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Distribution Of Crispr Types In Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Debora Brito Goulart, Zuowei Wu, Jinji Pang, Seyda Cengiz, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin 2021 Ataturk University

Distribution Of Crispr Types In Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Debora Brito Goulart, Zuowei Wu, Jinji Pang, Seyda Cengiz, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

To aid development of phage therapy against Campylobacter, we investigated the distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems in fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Campylobacter jejuni. A total of 100 FQ-resistant C. jejuni strains from different sources were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing to determine resistance-conferring mutation in the gyrA gene and the presence of various CRISPR systems. All but one isolate harbored 1–5 point mutations in gyrA, and the most common mutation was the Thr86Ile change. Ninety-five isolates were positive with the CRISPR PCR, and spacer sequences were found in 86 of them. Among the ...


Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press 2021 Iowa State University

Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press

Purdue University Press Books

Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues covers the century when infectious plagues—anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, plague, smallpox, and polio—were conquered, and details the important role that veterinary scientists played. The narrative is driven by astonishing events that centered on animal disease: the influenza pandemic of 1872, discovery of the causes of anthrax and tuberculosis in the 1880s, conquest of Texas cattle fever and then yellow fever, German anthrax attacks on the United States during World War I, the tuberculin war of 1931, Japanese biological warfare in the 1940s, and today’s bioterror dangers.

Veterinary science in the rural Midwest ...


Collagen Has A Unique Sec24 Preference For Efficient Export From The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Chung-Ling Lu, Jacob Cain, Jon Brudvig, Steven Ortmeier, Simeon A. Boyadjiev, Jill M. Weimer, Jinoh Kim 2021 Iowa State University

Collagen Has A Unique Sec24 Preference For Efficient Export From The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Chung-Ling Lu, Jacob Cain, Jon Brudvig, Steven Ortmeier, Simeon A. Boyadjiev, Jill M. Weimer, Jinoh Kim

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Procollagen requires COPII coat proteins for export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). SEC24 is the major component of the COPII proteins that selects cargo during COPII vesicle assembly. There are four paralogs (A to D) of SEC24 in mammals, which are classified into two subgroups. Pathological mutations in SEC24D cause osteogenesis imperfecta with craniofacial dysplasia in humans and sec24d mutant fish also recapitulate this phenotypes. Consistent with the skeletal phenotypes, the secretion of collagen was severely defective in mutant fish, emphasizing the importance of SEC24D in collagen secretion. However, SEC24D patient derived fibroblasts show only a mild secretion phenotype, suggesting ...


Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs 2021 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of California-Davis, and Iowa State University

Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Metaherpetic disease is recognized in humans affected by herpes simplex virus-1 but is not reported in cats affected by feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) despite the high prevalence of herpetic disease in this species and strong similarities in viral biology between alphaherpesviruses of humans and cats. This preliminary work evaluated cats naïve to FHV-1 (n = 9 cats, 18 eyes; control population) and cats naturally exposed to FHV-1 (n = 4 cats, 7 eyes), as confirmed by serologic testing and review of medical records. Antemortem assessment included clinical scoring, blink rate, corneal aesthesiometry, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) with ...


Impact Of The Histidine‐Containing Phosphocarrier Protein Hpr On Carbon Metabolism And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Linda Pätzold, Anne-Christine Brausch, Evelyn-Laura Bielefeld, Lisa Zimmer, Greg A. Somerville, Markus Bischoff, Rosmarie Gaupp 2021 Saarland University

Impact Of The Histidine‐Containing Phosphocarrier Protein Hpr On Carbon Metabolism And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Linda Pätzold, Anne-Christine Brausch, Evelyn-Laura Bielefeld, Lisa Zimmer, Greg A. Somerville, Markus Bischoff, Rosmarie Gaupp

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common mechanism pathogenic bacteria use to link central metabolism with virulence factor synthesis. In gram‐positive bacteria, catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and the histidine‐containing phosphocarrier protein HPr (encoded by ptsH) are the predominant mediators of CCR. In addition to modulating CcpA activity, HPr is essential for glucose import via the phosphotransferase system. While the regulatory functions of CcpA in Staphylococcus aureus are largely known, little is known about the function of HPr in CCR and infectivity. To address this knowledge gap, ptsH mutants were created in S. aureus that either lack the ...


