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Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty 2022 Technological University of the Shannon

Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses …


Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovis Strains From North America Reveals Two Genotypes With Different Genetic Determinants, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille, John Dustin Loy, Gennie Schuller, Kristen L. Kuhn, Aaron M. Dickey, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovis Strains From North America Reveals Two Genotypes With Different Genetic Determinants, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille, John Dustin Loy, Gennie Schuller, Kristen L. Kuhn, Aaron M. Dickey, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi both associate with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), an economically significant and painful ocular disease that affects cattle worldwide. There are two genotypes of M. bovoculi (genotypes 1 and 2) that differ in their gene content and potential virulence factors, although neither have been experimentally shown to cause IBK. M. bovis is a causative IBK agent, however, not all strains carry a complete assortment of known virulence factors. The goals of this study were to determine the population structure and depth of M. bovis genomic diversity, and to compare core and accessory genes and …


Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra 2022 Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Streptococcus mitis/oralis is a fermentative bacterium that relies on lactate dehydrogenase to balance its redox poise and keep glycolysis active. Metabolomic analysis of an in vitro– derived daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) S. mitis/oralis strain (351-D10) revealed differences in glucose catabolism relative to its DAP-susceptible (DAP-S) parental strain, 351. Metabolic changes associated with the transition to this DAP-R phenotype suggested that inhibiting glycolysis could alter DAP susceptibility. In addition, the strong reliance of S. mitis/oralis on glycolysis for energy and biosynthetic intermediates suggested that inhibiting glycolysis would adversely affect growth and biomass accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we used the lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor …


Glutathione And Glutaredoxin In Redox Regulation And Cell Signaling Of The Lens, Marjorie F. Lou 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln,University of Nebraska Medical Center, University of North Texas Health Science Center

Glutathione And Glutaredoxin In Redox Regulation And Cell Signaling Of The Lens, Marjorie F. Lou

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The ocular lens has a very high content of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the enzymes that can recycle its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), for further use. It can be synthesized in the lens and, in part, transported from the neighboring anterior aqueous humor and posterior vitreous body. GSH is known to protect the thiols of the structural lens crystallin proteins from oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) so the lens can maintain its transparency for proper visual function. Age-related lens opacity or senile cataract is the major visual impairment in the general population, and its cause is closely …


Recent Emergence Of Bovine Coronavirus Variants With Mutations In The Hemagglutinin-Esterase Receptor Binding Domain In U.S. Cattle, Aspen M. Workman, Tara G. McDaneld, Gregory P. Harhay, Subha Das, John Dustin Loy, Benjamin M. Hause 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Recent Emergence Of Bovine Coronavirus Variants With Mutations In The Hemagglutinin-Esterase Receptor Binding Domain In U.S. Cattle, Aspen M. Workman, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Gregory P. Harhay, Subha Das, John Dustin Loy, Benjamin M. Hause

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) has spilled over to many species, including humans, where the host range variant coronavirus OC43 is endemic. The balance of the opposing activities of the surface spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoproteins controls BCoV avidity, which is critical for interspecies transmission and host adaptation. Here, 78 genomes were sequenced directly from clinical samples collected between 2013 and 2022 from cattle in 12 states, primarily in the Midwestern U.S. Relatively little genetic diversity was observed, with genomes having >98% nucleotide identity. Eleven isolates collected between 2020 and 2022 from four states (Nebraska, Colorado, California, and Wisconsin) contained a …


Assessment Of Diversity Of Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes And Genotypes Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Isolates From Bovine Nasopharyngeal Swabs, Hannah F. Carter, Robert W. Wills, Matthew A. Scott, Alexis C. Thompson, Randall S. Singer, John Dustin Loy, Brandi B. Karisch, William B. Epperson, Amelia R. Woolums 2022 Mississippi State University

Assessment Of Diversity Of Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes And Genotypes Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Isolates From Bovine Nasopharyngeal Swabs, Hannah F. Carter, Robert W. Wills, Matthew A. Scott, Alexis C. Thompson, Randall S. Singer, John Dustin Loy, Brandi B. Karisch, William B. Epperson, Amelia R. Woolums

