott M. Goetz, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Melia G. Nafus

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) was accidentally introduced to Guam and caused severe ecological and economic damages. Acetaminophen is an effective, low-risk oral toxicant for invasive brown treesnakes, and an automated aerial delivery system (ADS) has been developed for landscape-scale toxic bait distribution. A fixed dose of 80 mg of acetaminophen within a tablet inserted into a dead neonatal mouse (DNM) was lethal for all brown treesnakes in previous trials; however, these trials did not include very large individuals which are difficult to acquire for testing. Because most reptiles continue to grow throughout their lifespan, a small number reach much ...


Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana DaSilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen 2021 Emory University School of Medicine

Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana Dasilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reassortment among co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) is an important source of viral diversity and can facilitate expansion into novel host species. Indeed, reassortment played a key role in the evolution of the last three pandemic IAVs. Observed patterns of reassortment within a coinfected host are likely to be shaped by several factors, including viral load, the extent of viral mixing within the host and the stringency of selection. These factors in turn are expected to vary among the diverse host species that IAV infects. To investigate host differences in IAV reassortment, here we examined reassortment of two distinct avian ...


Spatial Transferability Of Expert Opinion Models For American Beaver Habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, Jimmy D. Taylor 2021 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State & Siskiyou County Department of Agriculture

Spatial Transferability Of Expert Opinion Models For American Beaver Habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, Jimmy D. Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Species distribution models and habitat suitability models (HSMs) have become a popular tool in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the ability to predict species spatial distributions at sites beyond the data source sites (i.e., spatial transferability) is critical for the applications of HSMs in the management and conservation of rare or endangered species. The main objective of our study was to assess the predictive performance and spatial transferability of expert opinion models (EOMs). To build EOMs, we identified through extensive literature reviews 17 key landscape variables to characterize habitat use by American beaver (Castor canadensis). We developed 31 pairwise ...


Multi-Level Movement Response Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) To Removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin 2021 USDA APHIS, Fort Collins, CO

Multi-Level Movement Response Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) To Removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Lethal removal of invasive species, such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa), is often the most efficient approach for reducing their negative impacts. Wild pigs are one of the most widespread and destructive invasive mammals in the USA. Lethal management techniques are a key approach for wild pigs and can alter wild pig spatial behavior, but it is unclear how wild pigs respond to the most common removal technique, trapping.We investigated the spatial behavior of wild pigs following intensive removal of conspecifics via trapping at three sites within the Savannah River Site, SC, USA. We evaluated changes in wild ...


Food Habits Of Wintering Double-Crested Cormorants In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Mississippi State University

Food Habits Of Wintering Double-Crested Cormorants In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Given its ubiquity, it is not surprising that agriculture, including fin fish aquaculture, contributes to food webs worldwide and is used by numerous wildlife for foraging and meeting other needs. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) impact United States commercial aquaculture and are considered the primary avian predator in catfish (Ictalurus spp.) aquaculture facilities in the Mississippi Delta. Recent changes in aquaculture practices, regulatory policies, and decreased overall hectares in production prompted this study that assessed cormorant consumption of catfish in relation to their night roosts through surveys and diet analysis. Cormorants were collected from night roosts from October through April 2016 ...


Environmental Correlates Of Genetic Variation In The Invasive European Starling In North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, Irby J. Lovette 2021 Cornell University

Environmental Correlates Of Genetic Variation In The Invasive European Starling In North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, Irby J. Lovette

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Populations of invasive species that colonize and spread in novel environments may differentiate both through demographic processes and local selection. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were introduced to New York in 1890 and subsequently spread throughout North America, becoming one of the most widespread and numerous bird species on the continent. Genome-wide comparisons across starling individuals and populations can identify demographic and/or selective factors that facilitated this rapid and successful expansion. We investigated patterns of genomic diversity and differentiation using reduced-representation genome sequencing of 17 winter-season sampling sites. Consistent with this species' high dispersal rate and rapid expansion history, we ...


Temporal And Spatial Blood Feeding Patterns Of Urban Mosquitoes In The San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, Matthew W. Hopken, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole Scavo, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Zaid Abdo, Daniel Taylor, James Pierce, Donald A. Yee 2021 United States Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO

Temporal And Spatial Blood Feeding Patterns Of Urban Mosquitoes In The San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, Matthew W. Hopken, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole Scavo, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Zaid Abdo, Daniel Taylor, James Pierce, Donald A. Yee

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Simple Summary: Understanding the biodiversity of urban ecosystems is critical for management of invasive and pest species, conserving native species, and disease control. Mosquitoes (Culicidae) are ubiquitous and abundant in urban ecosystems, and rely on blood meals taken from vertebrates. We used DNA from freshly blood-fed mosquitoes to characterize the diversity of vertebrate host species in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico. We collected two mosquito species that fed on a variety of vertebrates. Culex quinquefasciatus fed on 17 avian taxa (81.2% of blood meals), seven mammalian taxa (17.9%), and one reptilian taxon (0.85%). Aedes aegypti ...


Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie Mckee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wildlife damage to crops is a persistent and costly problem for many farmers in the USA. Most existing estimates of crop damage have relied on direct assessment methods such as field studies conducted by trained biologists or surveys distributed to farmers. In this paper, we describe a new method of estimating wildlife damage that exploits federal crop insurance data. We focused our study on four crops: corn, soybean, wheat, and cotton, chosen because of their economic importance and their vulnerability to wildlife damage.

RESULTS: We determined crop-raiding hot spots across the USA over the 2015–2019 period and identified ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia Rufa) Management On Conifer Stocking In Western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor, Vanessa M. Petro 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Evaluating The Effects Of Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia Rufa) Management On Conifer Stocking In Western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor, Vanessa M. Petro

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is the most primitive rodent species in North America and is endemic to the Pacific Northwest, USA. Within their range, mountain beaver cause more conflict with conifer forest regeneration than any other vertebrate species. Most damage occurs as a result of clipping and browsing new seedlings, which reduces stocking density and delays stand development. An integrated approach using trapping and a registered toxicant (baiting) has been suggested as the most efficacious means to reduce seedling loss during stand initiation. We evaluated this management strategy in intensively managed conifer stands across two mountain ranges in western Oregon ...


The Evolutionary Consequences Of Human–Wildlife Conflict In Cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, Maureen H. Murray 2021 University of Washington Tacoma,

The Evolutionary Consequences Of Human–Wildlife Conflict In Cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, Maureen H. Murray

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human–wildlife interactions, including human–wildlife conflict, are increasingly common as expanding urbanization worldwide creates more opportunities for people to encounter wildlife. Wildlife–vehicle collisions, zoonotic disease transmission, property damage, and physical attacks to people or their pets have negative consequences for both people and wildlife, underscoring the need for comprehensive strategies that mitigate and prevent conflict altogether. Management techniques often aim to deter, relocate, or remove individual organisms, all of which may present a significant selective force in both urban and nonurban systems. Managementinduced selection may significantly affect the adaptive or nonadaptive evolutionary processes of urban populations, yet few ...


Modeling Mongoose Rabies In The Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach To Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, Patrick A. Leighton 2021 Université de Montréal

Modeling Mongoose Rabies In The Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach To Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, Patrick A. Leighton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We applied the model-guided fieldwork framework to the Caribbean mongoose rabies system by parametrizing a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, and by performing an uncertainty analysis designed to identify parameters for which additional empirical data are most needed. Our analysis revealed important variation in output variables characterizing rabies dynamics, namely rabies persistence, exposure level, spatiotemporal distribution, and prevalence. Among epidemiological parameters, rabies transmission rate was the most influential, followed by rabies mortality and location, and size of the initial infection. The most influential landscape parameters included habitat-specific carrying capacities, landscape heterogeneity, and the level of resistance to dispersal associated with topography. Movement ...


Peptide Elisa And Fret-Qpcr Identified A Significantly Higher Prevalence Of Chlamydia Suis In Domestic Pigs Than In Feral Swine From The State Of Alabama, Usa, Md Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi, Subarna Barua, Kh. Shamsur Rahman, Virginia Aida, Brian Anderson, Anil Poudel, Anwar Kalalah, Sara Bolds, Steven Madere, Steven Kitchens, Stuart Price, Vienna Brown, B. Graeme Lockaby, Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Chengming Wang 2021 Auburn University

Peptide Elisa And Fret-Qpcr Identified A Significantly Higher Prevalence Of Chlamydia Suis In Domestic Pigs Than In Feral Swine From The State Of Alabama, Usa, Md Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi, Subarna Barua, Kh. Shamsur Rahman, Virginia Aida, Brian Anderson, Anil Poudel, Anwar Kalalah, Sara Bolds, Steven Madere, Steven Kitchens, Stuart Price, Vienna Brown, B. Graeme Lockaby, Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Chengming Wang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chlamydia suis is an important, highly prevalent, and diverse obligate intracellular pathogen infecting pigs. In order to investigate the prevalence and diversity of C. suis in the U.S., 276 whole blood samples from feral swine were collected as well as 109 fecal swabs and 60 whole blood samples from domestic pigs. C. suis-specific peptide ELISA identified anti-C. suis antibodies in 13.0% of the blood of feral swine (26/276) and 80.0% of the domestic pigs (48/60). FRET-qPCR and DNA sequencing found C. suis DNA in 99.1% of the fecal swabs (108/109) and ...


