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Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana DaSilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen 2021 Emory University School of Medicine

Avian Influenza A Viruses Reassort And Diversify Differently In Mallards And Mammals, Ketaki Ganti, Anish Bagga, Juliana Dasilva, Samuel S. Shepard, John R. Barnes, Susan A. Shriner, Katia Koelle, Anice C. Lowen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reassortment among co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) is an important source of viral diversity and can facilitate expansion into novel host species. Indeed, reassortment played a key role in the evolution of the last three pandemic IAVs. Observed patterns of reassortment within a coinfected host are likely to be shaped by several factors, including viral load, the extent of viral mixing within the host and the stringency of selection. These factors in turn are expected to vary among the diverse host species that IAV infects. To investigate host differences in IAV reassortment, here we examined reassortment of two distinct avian ...


Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni 2021 San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research

Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Solar power is a renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. However, research is scarce on how solar facilities affect wildlife. With input from professionals in ecology, conservation, and energy, we conducted a research-prioritization process and identified key questions needed to better understand impacts of solar facilities on wildlife. We focused on animal behavior, which can be used to identify population responses before mortality or other fitness consequences are documented. Behavioral studies can also offer approaches to understand the mechanisms leading to negative interactions (e.g., collision ...


Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. McLean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty 2021 Colorado State University & University of Warwick

Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. Deliberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. Mclean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Emerging diseases of wildlife origin are increasingly spilling over into humans and domestic animals. Surveillance and risk assessments for transmission between these populations are informed by a mechanistic understanding of the pathogens in wildlife reservoirs. For avian influenza viruses (AIV), much observational and experimental work in wildlife has been conducted at local scales, yet fully understanding their spread and distribution requires assessing the mechanisms acting at both local, (e.g., intrinsic epidemic dynamics), and continental scales, (e.g., long-distance migration). Here, we combined a large, continental-scale data set on low pathogenic, Type A AIV in the United States with a ...


A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber 2021 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose ...


Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt VerCauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Since the 1990s, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has been used successfully to halt the westward spread of the raccoon rabies virus (RV) variant from the eastern continental USA. Elimination of raccoon RV from the eastern USA has proven challenging across targeted raccoon (Procyon lotor) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) populations impacted by raccoon RV. Field trial evaluations of the Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) were initiated to expand ORV products available to meet the rabies management goal of raccoon RV elimination. This study describes the continuation of a 2011 trial inWest Virginia. Our objective was to evaluate raccoon and skunk ...


European Starling Nest‐Site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham 2021 APHIS

European Starling Nest‐Site Selection Given Enhanced Direct Nest Predation Risk, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is recognized, outside its native range, as an invasive species, and efforts to deter its nesting have generally been unsuccessful. Enhancing perceived risk at the nest site is a little‐explored route in developing a nest deterrent. Specifically, nest predation risk affects site selection, reproduction, antipredator behavior, and fitness in nesting birds. We questioned whether perceived predation risk as related to a snake model positioned inside a nest box, in striking form, moving, and present throughout the period of cavity site selection would induce European starlings to avoid or delay nest construction. We conducted our ...


Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Substantial economic losses of farmed catfish to fish-eating birds such as the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, continue to be reported on U.S. catfish farms. An economic analysis was conducted of the on-farm effects of both the increased expenditures to scare fish-eating birds from catfish farms and of the value of the catfish that were consumed by cormorants. A survey was conducted of U.S. catfish farmers in the Delta region of Mississippi and Arkansas, to obtain farm-level data on expenditures to scare birds. Estimations of the lost revenue from catfish consumed by cormorants were developed from a concurrent study ...


Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman 2021 APHIS

Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Urban areas are highly modified environments that are strongly influenced by a variety of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, these areas contain unique wildlife communities typically dominated by species that are generalist in nature or highly adaptable. We examined the use of five species of exotic treescapes by exotic and native birds in metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Arizona. House Sparrows [Passer domesticus (37%)], European Starlings [Sturnus vulagris (27%)], Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura (11%)], and Great-tailed Grackles [Quiscalus mexicanus (7%)] were the most frequently observed species during the study. Approximately two-thirds (67%) of the birds observed during the study were exotic species. Avian ...


Impacts Of A Large Invasive Mammal On Water Quality In Riparian Ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 Auburn University

Impacts Of A Large Invasive Mammal On Water Quality In Riparian Ecosystems, Sara Bolds, B. Graeme Lockaby, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Mark D. Smith, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a highly invasive species in many regions of the world and can act as ecosystem engineers in areas where they are established. In riparian ecosystems, wild pigs may affect water quality parameters and introduce fecal bacteria, although previous studies have reported conflicting results. We propose four conditions that we believe are needed for an accurate assessment of wild pig impacts on water quality and address each one in our study. Water samples were collected between May 2018 and June 2019 in riparian watersheds on a privately owned property in Alabama that was densely populated by ...


Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi 2021 USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is a tropical and subtropical parasitic nematode, with infections in humans causing angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Hawaii has been identified as a global hotspot of infection, with recent reports of high infection rates in humans, as well as rat definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This study investigated variation in A. cantonensis infection, both prevalence and intensity, in wild populations of two species of rats (Rattus exulans and R. rattus) and one species of snail (Parmarion martensi). An overall infection prevalence of 86.2% was observed in P. martensi and 63.8% in ...


Inefficiency Of Anthraquinone-Based Avian Repellents When Applied To Sunflower: The Importance Of Crop Vegetative And Floral Characteristics In Field Applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, Page E. Klug 2021 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Inefficiency Of Anthraquinone-Based Avian Repellents When Applied To Sunflower: The Importance Of Crop Vegetative And Floral Characteristics In Field Applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, Page E. Klug

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Blackbirds (Icteridae) cause significant damage to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) prompting the need for effective management tools. Anthraquinone-based repellents can reduce feeding by > 80% in laboratory settings, but require birds to learn the negative association through repellent ingestion. We evaluated an anthraquinone-based repellent applied directly to mature sunflower plants for its ability to reduce bird damage. We used captive male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to evaluate efficacy of two anthraquinone-based formulations in varying concentrations and applied in a manner attainable by sunflower producers. We also assessed field application methods for repellent coverage and anthraquinone residues when using ground-rigs equipped ...


Behavioral State Resource Selection In Invasive Wild Pigs In The Southeastern United States, Lindsay M. Clontz, Kim M. Pepin, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley 2021 University of Georgia

Behavioral State Resource Selection In Invasive Wild Pigs In The Southeastern United States, Lindsay M. Clontz, Kim M. Pepin, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Elucidating correlations between wild pig (Sus scrofa) behavior and landscape attributes can aid in the advancement of management strategies for controlling populations. Using GPS data from 49 wild pigs in the southeastern U.S., we used hidden Markov models to define movement path characteristics and assign behaviors (e.g., resting, foraging, travelling). We then explored the connection between these behaviors and resource selection for both sexes between two distinct seasons based on forage availability (i.e., low forage, high forage). Females demonstrated a crepuscular activity pattern in the high-forage season and a variable pattern in the low-forage season, while males ...


A Framework To Evaluate Whether To Pool Or Separate Behaviors In A Multilayer Network, Annemarie van der Marel, Sanjay Prasher, Chelsea Carminito, Claire L. O'Connell, Alexa Phillips, Bryan M. Kluever, Elizabeth A. Hobson 2021 University of Cincinnati

A Framework To Evaluate Whether To Pool Or Separate Behaviors In A Multilayer Network, Annemarie Van Der Marel, Sanjay Prasher, Chelsea Carminito, Claire L. O'Connell, Alexa Phillips, Bryan M. Kluever, Elizabeth A. Hobson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A multilayer network approach combines different network layers, which are connected by interlayer edges, to create a single mathematical object. These networks can contain a variety of information types and represent different aspects of a system. However, the process for selecting which information to include is not always straightforward. Using data on 2 agonistic behaviors in a captive population of monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus), we developed a framework for investigating how pooling or splitting behaviors at the scale of dyadic relationships (between 2 individuals) affects individual- and group-level social properties. We designed 2 reference models to test whether randomizing the ...


Best Management Practices For Trapping Furbearers In The United States, H. Bryant White, Gordon R. Batcheller, Edward K. Boggess, Clifford L. Brown, Joseph W. Butfiloski, Thomas A. Decker, John D. Erb, Michael W. Fall, David A. Hamilton, Tim L. Hiller, George F. Hubert Jr., Matthew J. Lovallo, John F. Olson, Nathan M. Roberts 2021 Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

Best Management Practices For Trapping Furbearers In The United States, H. Bryant White, Gordon R. Batcheller, Edward K. Boggess, Clifford L. Brown, Joseph W. Butfiloski, Thomas A. Decker, John D. Erb, Michael W. Fall, David A. Hamilton, Tim L. Hiller, George F. Hubert Jr., Matthew J. Lovallo, John F. Olson, Nathan M. Roberts

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Humans have used wild furbearers for various purposes for thousands of years. Today, furbearers are sustainably used by the public for their pelts, leather, bones, glands, meat, or other purposes. In North America, contemporary harvest of furbearers has evolved along with trap technologies and societal concerns, and is now highly regulated and more closely coupled with harvest analysis and population monitoring. Traps and regulated trapping programs provide personal or cultural rewards that can also support conservation, and can assist with advancing ecological knowledge through research, protecting endangered species, restoring populations or habitats, protecting personal property, and enhancing public health and ...


Evaluation Of Conditions Where Environmental Swabs Tested For Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus By Quantitative Real-Time Rt-Pcr May Be Used To Confirm The Decontamination Of Metal Surfaces, Rita Anne Neat 2021 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Conditions Where Environmental Swabs Tested For Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus By Quantitative Real-Time Rt-Pcr May Be Used To Confirm The Decontamination Of Metal Surfaces, Rita Anne Neat

Creative Components

Because contaminated livestock trailers are a significant risk for transmitting viruses between herds, various methods of washing, disinfecting, and thermo-assisted drying and decontamination (TADD) have been evaluated for their effectiveness in inactivating porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on contaminated surfaces. Information on when to expect negative qRT-PCR results after adequate trailer sanitation is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there are conditions associated with washing-disinfectant-TADD procedures that will consistently produce a negative qRT-PCR result for the purpose of monitoring compliance with trailer sanitation and decontamination protocols for PRRSV on metal surfaces. 144 diamond plate ...