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The threat of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) for cattle operations is exacerbated by increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Mannheimia haemolytica, a leading cause of BRD. Characterization of AMR in M. haemolytica by culture and susceptibility testing is complicated by uncertainty regarding the number of colonies that must be selected to accurately characterize AMR phenotypes (antibiograms) and genotypes in a culture. The study objective was to assess phenotypic and genotypic diversity of M. haemolytica isolates on nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from 28 cattle at risk for BRD or with BRD. NPS were swabbed onto five consecutive blood agar plates; …


Vaccinia Virus Arrests And Shifts The Cell Cycle, Caroline K. Martin, Jerzy Samolej, Annabel T. Olson, Cosetta Bertoli, Matthew S. Wiebe, Robertus A. M. de Bruin, Jason Mercer 2022 University College London

Vaccinia Virus Arrests And Shifts The Cell Cycle, Caroline K. Martin, Jerzy Samolej, Annabel T. Olson, Cosetta Bertoli, Matthew S. Wiebe, Robertus A. M. De Bruin, Jason Mercer

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Modulation of the host cell cycle is a common strategy used by viruses to create a proreplicative environment. To facilitate viral genome replication, vaccinia virus (VACV) has been reported to alter cell cycle regulation and trigger the host cell DNA damage response. However, the cellular factors and viral effectors that mediate these changes remain unknown. Here, we set out to investigate the effect of VACV infection on cell proliferation and host cell cycle progression. Using a subset of VACV mutants, we characterise the stage of infection required for inhibition of cell proliferation and define the viral effectors required to dysregulate …


Evaluation Of Bioactive Properties Of Lipophilic Fractions Of Edible And Non-Edible Parts Of Nasturtium Officinale (Watercress) In A Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma Cells, Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Heba Alghol, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis 2022 The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics

Evaluation Of Bioactive Properties Of Lipophilic Fractions Of Edible And Non-Edible Parts Of Nasturtium Officinale (Watercress) In A Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma Cells, Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Heba Alghol, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Watercress is an enriched source of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), among other phytochemicals, with an antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to (i) chemically characterize and (ii) biologically evaluate the profile of the main health-promoting compounds contained in edible (i.e., mixture of leaves and lateral buds) and non-edible (i.e., stems) parts of watercress in an in vitro model of malignant melanoma consisting of human malignant melanoma (A375), non-melanoma (A431) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The extraction of the main constituents of watercress was performed by subjecting the freeze-dried edible and non-edible samples through different extraction protocols, whereas their concentration was …


Harnessing Mycobacterium Bovis Bcg Trained Immunity To Control Human And Bovine Babesiosis, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Heba F. Alzan, Vignesh A. Rathinasamy, Brian M. Cooke, Odir A. Dellagostin, Raul G. Barletta, Carlos E. Suarez 2022 Washington State University

Harnessing Mycobacterium Bovis Bcg Trained Immunity To Control Human And Bovine Babesiosis, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Heba F. Alzan, Vignesh A. Rathinasamy, Brian M. Cooke, Odir A. Dellagostin, Raul G. Barletta, Carlos E. Suarez

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Babesiosis is a disease caused by tickborne hemoprotozoan apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia that negatively impacts public health and food security worldwide. Development of effective and sustainable vaccines against babesiosis is currently hindered in part by the absence of definitive host correlates of protection. Despite that, studies in Babesia microti and Babesia bovis, major causative agents of human and bovine babesiosis, respectively, suggest that early activation of innate immune responses is crucial for vertebrates to survive acute infection. Trained immunity (TI) is defined as the development of memory in vertebrate innate immune cells, allowing more efficient responses to subsequent …


Emerging Biomedical Applications Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein, Sheeba Rehman, Suman Bishnoi, Rajarshi Roy, Anshu Kumari, Harikrishnan Jayakumar, Sharad Gupta, Parimal Kar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Bebasis Nayak 2022 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal

Emerging Biomedical Applications Of The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein, Sheeba Rehman, Suman Bishnoi, Rajarshi Roy, Anshu Kumari, Harikrishnan Jayakumar, Sharad Gupta, Parimal Kar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Bebasis Nayak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Nanoparticles (NPs) made of metals, polymers, micelles, and liposomes are increasingly being used in various biomedical applications. However, most of these NPs are hazardous for long- and short-term use and hence have restricted biomedical applications. Therefore, naturally derived, biocompatible, and biodegradable nanoconstructs are being explored for such applications. Inspired by the biology of viruses, researchers are exploring the viral proteins that hold considerable promise in biomedical applications. The viral proteins are highly stable and further amenable to suit specific biological applications. Among various viral proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) has emerged as one of the most versatile platforms for …


Dissecting The Cellular Landscape And Transcriptome Network In Viral Myocarditis By Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Ninaad Lasrado, Nicholas Borcherding, Rajkumar Arumugam, Timothy K. Starr, Jay Reddy 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dissecting The Cellular Landscape And Transcriptome Network In Viral Myocarditis By Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Ninaad Lasrado, Nicholas Borcherding, Rajkumar Arumugam, Timothy K. Starr, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis is commonly employed to study viral pathogenesis in mice.Chronically affected micemaydevelop dilated cardiomyopathy, which may involve the mediation of immune and nonimmune cells. To dissect this complexity, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on heart cells from healthy and myocarditic mice, leading us to note significant proportions of myeloid cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. Although the transcriptomes of myeloid cells were mainly of M2 phenotype, the Th17 cells, CTLs, and Treg cells had signatures critical for cytotoxic functions. Fibroblasts were heterogeneous expressing genes important in fibrosis and regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The intercellular communication networks …


Evaluation Of Ivermectin Antiviral Activity Against Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Using A Chicken Embryo Model, Donald L. Reynolds, E. Barry Simpson 2022 University of Nebraska – Lincoln

Evaluation Of Ivermectin Antiviral Activity Against Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Using A Chicken Embryo Model, Donald L. Reynolds, E. Barry Simpson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Ivermectin is widely used in both animals and humans as an FDA-approved parasiticide. Ivermectin has also been reported to have antiviral activity against several viruses including coronaviruses. There are reports that indicate ivermectin may have some role in diminishing the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, but the evidence is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine if ivermectin was efficacious in inhibiting avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, a coronavirus) replication in chicken embryos. Briefly, our approach was to use the Massachusetts vaccine strain of IBV in combination with various doses of ivermectin and then inoculate these preparations into chicken …


Structural Variant-Based Pangenome Construction Has Low Sensitivity To Variability Of Haplotype-Resolved Bovine Assemblies, Alexander S. Leonard, Danang Crysnanto, Zih-Hua Fang, Michael P. Heaton, Brian L. Vander Ley, Carolina Herrera, Heinrich Bollwein, Derek M. Bickhart, Benjamin D. Rosen, Hubert Pausch 2022 Animal Genomics, ETH Zurich

Structural Variant-Based Pangenome Construction Has Low Sensitivity To Variability Of Haplotype-Resolved Bovine Assemblies, Alexander S. Leonard, Danang Crysnanto, Zih-Hua Fang, Michael P. Heaton, Brian L. Vander Ley, Carolina Herrera, Heinrich Bollwein, Derek M. Bickhart, Benjamin D. Rosen, Hubert Pausch

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Advantages of pangenomes over linear reference assemblies for genome research have recently been established. However, potential effects of sequence platform and assembly approach, or of combining assemblies created by different approaches, on pangenome construction have not been investigated. Here we generate haplotype-resolved assemblies from the offspring of three bovine trios representing increasing levels of heterozygosity that each demonstrate a substantial improvement in contiguity, completeness, and accuracy over the current Bos taurus reference genome. Diploid coverage as low as 20x for HiFi or 60x for ONT is sufficient to produce two haplotype-resolved assemblies meeting standards set by the Vertebrate Genomes Project. …


