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Synthesis And Characterization Of D5-Barbarin For Use In Barbarin-Related Research, Sucheta Kudrimoti, Jacob Machin, Adedamola S. Arojojoye, Samuel G. Awuah, Rodney Eisenberg, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Andreas F. Lehner, Thomas Tobin 2022 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of D5-Barbarin For Use In Barbarin-Related Research, Sucheta Kudrimoti, Jacob Machin, Adedamola S. Arojojoye, Samuel G. Awuah, Rodney Eisenberg, Clara Fenger, George Maylin, Andreas F. Lehner, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Based on structural similarities and equine administration experiments, Barbarin, 5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinethione from Brassicaceae plants, is a possible source of equine urinary identifications of aminorex, (R,S)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-2-amine, an amphetamine-related US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) controlled substance considered illegal in sport horses. We now report the synthesis and certification of d5-barbarin to facilitate research on the relationship between plant barbarin and such aminorex identifications. D5-barbarin synthesis commenced with production of d5-2-oxo-2-phenylacetaldehyde oxime (d5-oxime) from d5-acetophenone via butylnitrite in an ethoxide/ethanol solution. This d5-oxime was then reduced with lithium aluminum …


Ex Vivo Biomechanical Comparison Of A Novel Compression Screw Fastener And Traditional Ao Cortical Bone Screw For Fixation Of A Simulated Slab Fracture In The Equine Third Carpal Bone, Allison Salinger 2022 Mississippi State University

Ex Vivo Biomechanical Comparison Of A Novel Compression Screw Fastener And Traditional Ao Cortical Bone Screw For Fixation Of A Simulated Slab Fracture In The Equine Third Carpal Bone, Allison Salinger

Theses and Dissertations

Frontal plane slab fractures account for the majority of third carpal bone (C3) fractures in performance horses. Treatment is stabilization with an AO cortical screw. Complications are fragment splitting, fragment spinning, and irritation of dorsal soft tissue structures. A novel, headless, cannulated screw with interlocking threads (the Headless Compression Screw Fastener, HCSF) has been developed to resist multidirectional forces. Simulated C3 slab fractures were created in nine paired equine carpi. HCSF or AO cortical screws were loaded in shear to failure. Stiffness, maximum load to failure, and yield load was assessed in linear mixed models. No significant difference was detected …


Ex Vivo Biomechanical Evaluation Of A Novel Screw For Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy, William Seth Kettleman 2022 Mississippi State University

Ex Vivo Biomechanical Evaluation Of A Novel Screw For Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy, William Seth Kettleman

Theses and Dissertations

Twelve pairs of cadaveric pelvic limbs were harvested from skeletally mature dogs. Tibias were randomly assigned pairwise to two study groups: locking buttress screw fixation (LBS) and bone-screw-fastener fixation (BSF). A tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) was performed. Each specimen was positioned in a servohydraulic testing machine to simulate physiological orientation and loading at the mid-point of the stance phase at the walk. Cyclic loading was performed for 30,000 cycles at 4Hz with a peak-load of 1000N. The cyclic test was then continued by stepwise increasing the peak-load at a rate of 75N per 500 cycles until failure of the …


Current Ecotoxicity Testing Needs Among Selected U.S. Federal Agencies, Patricia Ceger, Natalia Garcia-Reyero Vinas, David Allen, Elyssa Arnold, Raanan Bloom, Jennifer C. Brennan, Carol Clarke, Karen Eisenreich, Kellie Fay, Jonathan Hamm, Paula F.P. Henry, Katherine E. Horak, Wesley Hunter, Donna Judkins, Patrice Klein, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Kara Koehrn, Carlie A. LaLone, James P. Laurenson, Jessica K. Leet, Anna Lowit, Scott G. Lynn, Teresa Norberg-King, Edward J. Perkins, Elijah J. Petersen, Barnett A. Rattner, Catherine S. Sprankle, Thomas Steeger, Jim E. Warren, Sarah Winfield, Edward Odenkirchen 2022 Integrated Laboratory Systems