Of Pigs And Men: The Best-Laid Plans For Prevention And Control Of Swine Fevers, Jishu Shi, Lihua Wang, David Scott McVey 2021 Kansas State University

Of Pigs And Men: The Best-Laid Plans For Prevention And Control Of Swine Fevers, Jishu Shi, Lihua Wang, David Scott Mcvey

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

John Steinbeck drew the title of his novel “Of Mice and Men” from a line in a Robert Burns poem “To a mouse”: “The best-laid plans of mice and men/Go often awry.” Unlike John Steinbeck who used the title to mirror the characters who were struggling during the Great Depression to the mouse whose nest was accidentally destroyed by the poet (Burns 1785), we chose this line to emphasize that the best-laid plan can go wrong in infectious disease control and prevention. Here, we will discuss the contributing factors behind the global successes and failures in the prevention and ...


Special Issue: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Rodney A. Moxley 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Special Issue: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Globally, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease, most notably hemorrhagic colitis, and post-diarrheal sequela, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) [1]. Cattle are a major reservoir of STEC, with approx- imately half of the cases in humans attributable to foodborne exposure [2]. Prevention of human illness has mainly been through food safety measures [2]. Despite extensive research, no other generally accepted and effective preventive measures or therapies for STEC infections in human patients are available [3]. Many questions remain about STEC virulence factors, pathogenesis, detection, and other aspects that necessitate a continua- tion of basic ...


An Evaluation Of The Anti-Carcinogenic Response Of Major Isothiocyanates In Non-Metastatic And Metastatic Melanoma Cells, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotiris Kyriakou, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi 2021 Northumbria University

An Evaluation Of The Anti-Carcinogenic Response Of Major Isothiocyanates In Non-Metastatic And Metastatic Melanoma Cells, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotiris Kyriakou, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Malignant melanoma is one of the most deadly types of solid cancers, a property mainly attributed to its highly aggressive metastatic form. On the other hand, different classes of isothiocy- anates, a class of phytochemicals, present in cruciferous vegetables have been characterized by considerable anti-cancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the current study, we investigated the anti-cancer response of five isothiocyanates in an in vitro model of melanoma consisting of non-metastatic (A375, B16F-10) and metastatic (VMM1, Hs294T) malignant melanoma as well as non-melanoma epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and non-tumorigenic melanocyte-neighboring keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Our aim ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Prativa Majee, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Prativa Majee, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canon- ical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for anti- viral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Bio- physical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences con- taining these potential GQ sequences ...


Female And Male-Controlled Livestock Holdings Impact Pastoralist Food Security And Women’S Dietary Diversity, Henriette Gitungwa, Christopher Gustafson, E.Y. Jimenez, E. Wesley F. Peterson, M. Mwanzalila, Asha Makweta, E. Komba, R.R. Kazwala, J.A.K. Mazet, Elizabeth VanWormer 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Female And Male-Controlled Livestock Holdings Impact Pastoralist Food Security And Women’S Dietary Diversity, Henriette Gitungwa, Christopher Gustafson, E.Y. Jimenez, E. Wesley F. Peterson, M. Mwanzalila, Asha Makweta, E. Komba, R.R. Kazwala, J.A.K. Mazet, Elizabeth Vanwormer

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Food insecurity is a global problem that requires a One Health approach. As many households in low- and middle-income nations rely on crops and livestock that they produce to meet their household’s needs, food security and nutrition are closely linked to the health of animals and the environment. Resources controlled by women are more often allocated to uses that benefit the entire household, such as food, health, and educating children, than men’s resources. However, studies of gender control of resources among pastoralist societies are scant. We examined the effect of female and male control of livestock resources ...


Correction: Moxley, R.A., Et Al. Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 263, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David Francis 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Correction: Moxley, R.A., Et Al. Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 263, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David Francis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: On page 2, the sentence that reads, “Hence, EHEC is a rare but established cause of HUS in children and adults.” should read, “Hence, EHEC is a rare but established cause of UTI-associated HUS in children and adults.” On page 4, the sentence that reads, “As noted previously, 14 of 126 (13.3%) piglets orally inoculated with EHEC O157:H7 strains developed mild to moderate purulent cystitis within 8 d PI [25] (Table 1).” should read, “As noted previously, 14 of 105 (13.3%) piglets orally inoculated with ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Utility Of Point‐Of‐Care Lung Ultrasound For Monitoring Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema In Dogs, Shane D. Murphy, Jessica L. Ward, Austin K. Viall, Melissa A. Tropf, Rebecca A. Walton, Jennifer L. Fowler, Wendy A. Ware, Teresa C. DeFrancesco 2020 Iowa State University

Utility Of Point‐Of‐Care Lung Ultrasound For Monitoring Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema In Dogs, Shane D. Murphy, Jessica L. Ward, Austin K. Viall, Melissa A. Tropf, Rebecca A. Walton, Jennifer L. Fowler, Wendy A. Ware, Teresa C. Defrancesco

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Point‐of‐care lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective tool to diagnose left‐sided congestive heart failure (L‐CHF) in dogs via detection of ultrasound artifacts (B‐lines) caused by increased lung water.

Hypothesis/Objectives To determine whether LUS can be used to monitor resolution of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs, and to compare LUS to other indicators of L‐CHF control.

Animals Twenty‐five client‐owned dogs hospitalized for treatment of first‐onset L‐CHF.

Methods Protocolized LUS, thoracic radiographs (TXR), and plasma N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide were performed at hospital admission, hospital discharge, and ...


Emerging Roles Of Urine-Derived Components For The Management Of Bladder Cancer: One Man’S Trash Is Another Man’S Treasure, Sarah Minkler, Fabrice Lucien, Michael J. Kimber, Agnes Bourgois-Mochel, Margaret Musser, Chad M. Johannes, Igor Frank, John Cheville, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2020 Iowa State University

Emerging Roles Of Urine-Derived Components For The Management Of Bladder Cancer: One Man’S Trash Is Another Man’S Treasure, Sarah Minkler, Fabrice Lucien, Michael J. Kimber, Agnes Bourgois-Mochel, Margaret Musser, Chad M. Johannes, Igor Frank, John Cheville, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract in humans, with an estimated global prevalence of 1.1 million cases over 5 years. Due to high rates of recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy, UBC is one of the most expensive cancers to treat, resulting in significant health care costs. There is, therefore, a critical need to develop innovative molecular and cellular tools to refine patient stratification and help predict response to treatment. Urine is an underused resource of biological components shed from bladder tumors, such as exfoliated cells and extracellular vesicles, that could serve as ...


A Homologous Bacterin Protects Sheep Against Abortion Induced By A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone, Zuowei Wu, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Changyun Xu, Ashenafi F. Beyi, Paul J. Plummer, Melda Meral Ocal, Qijing Zhang 2020 Iowa State University

A Homologous Bacterin Protects Sheep Against Abortion Induced By A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone, Zuowei Wu, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Changyun Xu, Ashenafi F. Beyi, Paul J. Plummer, Melda Meral Ocal, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni clone SA has emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion outbreaks in the United States (US). Despite the fact that commercial Campylobacter vaccines are available, their efficacy in protecting abortion induced by C. jejuni clone SA is uncertain, and a protective vaccine is needed to control the disease. In this study, an experimental homologous bacterin (made of a clone SA isolate) and two commercial Campylobacter vaccines were evaluated for their protection against C. jejuni clone SA-induced sheep abortion. All vaccines induced high levels of antibodies against C. jejuni clone SA in pregnant ewes, but only the experimental ...


Hypercalcemia Of Malignancy Associated With Exocrine Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma In A Dog, Chad M. Johannes, Ellen R. E. Heinrich, Margaret L. Musser, Claire B. Andreasen 2020 Iowa State University

Hypercalcemia Of Malignancy Associated With Exocrine Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma In A Dog, Chad M. Johannes, Ellen R. E. Heinrich, Margaret L. Musser, Claire B. Andreasen

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

A 10.5‐year‐old, male, neutered Samoyed was presented to the Iowa State University Lloyd Veterinary Medical Center with history (including prior surgical biopsy), non‐specific acute clinical signs and clinicopathology changes most consistent with pancreatitis. Marked hypercalcemia developed within a short span of time, raising clinical concerns for neoplasia. Diagnostic imaging and fine‐needle aspirate cytology were consistent with pancreatitis. Marked elevation in parathyroid hormone–related protein with low parathyroid hormone further supported the diagnosis of underlying neoplasia. The dog’s clinical status declined despite aggressive medical supportive therapy. Humane euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination revealed an extensive ...


Evaluation Of A Pasteurella Multocida Respiratory Disease Induction Model For Goats (Capra Aegagrus Hircus), Joe S. Smith, Jonathan P. Mochel, Yeon-Jung Seo, Amanda P. Ahrens, Ronald W. Griffith 2020 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Pasteurella Multocida Respiratory Disease Induction Model For Goats (Capra Aegagrus Hircus), Joe S. Smith, Jonathan P. Mochel, Yeon-Jung Seo, Amanda P. Ahrens, Ronald W. Griffith

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Infectious respiratory diseases are a serious health concern worldwide. However, few models describe the experimental induction of lung infection, or the effect of experimental infection on clinical pathologic parameters in goats. Goats offer benefits compared to cattle because of size and tractability and compared to sheep with regard to specific features of their anatomy. In previous experimental models of infection in goats, coadministration of an immunosuppressive dose of a corticosteroid is common; however, protocols that use corticosteroid often note mortality as an adverse effect. We therefore investigated an infection protocol that did not use immunosuppression but instead relied on 2 ...


Determinación De La Susceptibilidad Antimicrobiana Contra Cepas Bacterianas Causantes De Endometritis Clínica Bovina, Juan Fernando Castillo Avila, Nicolás Andrés Amaya Bolivar 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Determinación De La Susceptibilidad Antimicrobiana Contra Cepas Bacterianas Causantes De Endometritis Clínica Bovina, Juan Fernando Castillo Avila, Nicolás Andrés Amaya Bolivar

Medicina Veterinaria

El ganado lechero puede cursar con distintas patologías que afectan la eficiencia reproductiva, dentro de estas patologías la endometritis clínica es de especial importancia ya que tiene gran prevalencia y genera grandes impactos económicos en los sistemas de producción. Diversos tratamientos se han implementado en la resolución de la endometritis, en algunos casos reportándose resistencia antimicrobiana probablemente por el uso irracional de medicamentos en los distintos rebaños. En Colombia no existen reportes exactos de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de los microorganismos causantes de esta enfermedad. En el presente estudio se determinó la sensibilidad antimicrobiana de aislamientos de 20 vacas de sistemas de ...


Laboratory Assays Reveal Diverse Phenotypes Among Microfilariae Of Dirofilaria Immitis Isolates With Known Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility Status, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Krystal Chinchilla-Vargas, Pablo D. Jimenez Castro, Ray M. Kaplan, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Laboratory Assays Reveal Diverse Phenotypes Among Microfilariae Of Dirofilaria Immitis Isolates With Known Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility Status, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Krystal Chinchilla-Vargas, Pablo D. Jimenez Castro, Ray M. Kaplan, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Prevention of canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis relies on chemoprophylaxis with macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. Alarmingly, there are increased reports of D. immitis isolates with resistance to macrocyclic lactones and the ability to break through prophylaxis. Yet, there is not a well-established laboratory assay that can utilize biochemical phenotypes of microfilariae to predict drug resistance status. In this study we evaluated laboratory assays measuring cell permeability, metabolism, and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. Our assays revealed that trypan blue, propidium iodide staining, and resazurin metabolism could detect differences among D. immitis isolates but none of these approaches could accurately predict drug susceptibility ...


Repurposing The Open Access Malaria Box Reveals Compounds With Activity Against Tritrichomonas Foetus Trophozoites, Katy A. Martin, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Christopher Bader, Elizabeth Carreiro, Katelyn Long, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Repurposing The Open Access Malaria Box Reveals Compounds With Activity Against Tritrichomonas Foetus Trophozoites, Katy A. Martin, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Christopher Bader, Elizabeth Carreiro, Katelyn Long, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus causes early embryonic death in cattle which results in severe economic loss. In the United States, there are no drugs are approved for treatment of this pathogen. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-protozoal effects of compounds from an open access chemical library against T. foetus trophozoites. An initial high-throughput screen identified 16 compounds of interest. Further investigation revealed 12 compounds that inhibited parasite growth and 4 compounds with lethal effects. For lethal compounds, dose-response curves were constructed and the LD50 was calculated for laboratory and field strains of T. foetus. Our experiments revealed ...


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