Does Swab Type Matter? Comparing Methods For Mannheimia Haemolytica Recovery And Upper Respiratory Microbiome Characterization In Feedlot Cattle, William B. Crosby, Lee Pinnell, John T. Richeson, Cory Wolfe, Jake Castle, John Dustin Loy, Sheryl P. Gow, Keun Seok Seo, Sarah F. Capik, Amelia R. Woolums, Paul S. Morley 2022 Mississippi State University

Does Swab Type Matter? Comparing Methods For Mannheimia Haemolytica Recovery And Upper Respiratory Microbiome Characterization In Feedlot Cattle, William B. Crosby, Lee Pinnell, John T. Richeson, Cory Wolfe, Jake Castle, John Dustin Loy, Sheryl P. Gow, Keun Seok Seo, Sarah F. Capik, Amelia R. Woolums, Paul S. Morley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by interactions among host, environment, and pathogens. One standard method for antemortem pathogen identification in cattle with BRD is deep-guarded nasopharyngeal swabbing, which is challenging, costly, and waste generating. The objective was to compare the ability to recover Mannheimia haemolytica and compare microbial community structure using 29.5 inch (74.9 cm) deep-guarded nasopharyngeal swabs, 16 inch (40.6 cm) unguarded proctology swabs, or 6 inch (15.2 cm) unguarded nasal swabs when characterized using culture, real time-qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Samples for aerobic culture, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were collected from the …


Rna Nanovaccine Protects Against White Spot Syndrome Virus In Shrimp, Yashdeep Phanse, Supraja Puttamreddy, Duan Loy, Julia Vela Ramirez, Kathleen A. Ross, Ignacio Alvarez-Castro, Mark Mogler, Scott Broderick, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan, Lyric C. Bartholomay 2022 Iowa State University

Rna Nanovaccine Protects Against White Spot Syndrome Virus In Shrimp, Yashdeep Phanse, Supraja Puttamreddy, Duan Loy, Julia Vela Ramirez, Kathleen A. Ross, Ignacio Alvarez-Castro, Mark Mogler, Scott Broderick, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan, Lyric C. Bartholomay

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

In the last 15 years, crustacean fisheries have experienced billions of dollars in economic losses, primarily due to viral diseases caused by such pathogens as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. To date, no effective measures are available to prevent or control disease outbreaks in these animals, despite their economic importance. Recently, double-stranded RNA-based vaccines have been shown to provide specific and robust protection against WSSV infection in cultured shrimp. However, the limited stability of double-stranded RNA is the most significant hurdle for the field application of these …


Chemical And Biological Characterization Of The Anticancer Potency Of Salvia Fruticosa In A Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma, Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Michael Plioukas, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Paschalina S. Chatzopoulou, Eirini Sarrou, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi 2021 The Cyprus Institute of Neurology & Genetics; The Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine

Chemical And Biological Characterization Of The Anticancer Potency Of Salvia Fruticosa In A Model Of Human Malignant Melanoma, Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Michael Plioukas, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Paschalina S. Chatzopoulou, Eirini Sarrou, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer with an increasing incidence worldwide. Thus, the development of innovative therapeutic approaches is of great importance. Salvia fruticosa (SF) is known for its anticancer properties and in this context, we aimed to investigate its potential anti-melanoma activity in an in vitro model of human malignant melanoma. Cytotoxicity was assessed through a colorimetric-based sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay in primary malignant melanoma (A375), non-malignant melanoma epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and non-tumorigenic melanocyte neighbouring keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Among eight (8) different fractions of S. fruticosa extracts (SF1-SF8) tested, SF3 was found to possess …


Mt10-Cvb3 Vaccine Virus Protects Against Cvb4 Infection By Inducing Cross-Reactive, Antigen-Specific Immune Responses, Ninaad Lasrado, Rajkumar Arumugam, Mahima T. Rasquinha, Meghna Sur, David Steffen, Jay Reddy 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mt10-Cvb3 Vaccine Virus Protects Against Cvb4 Infection By Inducing Cross-Reactive, Antigen-Specific Immune Responses, Ninaad Lasrado, Rajkumar Arumugam, Mahima T. Rasquinha, Meghna Sur, David Steffen, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) containing six serotypes, B1–B6, affect various organs, and multiple serotypes can induce similar diseases such as myocarditis and pancreatitis. Yet, no vaccines are currently available to prevent these infections. Translationally, the derivation of vaccines that offer protection against multiple serotypes is highly desired. In that direction, we recently reported the generation of an attenuated strain of CVB3, termed Mt10, which completely protects against both myocarditis and pancreatitis induced by the homologous wild-type CVB3 strain. Here, we report that the Mt10 vaccine can induce cross-protection against multiple CVB serotypes as demonstrated with CVB4. We note that the …


The Novel Orfv Protein Orfv113 Activates Lpa-P38 Signaling, Sushil Khatiwad, Gustavo Delho, Sabal Chaulagai, Daniel L. Rock 2021 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

The Novel Orfv Protein Orfv113 Activates Lpa-P38 Signaling, Sushil Khatiwad, Gustavo Delho, Sabal Chaulagai, Daniel L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Viruses have evolved mechanisms to subvert critical cellular signaling pathways that regulate a wide range of cellular functions, including cell differentiation, proliferation and chemotaxis, and innate immune responses. Here, we describe a novel ORFV protein, ORFV113, that interacts with the G protein-coupled receptor Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1). Consistent with its interaction with LPA1, ORFV113 enhances p38 kinase phosphorylation in ORFV infected cells in vitro and in vivo, and in cells transiently expressing ORFV113 or treated with soluble ORFV113. Infection of cells with virus lacking ORFV113 (OVIA82Δ113) significantly decreased p38 phosphorylation and viral plaque size. …


African Swine Fever Virus Cd2v Protein Induces Β-Interferon Expression And Apoptosis In Swine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Sabal Chaulangain, Gustavo A. Delhon, Sushil Khatiwada, Daniel L. Rock 2021 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

African Swine Fever Virus Cd2v Protein Induces Β-Interferon Expression And Apoptosis In Swine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Sabal Chaulangain, Gustavo A. Delhon, Sushil Khatiwada, Daniel L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

African swine fever (ASF) is a hemorrhagic disease of swine characterized by massive lymphocyte depletion in lymphoid tissues due to the apoptosis of B and T cells, a process likely triggered by factors released or secreted by infected macrophages. ASFV CD2v (EP402R) has been implicated in viral virulence and immunomodulation in vitro; however, its actual function(s) remains unknown. We found that CD2v expression in swine PK15 cells induces NF-κB-dependent IFN-β and ISGs transcription and an antiviral state. Similar results were observed for CD2v protein treated swine PBMCs and macrophages, the major ASFV target cell. Notably, treatment of swine PBMCs and …


Attenuated Strain Of Cvb3 With A Mutation In The Car‑Interacting Region Protects Against Both Myocarditis And Pancreatitis, Ninaad Lasrado, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rajkumar Arumugam, Allison Shelbourn, Mahima T. Rasquinha, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Gustavo Delhon, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K. Pattnaik, David Steffen, Jay Reddy 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Attenuated Strain Of Cvb3 With A Mutation In The Car‑Interacting Region Protects Against Both Myocarditis And Pancreatitis, Ninaad Lasrado, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rajkumar Arumugam, Allison Shelbourn, Mahima T. Rasquinha, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Gustavo Delhon, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K. Pattnaik, David Steffen, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), is commonly implicated in myocarditis, which can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy, in addition to causing acute pancreatitis and meningitis. Yet, no vaccines are currently available to prevent this infection. Here, we describe the derivation of a live attenuated vaccine virus, termed mutant (Mt) 10, encoding a single amino acid substitution H790A within the viral protein 1, that prevents CVB3 infection in mice and protects from both myocarditis and pancreatitis in challenge studies. We noted that animals vaccinated with Mt 10 developed virus neutralizing antibodies, predominantly containing IgG2a and IgG2b, and to a lesser extent IgG3 and IgG1. …


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