Current Ecotoxicity Testing Needs Among Selected U.S. Federal Agencies, Patricia Ceger, Natalia Garcia-Reyero Vinas, David Allen, Elyssa Arnold, Raanan Bloom, Jennifer C. Brennan, Carol Clarke, Karen Eisenreich, Kellie Fay, Jonathan Hamm, Paula F.P. Henry, Katherine E. Horak, Wesley Hunter, Donna Judkins, Patrice Klein, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Kara Koehrn, Carlie A. Lalone, James P. Laurenson, Jessica K. Leet, Anna Lowit, Scott G. Lynn, Teresa Norberg-King, Edward J. Perkins, Elijah J. Petersen, Barnett A. Rattner, Catherine S. Sprankle, Thomas Steeger, Jim E. Warren, Sarah Winfield, Edward Odenkirchen

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

U.S. regulatory and research agencies use ecotoxicity test data to assess the hazards associated with substances that may be released into the environment, including but not limited to industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, food additives, and color additives. These data are used to conduct hazard assessments and evaluate potential risks to aquatic life (e.g., invertebrates, fish), birds, wildlife species, or the environment. To identify opportunities for regulatory uses of non-animal replacements for ecotoxicity tests, the needs and uses for data from tests utilizing animals must first be clarified. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to identify the ecotoxicity test data …


In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi 2022 University of Hawaii at Hilo

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel …


Defining An Epidemiological Landscape That Connects Movement Ecology To Pathogen Transmission And Pace-Of-Life, Kezia Manlove, Mark Wilber, Lauren White, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Anni Yang, Marie L.J. Gilbertson, Meggan E. Craft, Paul C. Cross, George Wittemyer, Kim M. Pepin 2022 Utah State University

Defining An Epidemiological Landscape That Connects Movement Ecology To Pathogen Transmission And Pace-Of-Life, Kezia Manlove, Mark Wilber, Lauren White, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Anni Yang, Marie L.J. Gilbertson, Meggan E. Craft, Paul C. Cross, George Wittemyer, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Pathogen transmission depends on host density, mobility and contact. These components emerge from host and pathogen movements that themselves arise through interactions with the surrounding environment. The environment, the emergent host and pathogen movements, and the subsequent patterns of density, mobility and contact form an ‘epidemiological landscape’ connecting the environment to specific locations where transmissions occur. Conventionally, the epidemiological landscape has been described in terms of the geographical coordinates where hosts or pathogens are located. We advocate for an alternative approach that relates those locations to attributes of the local environment. Environmental descriptions can strengthen epidemiological forecasts by allowing for …


Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lameness is a major issue in animal welfare and the broiler industry. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main causes of lameness. Many staphylococcal species, including Staphylococcus agnetis isolate 908, have been isolated from the bones and blood of lame broilers at the University of Arkansas. Staphylococcus agnetis is a coagulase-variable, Gram-positive bacterial species that has been previously associated with subclinical or mild clinical cases of mastitis in dairy cattle. The annotated complete genome of hypervirulent strain 908 was published at NCBI. In this study, it has been compared to nine genomes we assembled for hypervirulent isolates …


Impact Of Fatty Acid On Markers Of Exocrine Pancreatic Stimulation, Yunyi Zhang 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Impact Of Fatty Acid On Markers Of Exocrine Pancreatic Stimulation, Yunyi Zhang

Masters Theses

Chronic pancreatitis in dogs is typically managed with a low-fat diet. Human research suggests consuming medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may lower pancreatic enzyme release compared to consuming long chain fatty acids (LCFA). Twelve healthy adult colony dogs were fed a meal of cod and rice with either 3% metabolizable energy (ME) fat (control), high MCT (25% ME MCT oil, 25% ME butter), high saturated LCFA (50% ME butter), or high unsaturated LCFA (50% ME canola oil) in a 4-period by 4-treatment crossover design. Serum concentrations of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, gastrin, amylase, cholecystokinin (CCK), cholesterol, triglycerides and serum activities of DGGR …


Optimising Response To An Introduction Of African Swine Fever In Wild Pigs, Kim M. Pepin, Vienna R. Brown, Anni Yang, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Ryan S. Miller, Sarah N. Bevins 2022 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Optimising Response To An Introduction Of African Swine Fever In Wild Pigs, Kim M. Pepin, Vienna R. Brown, Anni Yang, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Ryan S. Miller, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