Powassan Virus Experimental Infections In Three Wild Mammal Species, Nicole M. Nemeth, J. Jeffrey Root, Airn E. Hartwig, Richard A. Bowen, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth 2021 Colorado State University

Powassan Virus Experimental Infections In Three Wild Mammal Species, Nicole M. Nemeth, J. Jeffrey Root, Airn E. Hartwig, Richard A. Bowen, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne virus maintained in sylvatic cycles between mammalian wildlife hosts and ticks (primarily Ixodes spp.). There are two currently recognized lineages, POWV-lineage 1 (POWV-L1) and deer tick virus (DTV; lineage 2), both of which can cause fatal neurologic disease in humans. Increased numbers of human case reports in the northeastern and north central United States in recent years have fueled questions into POWV epidemiology. We inoculated three candidate wildlife POWV reservoir hosts, groundhogs (Marmota monax), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger), with either POWV-L1 or DTV. Resulting viremia, tissue tropism, and pathology ...


Distribution And Abundance Of Scaup Using Baitfish And Sportfish Farms In Eastern Arkansas, Stephen A. Clements, Brian S. Dorr, Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Mississippi State University

Distribution And Abundance Of Scaup Using Baitfish And Sportfish Farms In Eastern Arkansas, Stephen A. Clements, Brian S. Dorr, Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Arkansas' bait- and sportfish facilities are commonly used by various piscivorous bird species, including lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila) that consume substantial quantities of fish. To mediate this predation, farmers implement extensive bird harassment programs that create additional costs to fish loss, thus research investigating the distribution and abundance of scaup is needed to help farmers allocate their bird harassment efforts more efficiently. In winters 2016–2017 and 2017–2018 we conducted 1,368 pond surveys to investigate pond use by scaup on farms during birds' regular wintering period (i.e., November–March). We used intrinsic ...


Landscape Use By Fishers (Pekania Pennanti): Core Areas Differ In Habitat Than The Entire Home Range, Jennifer R. Kordosky, Eric M. Gese, Craig M. Thompson, Patricia A. Terletzky, Kathryn L. Purcell, Jon D. Schneiderman 2021 Utah State University

Landscape Use By Fishers (Pekania Pennanti): Core Areas Differ In Habitat Than The Entire Home Range, Jennifer R. Kordosky, Eric M. Gese, Craig M. Thompson, Patricia A. Terletzky, Kathryn L. Purcell, Jon D. Schneiderman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Home ranges have long been studied in animal ecology. Core areas may be used at a greater proportion than the rest of the home range, implying the core contains dependable resources. The Pacific fisher (Pekania pennanti (Erxleben, 1777)) is a rare mesocarnivore occupying a small area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA. Once statewide, fishers declined in the 1900s due to trapping, habitat fragmentation, and development. Recently, drought induced by climate change may be affecting this population. We examined space use of fishers in their core versus their home range for levels of anthropogenic modifications (housing density, road density ...


Improved Strategies For Handling Entire Sounders Of Wild Pigs, Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Christine K. Ellis, Joe M. Halseth, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. VanNatta, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO 80521-2154, USA

Improved Strategies For Handling Entire Sounders Of Wild Pigs, Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Christine K. Ellis, Joe M. Halseth, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. Vannatta, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

As wild pigs (Sus scrofa) expand throughout North America researchers are increasingly being tasked with trapping and marking entire sounders (family groups) to attach monitoring devices or other identifying markers to gather knowledge to inform management. Capture and marking procedures can be challenging, dangerous for both researchers and animals, and time consuming, particularly when handling sounders. We developed an integrated pig‐handling system to efficiently sort, weigh, chemically immobilize, and mark multiple wild pigs simultaneously in a controlled manner. To assess the functionality of the system, we evaluated 18 capture events in Texas, USA, from January 2018 to March 2019 ...


Economic Effects Of Predation By Scaup On Baitfish And Sportfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Stephen Clements, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Virginia Tech University,

Economic Effects Of Predation By Scaup On Baitfish And Sportfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Stephen Clements, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Fish-eating birds have been found to consume baitfish and sportfish raised on farms in the United States. Understanding the on-farm economic effects of such wildlife conflicts is essential for wildlife management agencies to make informed decisions. Lesser scaup, while not widely considered a fisheating bird, will consume farmed fish. Baitfish and sportfish farms in Arkansas (the major baitfish and sportfish producingstate in the U.S.) were surveyed to gather data on the cost of protecting farm crops from scaup. The values of lost sales revenue from the various species of baitfish and sportfish consumed by scaup were estimated based on ...


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