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Full-Text Articles in Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health

Covid-19: A One Health Issue, Karen Gruszynski Jun 2021

Covid-19: A One Health Issue, Karen Gruszynski

Cumberland Mountain Naturalist

COVID-19 has very rapidly become part of modern societal lexicon as the disease highlights the importance understanding zoonotic diseases and the impact they can have on human life. With a 177million human cases and 3.82million deaths globally at the time of this publication, the "One Health" nature of the disease has had a lasting impact across the planet. As the disease spread rapidly, it highlighted the dissemination of information through social media and other sources. With this in mind, Dr. Gary Vroegindewey, Director for One Health at LMU-CVM, put forth the idea to have students collect and summarize information ...


Swine Disease Reporting System Report #40, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings Jun 2021

Swine Disease Reporting System Report #40, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

What is the Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS)? SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.

After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent ...


Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel May 2021

Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Diet plays a pivotal role in the overall health of an individual. Not only does it help carry out and regulate certain physiological functions, but it also can determine the composition of the gut microbiome. While the relative number of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiome vary between individuals and can be dependent on different environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that composition of the microbiome can correlate with overall health or disease. When the GI microbiome is disturbed or suddenly changes it results in microbiome dysbiosis, a condition that correlates with the presence of certain diseases. Diseases ...


Swine Disease Reporting System Report #39, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings May 2021

Swine Disease Reporting System Report #39, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

What is the Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS)? SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.

After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent ...


Longitudinal Piglet Sampling In Commercial Sow Farms Highlights The Challenge Of Prrsv Detection, Marcelo Nunes De Almeida, Cesar A. Corzo, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Daniel C. L. Linhares Apr 2021

Longitudinal Piglet Sampling In Commercial Sow Farms Highlights The Challenge Of Prrsv Detection, Marcelo Nunes De Almeida, Cesar A. Corzo, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Daniel C. L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: Processing fluids (PF) and family oral fluids (FOF) are population-based surveillance samples collected from 2- to 5-day-old piglets and due-to-wean piglets, respectively. Although they are described for the surveillance of PRRSV in sows and piglet populations at processing and weaning, there is limited information on their use in commercial herds. This observational study described PRRSV RNA detection over time in PF, FOF, and piglet serum collected from farrowing groups in commercial breeding farms with the objective of achieving robust, practical, and effective PRRSV surveillance protocols. Weekly PF (an aggregate sample of all litters processed in a week from each ...


Differentiation Of The Can F 1 Allergen In Hypoallergenic Dog Saliva Compared To Shedding Dog Saliva, Rose Miller Apr 2021

Differentiation Of The Can F 1 Allergen In Hypoallergenic Dog Saliva Compared To Shedding Dog Saliva, Rose Miller

Honors College Theses

Dog saliva contains a large variety of proteins, each with specific functions throughout the body. While some aid in digestion, others provide immune support for the body. In the case of human dog allergies, dog skin dander has been proven to cause allergic reactions to those who are sensitive to the allergens in the dogs. However, past studies have shown a difference in allergic reaction to specific breeds, breaking dog breeds into two main categories: hypoallergenic and non-hypoallergenic. Within these groups, there are different hypoallergenicity levels, but overall, the hypoallergenic dog group does not cause an allergic reaction, whereas non-hypoallergenic ...


Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams Apr 2021

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reptiles utilize a variety of environmental cues to inform and drive animal behavior such as chemical scent trails produced by food or conspecifics. Decrypting the scent-trailing behavior of vertebrates, particularly invasive species, enables the discovery of cues that induce exploratory behavior and can aid in the development of valuable basic and applied biological tools. However, pinpointing behaviors dominantly driven by chemical cues versus other competing environmental cues can be challenging. Y-mazes are common tools used in animal behavior research that allow quantification of vertebrate chemosensory behavior across a range of taxa. By reducing external stimuli, Y-mazes remove confounding factors and ...


Swine Disease Reporting System Report #38, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings Apr 2021

Swine Disease Reporting System Report #38, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

What is the Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS)? SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.

After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent ...


Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's Disease) Virus Dna Detection In Swine Nasal Swab And Oral Fluid Specimens Using A Gb-Based Real-Time Quantitative Pcr, Ting-Yu Cheng, Alexandra Henao-Diaz, Korakrit Poonsuk, Alexandra Buckley, Albert Van Geelen, Kelly Lager, Karen M. Harmon, Phillip Gauger, Chong Wang, Aruna Ambagala, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Luis Giménez-Lirola Apr 2021

Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's Disease) Virus Dna Detection In Swine Nasal Swab And Oral Fluid Specimens Using A Gb-Based Real-Time Quantitative Pcr, Ting-Yu Cheng, Alexandra Henao-Diaz, Korakrit Poonsuk, Alexandra Buckley, Albert Van Geelen, Kelly Lager, Karen M. Harmon, Phillip Gauger, Chong Wang, Aruna Ambagala, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Luis Giménez-Lirola

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

In this study, the detection of PRV DNA in nasal swab (n = 440) and oral fluid (n = 1,545) samples collected over time from experimentally PRV vaccinated and/or PRV inoculated pigs (n = 40) was comparatively evaluated by real-time PCR. Serum samples (n = 440) were tested by PRV gB/gE blocking ELISAs (Pseudorabies Virus gB Antibody Test Kit and Pseudorabies Virus gpI Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME) to monitor PRV status over time. Following exposure to a gE-deleted modified live vaccine (Ingelvac® Aujeszky MLV, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT) and/or a wild-type virus (3 CR Ossabaw), PRV ...


Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press Mar 2021

Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press

Purdue University Press Books

Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues covers the century when infectious plagues—anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, plague, smallpox, and polio—were conquered, and details the important role that veterinary scientists played. The narrative is driven by astonishing events that centered on animal disease: the influenza pandemic of 1872, discovery of the causes of anthrax and tuberculosis in the 1880s, conquest of Texas cattle fever and then yellow fever, German anthrax attacks on the United States during World War I, the tuberculin war of 1931, Japanese biological warfare in the 1940s, and today’s bioterror dangers.

Veterinary science in the rural Midwest ...


Visualization And Application Of Disease Diagnosis Codes For Population Health Management Using Porcine Diseases As A Model, Giovani Trevisan, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric R. Burrough, Bailey Arruda, Rachel J. Derscheid, Michael C. Rahe, Edison De Souza Magalhães, Marcelo N. Almeida, Rodger G. Main, Daniel C. L. Linhares Mar 2021

Visualization And Application Of Disease Diagnosis Codes For Population Health Management Using Porcine Diseases As A Model, Giovani Trevisan, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric R. Burrough, Bailey Arruda, Rachel J. Derscheid, Michael C. Rahe, Edison De Souza Magalhães, Marcelo N. Almeida, Rodger G. Main, Daniel C. L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Accurate and timely results of diagnostic investigations and laboratory testing guide clinical interventions for the continuous improvement of animal health and welfare. Infectious diseases can severely limit the health, welfare, and productivity of populations of animals. Livestock veterinarians submit thousands of samples daily to veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) for disease diagnosis, pathogen monitoring, and surveillance. Individual diagnostic laboratory reports are immediately useful; however, aggregated historical laboratory data are increasingly valued by clinicians and decision-makers to identify changes in the health status of various animal populations over time and geographical space. The value of this historical information is enhanced by visualization ...


Swine Disease Reporting System Report #37, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jamie Christopher-Henningson Mar 2021

Swine Disease Reporting System Report #37, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jamie Christopher-Henningson

Swine Disease Reporting System

What is the Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS)? SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.

After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent ...


Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren Mar 2021

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto Mar 2021

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor Mar 2021

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


Swine Disease Reporting System Report #36, Giovani Trevisan, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Daniel Linhares, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Gretseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings Feb 2021

Swine Disease Reporting System Report #36, Giovani Trevisan, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Ryan Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Daniel Linhares, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Gretseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

What is the Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS)? SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.

After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent ...


Swine Disease Reporting System Report #35, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paolo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings Jan 2021

Swine Disease Reporting System Report #35, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Charles Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger G. Main, Mary Thurn, Paolo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Darren Kersey, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

What is the Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS)? SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.

After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent ...


Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin Jan 2021

Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Robust methods of predicting how gene drive systems will interact with ecosystems is essential for safe deployment of gene drive technology. We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.

Gene drive technologies, although diverse in design and mode of action, are molecular architectures that promote the transmission of genetic information between generations. In theory, the release of one gene-drive-modified organism (GDMO) has the potential to irreversibly alter species, ecosystems, and environmental processes at a global scale (although in practice ...


Anthraquinone Repellent Seed Treatment On Corn Reduces Feeding By Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jan 2021

Anthraquinone Repellent Seed Treatment On Corn Reduces Feeding By Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species that cause extensive damage to agriculture throughout many regions of the world. In particular wild pigs damage corn more than any other crop, and most of that damage occurs immediately after planting when wild pigs excavate and consume planted seeds. We evaluated whether anthraquinone (AQ), a repellent, could be useful for protecting seed corn from consumption by wild pigs. Specifically, we conducted cafeteria-style tests at 16 bait sites for 6 nights using concentrations of: untreated, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% AQ by weight sprayed on whole-kernel corn in AL ...


Understanding Tolerance For An Invasive Species: An Investigation Of Hunter Acceptance Capacity For Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In Texas, Hailey E. Mclean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Keith M. Carlisle Jan 2021

Understanding Tolerance For An Invasive Species: An Investigation Of Hunter Acceptance Capacity For Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In Texas, Hailey E. Mclean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Keith M. Carlisle

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species and their establishment in new areas have significant impacts on the ecological, economic, and social well-being of our planet. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the world’s most formidable invasive species, particularly in the United States. They cause significant damage to agriculture and ecosystems, and can transmit diseases to livestock, wildlife, and people. There is an inherent social dimension to the issue of wild pigs due in part to the fact that people hunt them. Hunting contributes to both the control and spread of this species. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine hunters ...


Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana Dasilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen Jan 2021

Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana Dasilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reassortment among co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) is an important source of viral diversity and can facilitate expansion into novel host species. Indeed, reassortment played a key role in the evolution of the last three pandemic IAVs. Observed patterns of reassortment within a coinfected host are likely to be shaped by several factors, including viral load, the extent of viral mixing within the host and the stringency of selection. These factors in turn are expected to vary among the diverse host species that IAV infects. To investigate host differences in IAV reassortment, here we examined reassortment of two distinct avian ...


Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni Jan 2021

Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Solar power is a renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. However, research is scarce on how solar facilities affect wildlife. With input from professionals in ecology, conservation, and energy, we conducted a research-prioritization process and identified key questions needed to better understand impacts of solar facilities on wildlife. We focused on animal behavior, which can be used to identify population responses before mortality or other fitness consequences are documented. Behavioral studies can also offer approaches to understand the mechanisms leading to negative interactions (e.g., collision ...


Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. Deliberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. Mclean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty Jan 2021

Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. Deliberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. Mclean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Emerging diseases of wildlife origin are increasingly spilling over into humans and domestic animals. Surveillance and risk assessments for transmission between these populations are informed by a mechanistic understanding of the pathogens in wildlife reservoirs. For avian influenza viruses (AIV), much observational and experimental work in wildlife has been conducted at local scales, yet fully understanding their spread and distribution requires assessing the mechanisms acting at both local, (e.g., intrinsic epidemic dynamics), and continental scales, (e.g., long-distance migration). Here, we combined a large, continental-scale data set on low pathogenic, Type A AIV in the United States with a ...


A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber Jan 2021

A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose ...


Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman Jan 2021

Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Since the 1990s, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has been used successfully to halt the westward spread of the raccoon rabies virus (RV) variant from the eastern continental USA. Elimination of raccoon RV from the eastern USA has proven challenging across targeted raccoon (Procyon lotor) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) populations impacted by raccoon RV. Field trial evaluations of the Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) were initiated to expand ORV products available to meet the rabies management goal of raccoon RV elimination. This study describes the continuation of a 2011 trial inWest Virginia. Our objective was to evaluate raccoon and skunk ...


European Starling Nest‐Site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham Jan 2021

European Starling Nest‐Site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is recognized, outside its native range, as an invasive species, and efforts to deter its nesting have generally been unsuccessful. Enhancing perceived risk at the nest site is a little‐explored route in developing a nest deterrent. Specifically, nest predation risk affects site selection, reproduction, antipredator behavior, and fitness in nesting birds. We questioned whether perceived predation risk as related to a snake model positioned inside a nest box, in striking form, moving, and present throughout the period of cavity site selection would induce European starlings to avoid or delay nest construction. We conducted our ...


Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly Jan 2021

Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Substantial economic losses of farmed catfish to fish-eating birds such as the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, continue to be reported on U.S. catfish farms. An economic analysis was conducted of the on-farm effects of both the increased expenditures to scare fish-eating birds from catfish farms and of the value of the catfish that were consumed by cormorants. A survey was conducted of U.S. catfish farmers in the Delta region of Mississippi and Arkansas, to obtain farm-level data on expenditures to scare birds. Estimations of the lost revenue from catfish consumed by cormorants were developed from a concurrent study ...


Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman Jan 2021

Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Urban areas are highly modified environments that are strongly influenced by a variety of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, these areas contain unique wildlife communities typically dominated by species that are generalist in nature or highly adaptable. We examined the use of five species of exotic treescapes by exotic and native birds in metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Arizona. House Sparrows [Passer domesticus (37%)], European Starlings [Sturnus vulagris (27%)], Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura (11%)], and Great-tailed Grackles [Quiscalus mexicanus (7%)] were the most frequently observed species during the study. Approximately two-thirds (67%) of the birds observed during the study were exotic species. Avian ...


Impacts Of A Large Invasive Mammal On Water Quality In Riparian Ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jan 2021

Impacts Of A Large Invasive Mammal On Water Quality In Riparian Ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a highly invasive species in many regions of the world and can act as ecosystem engineers in areas where they are established. In riparian ecosystems, wild pigs may affect water quality parameters and introduce fecal bacteria, although previous studies have reported conflicting results. We propose four conditions that we believe are needed for an accurate assessment of wild pig impacts on water quality and address each one in our study. Water samples were collected between May 2018 and June 2019 in riparian watersheds on a privately owned property in Alabama that was densely populated by ...


Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi Jan 2021

Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is a tropical and subtropical parasitic nematode, with infections in humans causing angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Hawaii has been identified as a global hotspot of infection, with recent reports of high infection rates in humans, as well as rat definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This study investigated variation in A. cantonensis infection, both prevalence and intensity, in wild populations of two species of rats (Rattus exulans and R. rattus) and one species of snail (Parmarion martensi). An overall infection prevalence of 86.2% was observed in P. martensi and 63.8% in ...