African swine fever virus (ASFv) is a virulent pathogen that threatens domestic swine industries globally and persists in wild boar populations in some countries. Persistence in wild boar can challenge elimination and prevent disease-free status, making it necessary to address wild swine in proactive response plans. In the United States, invasive wild pigs are abundant and found across a wide range of ecological conditions that could drive different epidemiological dynamics among populations. Information on the size of the control areas required to rapidly eliminate the ASFv in wild pigs and how this area should change with management constraints and local …


Amplification Of Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus) Dna From Regurgitated Food Pellets, Daniel R. Taylor, Bryan M. Kluever, John S. Humphrey, Iona M. Hennessy, Amber Sutton, William E. Bruce, Antoinette J. Piaggio 2022 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Amplification Of Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus) Dna From Regurgitated Food Pellets, Daniel R. Taylor, Bryan M. Kluever, John S. Humphrey, Iona M. Hennessy, Amber Sutton, William E. Bruce, Antoinette J. Piaggio

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Studies that rely on noninvasive collection of DNA for birds often use feces or feathers. Some birds, such as vultures, regurgitate undigested matter in the form of pellets that are commonly found under roost sites. Our research demonstrates that regurgitated pellets are a viable, noninvasive source of DNA for molecular ecology studies of vultures. Our objectives were to amplify 5 microsatellite loci designed for distinguishing Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) in a single, multiplexed PCR, and to determine how long the target nuclear DNA persists after a vulture pellet is regurgitated and …


Seasonal Climatic Niche And Migration Movements Of Double-Crested Cormorants, D. Tommy King, Guiming Wang, Fred L. Cunningham 2022 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Seasonal Climatic Niche And Migration Movements Of Double-Crested Cormorants, D. Tommy King, Guiming Wang, Fred L. Cunningham

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Avian migrants are challenged by seasonal adverse climatic conditions and energetic costs of long-distance flying. Migratory birds may track or switch seasonal climatic niche between the breeding and non-breeding grounds. Satellite tracking enables avian ecologists to investigate seasonal climatic niche and circannual movement patterns of migratory birds. The Double-crested Cormorant (Nannopterum auritum, hereafter cormorant) wintering in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) migrates to the Northern Great Plains and Great Lakes and is of economic importance because of its impacts on aquaculture. We tested the climatic niche switching hypothesis that cormorants would switch climatic niche between summer and winter …


Understanding How High Levels Of Noise Affect The Equine Auditory System, Shelby Brown 2022 University of Northern Colorado

Understanding How High Levels Of Noise Affect The Equine Auditory System, Shelby Brown

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Abstract

Mounted shooting is becoming a very popular sport within the equestrian community, exposing many horses to extreme levels of noise that the animals would not be exposed to otherwise. I selected this project because it is important for me to know how this hobby that I personally enjoy is impacting the health and well-being of my equine partners. Veterinarians can provide an elementary answer by clapping and checking for a physical reaction. However, that does not tell the client much other than the animal responded to one auditory cue.

It is important to understand how firearm exposure could affect …


Solar Radiation And Soil Moisture Drive Tropical Forest Understory Responses To Experimental And Natural Hurricanes, J. Aaron Hogan, Joanne M. Sharpe, Ashley Van Beusekom, Sarah Stankavich, Samuel Matta Carmona, John E. Bithorn, Jamarys Torres-Díaz, Grizelle González, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron B. Shiels 2022 Florida International University

Solar Radiation And Soil Moisture Drive Tropical Forest Understory Responses To Experimental And Natural Hurricanes, J. Aaron Hogan, Joanne M. Sharpe, Ashley Van Beusekom, Sarah Stankavich, Samuel Matta Carmona, John E. Bithorn, Jamarys Torres-Díaz, Grizelle González, Jess K. Zimmerman, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Tropical forest understory regeneration occurs rapidly after disturbance with compositional trajectories that depend on species availability and environmental conditions. To predict future tropical forest regeneration dynamics, we need a deeper understanding of how pulse disturbance events, like hurricanes, interact with environmental variability to affect understory demography and composition. We examined fern and sapling mortality, recruitment, and community composition in relation to solar radiation and soil moisture using 17 years of forest dynamics data (2003–2019) from the Canopy Trimming Experiment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Solar radiation increased 150% and soil moisture increased 40% following canopy trimming of experimental …


Comparative Susceptibility Of Eastern Cottontails And New Zealand White Rabbits To Classical Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (Rhdv) And Rhdv2, Fawzi Mohamed, Thomas Gidlewski, Mary L. Berninger, Heather M. Petrowski, Alexa J. Bracht, Carla Bravo de Rueda, Roger W. Barrette, Meredith Grady, Emily S. O'Hearn, Charles E. Lewis, Karen E. Moran, Tracy L. Sturgill, Lorenzo Capucci, J. Jeffrey Root 2022 USDA ARS Plum Island Animal Disease Center

Comparative Susceptibility Of Eastern Cottontails And New Zealand White Rabbits To Classical Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (Rhdv) And Rhdv2, Fawzi Mohamed, Thomas Gidlewski, Mary L. Berninger, Heather M. Petrowski, Alexa J. Bracht, Carla Bravo De Rueda, Roger W. Barrette, Meredith Grady, Emily S. O'Hearn, Charles E. Lewis, Karen E. Moran, Tracy L. Sturgill, Lorenzo Capucci, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a genetically distinct RHDV named RHDV2 emerged in Europe and spread to many other regions, including North America in 2016. Prior to this study it was unknown if eastern cottontails (ECT(s); Sylvilagus floridanus), one of the most common wild lagomorphs in the United States, were susceptible to RHDV2. In this study, 10 wild-caught ECTs and 10 New Zealand white rabbits (NZWR(s); O. cuniculus) were each inoculated orally with either RHDV (RHDVa/GI.1a; n = 5 per species) or RHDV2 (a recombinant …


Genomic Tools Reveal Complex Social Organization Of An Invasive Large Mammal (Sus Scrofa), Chelsea L. Titus, Courtney F. Bowden, Timothy J. Smyser, Stephen L. Webb, James C. Beasley 2022 University of Georgia

Genomic Tools Reveal Complex Social Organization Of An Invasive Large Mammal (Sus Scrofa), Chelsea L. Titus, Courtney F. Bowden, Timothy J. Smyser, Stephen L. Webb, James C. Beasley

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

A comprehensive understanding of sociality in wildlife is vital to optimizing conservation and management efforts. However, sociality is complicated, especially for widely distributed species that exhibit substantive behavioral plasticity. Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa), often representing hybrids of European wild boar and domestic pigs, are among the most adaptable and widely distributed large mammals. The social structure of wild pigs is believed to be similar to European wild boar, consisting of matriarchal groups (sounders) and solitary males. However, wild pig social structure is understudied and largely limited to visual observations. Using a hierarchical approach, we incorporated genomic tools …


Physicochemical, Techno-Functional And Bioactive Properties Of Camel Whey Protein Concentrate As Affected By Spray-Drying And Ultrasonication Treatment, Alanoud Muhsen Al Thaibani 2022 United Arab Emirates University

Physicochemical, Techno-Functional And Bioactive Properties Of Camel Whey Protein Concentrate As Affected By Spray-Drying And Ultrasonication Treatment, Alanoud Muhsen Al Thaibani

Theses

Whey protein concentrates (WPCs) are gaining importance as functional ingredients due to their nutritional, techno-functional and bioactive properties. In this study, WPCs were prepared from skimmed camel milk, then either spray-dried (SD) at 170, 185 and 200°C or treated by ultrasonication (US) (20 kHz) for 5, 10 and 15 min followed by freeze-drying to obtain powders. The characterization of WPC powders was carried out by Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Reverse-Phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-UPLC) which showed that the US treatment degraded the proteins more than SD. The morphology, particle size, and surface charge of WPC were …


Hepatotoxicity In Acute And Subchronic Oral Gavage Of Ethanolic Extract Of Christia Vespertilionis (L.F.) Bakh. F. Leaf In Male Sprague Dawley Rats, Nurul S.A.S., Nurul S.A.S., Hazilawati H., Rosly S.M., Farhan Hanif M.R., Abdullahi A., Shanmugavelu S., Noordin M.M., Mazlina M., Azrina A., Norhaizan M.E. 2022 Chulalongkorn University

Hepatotoxicity In Acute And Subchronic Oral Gavage Of Ethanolic Extract Of Christia Vespertilionis (L.F.) Bakh. F. Leaf In Male Sprague Dawley Rats, Nurul S.A.S., Nurul S.A.S., Hazilawati H., Rosly S.M., Farhan Hanif M.R., Abdullahi A., Shanmugavelu S., Noordin M.M., Mazlina M., Azrina A., Norhaizan M.E.