Modelling The Factors Affecting The Probability For Local Rabies Elimination By Strategic Control, Johann L. Kotzé, John Duncan Grewar, Aaron M. Anderson 2021 University of Pretoria

Modelling The Factors Affecting The Probability For Local Rabies Elimination By Strategic Control, Johann L. Kotzé, John Duncan Grewar, Aaron M. Anderson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Dog rabies has been recognized from ancient times and remains widespread across the developing world with an estimated 59,000 people dying annually from the disease. In 2011 a tri-partite alliance consisting of the OIE, the WHO and the FAO committed to globally eliminating dog-mediated human rabies by 2030. Regardless of global support, the responsibility remains with local program managers to implement successful elimination programs. It is well known that vaccination programs have a high probability of successful elimination if they achieve a population-coverage of 70%. It is often quoted that reducing population turnover (typically through sterilizations) raises the probability ...


Diets Of Double-Crested Cormorants In The Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, Ryan P. Koenigs, Daniel J. Dembkowski, Charles D. Lovell, Daniel A. Isermann, Adam D. Nickel 2021 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Diets Of Double-Crested Cormorants In The Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, Ryan P. Koenigs, Daniel J. Dembkowski, Charles D. Lovell, Daniel A. Isermann, Adam D. Nickel

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorox auritus Lesson (cormorant) populations have increased throughout the Great Lakes region of North America causing concern related to the impact of cormorant predation on fish communities. A recent decline in yellow perch Perca flavescens (Mitchill) abundance within the Lake Winnebago System, Wisconsin, USA, prompted an assessment of cormorant diets to evaluate potential effects of cormorant predation on the sportfish community. Diets were collected from 883 cormorants (417 from Lake Winnebago and 466 from Lake Butte des Morts) between 2015 and 2017. Cormorant diets on both waterbodies consisted mostly of freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque and gizzard shad ...


Efficacy And Risks From A Modified Sodium Nitrite Toxic Bait For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Jason Wishart, Justin A. Foster, Linton D. Staples, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Efficacy And Risks From A Modified Sodium Nitrite Toxic Bait For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Jason Wishart, Justin A. Foster, Linton D. Staples, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species throughout many regions of the world. In 2018, a field evaluation of an early prototype of a sodium nitrite (SN) toxic bait in the United States revealed wild pigs dropped large amounts of the toxic bait outside the pig-specific bait stations while feeding, and thus subsequent hazards for non-target animals. We modified the SN-toxic bait formulation, the design of the bait station, and the baiting strategy to reduce dropped bait. We tested the modifications in Queensland, Australia (December 2018), Alabama, USA (August 2019), and Texas, USA (March 2020) under differing ...


Daily And Landscape Influences Of Species Visitation To Toxic Bait Sites For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Michael Lavelle, Justin Fischer, Eric H. VanNatta, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Daily And Landscape Influences Of Species Visitation To Toxic Bait Sites For Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Michael Lavelle, Justin Fischer, Eric H. Vannatta, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Toxic baiting of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is a potential new tool for population control and damage reduction in the United States. Use of toxic bait sites by non‐target species is concerning because of the risks posed from exposure to a toxic bait. A 2018 field trial in northern Texas, USA, examining the efficacy of a prototype toxic bait (HOGGONE®, containing 10% sodium nitrite) revealed unexpected hazards to non‐target species, primarily passerine birds, from consuming toxic bait spilled outside of bait stations by wild pigs. The hazards jeopardize the ability to register HOGGONE as a tool for controlling ...


Invasive Species In Puerto Rico: The View From El Yunque, Jess Zimmerman, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Aaron B. Shiels 2021 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras

Invasive Species In Puerto Rico: The View From El Yunque, Jess Zimmerman, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Native flora and fauna of Puerto Rico have a long biogeographic connection to South America. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that islands, particularly those distantly isolated from the mainland, should be more susceptible to naturalizations and invasions of non-native species than continental areas. Anthropogenic disturbances can facilitate accidental and deliberate introductions of non-native species. In this study, we asked: What is the current status of introduced species within El Yunque National Forest (EYNF), the largest and most well-conserved forest area of Puerto Rico? To address this question, we reviewed the literature and surveyed local experts to identify introduced plant and ...


Evidence For Continental-Scale Dispersal Of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria By Landfill-Foraging Gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, Andrew M. Ramey 2021 USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage

Evidence For Continental-Scale Dispersal Of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria By Landfill-Foraging Gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. Van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, Andrew M. Ramey

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Anthropogenic inputs into the environment may serve as sources of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and alter the ecology and population dynamics of synanthropic wild animals by providing supplemental forage. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic and genomic approaches to characterize antimicrobial resistant indicator bacteria, animal telemetry to describe host movement patterns, and a novel modeling approach to combine information fromthese diverse data streams to investigate the acquisition and long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls. Our results provide evidence that gulls acquire antimicrobial resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources, which they may subsequently disperse across and between ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress