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Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie Mckee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wildlife damage to crops is a persistent and costly problem for many farmers in the USA. Most existing estimates of crop damage have relied on direct assessment methods such as field studies conducted by trained biologists or surveys distributed to farmers. In this paper, we describe a new method of estimating wildlife damage that exploits federal crop insurance data. We focused our study on four crops: corn, soybean, wheat, and cotton, chosen because of their economic importance and their vulnerability to wildlife damage.

RESULTS: We determined crop-raiding hot spots across the USA over the 2015–2019 period and identified ...


An Evaluation Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Turbines In The Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, Bryan M. Kluever 2020 United States Fish and Wildlife Service

An Evaluation Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Turbines In The Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wind energy offers substantial environmental benefits, but wind facilities can negatively impact wildlife, including birds and bats. Researchers and managers have made major efforts to chronicle bird and bat mortality associated with wind facilities, but few studies have examined the patterns and underlying mechanisms of spatial patterns of fatalities at wind facilities. Understanding the horizontal fall distance between a carcass and the nearest turbine pole is important in designing effective search protocols and estimating total mortality. We explored patterns in taxonomic composition and fall distance of bird and bat carcasses at wind facilities in the Northeastern United States using publicly ...


Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater crayfish have on IAV in water at three dose levels and monitored for the presence of IAV in crayfish tissues (gill and green gland) and haemolymph at multiple time points. At relatively high, medium 432 and low (approximately 10 , 10 ...


Swine Disease Reporting System: Report #29, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob McGaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings 2020 Iowa State University

Swine Disease Reporting System: Report #29, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Roman Pogranichniy, Rachel Palinski, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management. After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent is to provide an interpretation of the observed ...


Frontal Vehicle Illumination Via Rear-Facing Lighting Reduces Potential For Collisions With White-Tailed Deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley Blackwell 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Frontal Vehicle Illumination Via Rear-Facing Lighting Reduces Potential For Collisions With White-Tailed Deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley Blackwell

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

nimal–vehicle collisions cause many millions of animal deaths each year worldwide and present a substantial safety risk to people. In the United States and Canada, deer (Odocoileus spp.) are involved in most animal–vehicle collisions associated with human injuries. We evaluated a vehicle-based collision mitigation method designed to decrease the likelihood of deer–vehicle collisions during low-light conditions, when most collisions occur. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of a rear-facing light, providing more complete frontal vehicle illumination than standard headlights alone, enhanced vehicle avoidance behaviors of white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). We quantified flight initiation distance (FID), the likelihood ...


Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor 2020 Iowa State University

Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The causal effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest in an observational study cannot be estimated directly if the confounding variables are not controlled. Many approaches are available for estimating the causal effect of an exposure. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the advantages associated with using inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust estimation of the odds ratio in terms of reduced bias. IPW approach can be used to adjust for confounding variables and provide unbiased estimates of the exposure’s causal effect. For cluster-structured data, as is common in animal populations, inverse conditional probability weighting (ICPW) approach ...


A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee 2020 Iowa State University

A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background

Flunixin meglumine (FM) was investigated for the effectiveness of plasma, oral fluid, and urine concentrations to predict tissue residue depletion profiles in finishing-age swine, along with the potential for untreated pigs to acquire tissue residues following commingled housing with FM-treated pigs. Twenty pigs were housed in groups of three treated and one untreated control. Treated pigs received one 2.2 mg/kg dose of FM intramuscularly. Before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h (h) after treatment, plasma samples were taken. At 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days (d) post-treatment, necropsy and collection ...


Modeling Regional Disease Spread Over Time Using A Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Model – With An Application To Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Data In Iowa, U.S., J. Ji, Chong Wang, M. Rotolo, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2020 Iowa State University

Modeling Regional Disease Spread Over Time Using A Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Model – With An Application To Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Data In Iowa, U.S., J. Ji, Chong Wang, M. Rotolo, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Regional surveillance is important for detecting the incursion of new pathogens and informing disease monitoring and control programs. Modeling disease distribution over time can provide insight into the development of more efficient regional surveillance approaches. Herein we propose a Bayesian spatio-temporal model to describe the distribution of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Iowa USA. Model parameters are estimated through a Bayesian spatio-temporal model approach which can account for missing values. For illustration, we apply the proposed model to PEDV test results from the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU-VDL). A simulation study carried out to evaluate the model ...


Manipulate Intestinal Organoids With Niobium Carbide Nanosheets, Brittney Reding, Prerana Carter, Yijun Qi, Zhe Li, Yue Wu, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Qun Wang 2020 Iowa State University

Manipulate Intestinal Organoids With Niobium Carbide Nanosheets, Brittney Reding, Prerana Carter, Yijun Qi, Zhe Li, Yue Wu, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Qun Wang

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Multifunctional two‐dimensional nanosheet materials have attracted attention in biomedical fields due to their unique physiochemical and biological properties. Interactions between intestinal stem cells and Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) are an essential area in research with the growing diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. One unique type of two‐dimensional metal carbide nanomaterial, niobium carbide (Nb2C), has shown promising properties for potential applications in this field, such as biocompatibility, stability, and high photothermal conversion efficiency. In this study, Nb2C nanosheets were prepared by spark plasma sintering and HF etching. Various concentrations of Nb2C nanosheets were placed inside intestinal organoids, which mimic the ...


Swine Disease Reporting System: Report #28, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob McGaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings 2020 Iowa State University

Swine Disease Reporting System: Report #28, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Pablo Pineyro, Christopher Siepker, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent is to provide an interpretation of the observed ...


Genetic Biocontrol For Invasive Species, John L. Teem, Luke Alphey, Sarah Descamps, Matt P. Edgington, Owain Edwards, Neil Gemmell, Tim Harvey-Samuel, Rachel L. Melnick, Kevin P. Oh, Antoinette J. Piaggio, J. Royden Saah, Dan Schill, Paul Thomas, Trevor Smith, Andrew Roberts 2020 ILSI Research Foundation

Genetic Biocontrol For Invasive Species, John L. Teem, Luke Alphey, Sarah Descamps, Matt P. Edgington, Owain Edwards, Neil Gemmell, Tim Harvey-Samuel, Rachel L. Melnick, Kevin P. Oh, Antoinette J. Piaggio, J. Royden Saah, Dan Schill, Paul Thomas, Trevor Smith, Andrew Roberts

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are increasingly affecting agriculture, food, fisheries, and forestry resources throughout the world. As a result of global trade, invasive species are often introduced into new environments where they become established and cause harm to human health, agriculture, and the environment. Prevention of new introductions is a high priority for addressing the harm caused by invasive species, but unfortunately efforts to prevent new introductions do not address the economic harm that is presently manifested where invasive species have already become established. Genetic biocontrol can be defined as the release of organisms with genetic methods designed to disrupt the reproduction ...


Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton 2020 USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Evaluating Moose Alces Alces Population Response To Infestation Level Of Winter Ticks Dermacentor Albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, Anthony R. Musante 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Evaluating Moose Alces Alces Population Response To Infestation Level Of Winter Ticks Dermacentor Albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, Anthony R. Musante

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Many wildlife populations are experiencing a variety of environmental pressures due to the direct and indirect consequences of a changing climate. In the northeast, USA, moose Alces alces are declining in large part because of the increasing parasitism by winter tick Dermacentor albipictus, facilitated by high host density and optimal environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis, and better understand the influence of this interaction on the stability of the regional population, we constructed a population viability model using data collected through comprehensive survival and productivity studies in 2002–2005 and 2014–2018 in northern New Hampshire. Years of heavy tick ...


Spillover Of Sars-Cov-2 Into Novel Wild Hosts In North America: A Conceptual Model For Perpetuation Of The Pathogen, Alan B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Spillover Of Sars-Cov-2 Into Novel Wild Hosts In North America: A Conceptual Model For Perpetuation Of The Pathogen, Alan B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is evidence that the current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is of animal origin. As with a number of zoonotic pathogens, there is a risk of spillover into novel hosts. Here, we propose a hypothesized conceptual model that illustrates the mechanism whereby the SARS-CoV-2 could spillover from infected humans to naive wildlife hosts in North America. This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal wastewater treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected. We use the existing literature on human coronaviruses, including SARS CoV ...


Public Perspectives And Media Reporting Of Wolf Reintroduction In Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, Dana Hoag 2020 Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Public Perspectives And Media Reporting Of Wolf Reintroduction In Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, Dana Hoag

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the state of Colorado, a citizen ballot initiative to reintroduce gray wolves (Canis lupus) is eliciting polarization and conflict among multiple stakeholder and interest groups. Given this complex social landscape, we examined the social context surrounding wolf reintroduction in Colorado as of 2019. We used an online survey of 734 Coloradans representative in terms of age and gender, and we sampled from different regions across the state, to examine public beliefs and attitudes related to wolf reintroduction and various wolf management options. We also conducted a content analysis of media coverage on potential wolf reintroduction in 10 major daily ...


Swine Disease Reporting System: Report #27, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob McGaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings 2020 Iowa State University

Swine Disease Reporting System: Report #27, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregate data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America (USA), and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers in making informed decisions on disease prevention, detection, and management.After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent is to provide an interpretation of the observed ...


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