The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Increased interest in Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f. leaves is due to their real potential of their health-enhancing properties. This study aims to evaluate the possible in vivo toxicity in 14-day acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity of ethanolic extract Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f. in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the acute study, the rats were divided into control, 5% DMSO (vehicle) and 2000 mg/kg groups. For the subchronic toxicity study, a total of 30 rats were divided into five groups consisting of a control, 5% DMSO (vehicle), low dose (75 mg/kg), medium dose (125 mg/kg) and high dose …


Assessment Of Abdominal Fat Distribution By Computed Tomography In Obese Dogs, Yunseo Jang, Hyemin Na, Sooyoung Choi, Hojung Choi, Youngwon Lee, Kija Lee 2022 Chulalongkorn University

Assessment Of Abdominal Fat Distribution By Computed Tomography In Obese Dogs, Yunseo Jang, Hyemin Na, Sooyoung Choi, Hojung Choi, Youngwon Lee, Kija Lee

The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Obesity is a risk factor for canine health but there has been no study on the tendency of body fat accumulation naturally occurring in obese dogs. This retrospective observational study aims to evaluate the tendency to accumulate visceral and subcutaneous fat using computed tomography (CT) in naturally occurring obese dogs. The study included 15 dogs with a body condition score of 8 or 9 that underwent abdominal CT scans. Total fat area (TA), visceral fat area (VA), subcutaneous fat area (SA) and body area (BA) were measured by non-contrast transverse image at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) and the sixth …


Amino Acid Profile Of Rabbit Meat: Dietary Intake And The Effect Of Freezing On The Amino Acid Composition, Alaa Eldin M.A. Morshdy, Wageh Sobhy Darwish, El Sayed S. El Sebay, EL-Shaimaa Mesallam Ali 2022 Chulalongkorn University

Amino Acid Profile Of Rabbit Meat: Dietary Intake And The Effect Of Freezing On The Amino Acid Composition, Alaa Eldin M.A. Morshdy, Wageh Sobhy Darwish, El Sayed S. El Sebay, El-Shaimaa Mesallam Ali

The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine

Rabbit meat is considered as a healthy meat due to its high protein and low fat content. This study aimed at demonstrating the amino acids profile in three rabbit breeds, namely New Zealand White, California and Balady rabbits marketed in Egypt. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of amino acids due to the consumption of the rabbit meat were calculated. Furthermore, the effect of long frozen storage for different periods on the amino acid content of the New Zealand White rabbit meat was investigated as an experimental trial. The obtained results indicate a slight variation in the amino acid …


Effects Of A Single Dose Hcg Administration On The Induction Of Ovulation, Follicular Dynamics, Uterine Changes And Pregnancy Outcomes In Mares During The Breeding Season, Mesut ÇEVİK, Oğuzhan ERGİN, Burcu ESİN, Burcu ESİN 2022 Chulalongkorn University

Effects Of A Single Dose Hcg Administration On The Induction Of Ovulation, Follicular Dynamics, Uterine Changes And Pregnancy Outcomes In Mares During The Breeding Season, Mesut Çevi̇k, Oğuzhan Ergi̇n, Burcu Esi̇n, Burcu Esi̇n

The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine

In this study, 19 mares brought to the clinic at different times with the complaint of not getting pregnant were followed up. For this purpose, changes in the uterine and ovarian dynamics of mares and behavioral changes in estrus were followed and evaluated. In particular, it was attempted to increase the chance and rate of pregnancy by providing ovulation with ovulation follow-up followed by a single dose of hCG administration (Chorulon, 3.000 IU). All manipulations and applications in the study were carried out between March and July, that is, during the breeding season of the mares. During the study, a …


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