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Trends (1986 To 1999) In The Incidence And Outcomes Of In-Hospital Stroke Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction (The Worcester Heart Attack Study), Frederick Spencer, Joel Gore, Jorge Yarzebski, Darleen Lessard, Elizabeth Jackson, Robert Goldberg 2010 McMaster University

Trends (1986 To 1999) In The Incidence And Outcomes Of In-Hospital Stroke Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction (The Worcester Heart Attack Study), Frederick Spencer, Joel Gore, Jorge Yarzebski, Darleen Lessard, Elizabeth Jackson, Robert Goldberg

Jorge L. Yarzebski

Although stroke is an infrequent hospital complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), limited contemporary data are available about the incidence and death rates associated with this serious complication. The objective of this population-based study was to examine temporal trends (1986 to 1999) in the risk of stroke and associated hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized with AMI. This was an observational study of 6,325 metropolitan Worcester, Massachusetts, residents hospitalized with validated AMI and without prior stroke at all greater Worcester hospitals during 8 one-year periods between 1986 and 1999. Overall, 1.5% of patients (n = 92) with confirmed AMI developed ...


Overview Of The Essential Tremor, Theresa A. Zesiewicz, Abinaya Chari, Israt Jahan, Amber M. Miller, Kelly L. Sullivan 2010 University of South Florida

Overview Of The Essential Tremor, Theresa A. Zesiewicz, Abinaya Chari, Israt Jahan, Amber M. Miller, Kelly L. Sullivan

Kelly L. Sullivan

Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders in the world. Despite this, only one medication (propranolol) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat it. Fortunately, recent studies have identified some additional medications as treatment of ET. Surgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, offer treatment for refractory tremor. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and medical and surgical treatment of ET will be discussed in this paper.


Qualidade De Vida De Estudantes De Enfermagem De Uma Faculdade Privada / Quality Of Life Of Undergraduate Nursing Students From A Private University, Everton Fernando Alves 2010 Universidade Estadual de Maringá

Qualidade De Vida De Estudantes De Enfermagem De Uma Faculdade Privada / Quality Of Life Of Undergraduate Nursing Students From A Private University, Everton Fernando Alves

Everton Fernando Alves

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de vida dos estudantes no curso de Enfermagem de uma faculdade privada. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, utilizando a Escala de Qualidade de Vida de Flanagan e um instrumento de coleta de dados complementares, contendo questões estruturadas. Resultou numa amostra de 192 (cento e noventa e dois) estudantes. O diagnóstico evidenciou que a maioria dos estudantes está „Satisfeitos‟ e „Pouco satisfeitos‟ com a sua qualidade de vida, entretanto identificou a presença de vários problemas que necessitam de atenção dos educadores. Concluiu-se que se faz necessária a formação de um ...


Validation Of A Stroke Symptom Questionnaire For Epidemiological Surveys., Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Validation Of A Stroke Symptom Questionnaire For Epidemiological Surveys., Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Stroke is a relevant issue within public health and requires epidemiological surveillance tools. The aim here was to validate a questionnaire for evaluating individuals with stroke symptoms in the Stroke Morbidity and Mortality Study (Estudo de Mortalidade e Morbidade do Acidente Vascular Cerebral, EMMA), São Paulo, Brazil.DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a cross-sectional study performed among a sample of the inhabitants of Butantã, an area in the western zone of the city of São Paulo.METHODS:For all households in the coverage area of a primary healthcare unit, household members over the age of 35 years ...


Plasma Prekallikrein Levels Are Positively Associated With Circulating Lipid Levels And The Metabolic Syndrome In Children., James A. MacKenzie, Kristen A. Roosa, Brooks B. Gump, Amy K. Dumas, Kestutis G. Bendinskas 2010 SUNY Oswego

Plasma Prekallikrein Levels Are Positively Associated With Circulating Lipid Levels And The Metabolic Syndrome In Children., James A. Mackenzie, Kristen A. Roosa, Brooks B. Gump, Amy K. Dumas, Kestutis G. Bendinskas

College Research Center

Plasma prekallikrein (PK) has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, but these associations have not been investigated in children. The present study examined PK activity in relation to well-established cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of children aged 9–11 years (N = 97). We found a significant and positive association between PK and fasting levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.01), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01), and triglycerides (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant association between PK activity and the metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors considered to have an impact on atherosclerosis and CVD mortality. Finally, we found that children with a family history of CVD had significantly elevated PK activity. These novel findings warrant further investigations into the relationship between circulating PK levels and CVD risk factors because PK may be involved in the progression of the disease state. Il est bien connu que la pre´kallicre´ine (PK) est associe´e a` la maladie cardiovasculaire (CVD) et a` ses facteurs de risque, mais ces associations n’ont pas e´te´ ve´rifie´es chez les enfants. Cette e´tude se propose de ve´rifier l’association entre l’activite´ de la PK et les facteurs de risque de CVD aupre`s d’une cohorte d’enfants aˆge´s de 9 a` 11 ans (N = 97). On observe une corre´lation positive significative entre la PK et les variables suivantes : la concentration totale de choleste´rol a` jeun (p < 0,01), les concentrations des lipoprote´ines non a` haute densite´ (p < 0,01) et la concentration des triglyce´rides (p < 0,001). De plus, on observe une corre´lation significative entre l’activite´ de la PK et le syndrome me´tabolique constitue par un ensemble de facteurs ayant un effet sur l’athe´roscle´rose et la mortalite´ due a` la CVD. En dernier lieu, les enfants avec des ante´ce´dents familiaux de CVD pre´sentent une plus importante activite´ de la PK, et ce, de fac¸on significative. Ces premie`res observations sugge`rent d’autres e´tudes sur la relation entre la concentration sanguine de PK et les facteurs de risque de CVD, car la PK pourrait eˆtre implique´e dans la progression de la maladi


Aids Epidemic In The Russian Federation And Policy Reform, Veronika Kiselev 2010 SIT Study Abroad

Aids Epidemic In The Russian Federation And Policy Reform, Veronika Kiselev

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The AIDS epidemic in the Russian Federation has been a constant struggle for the government and the population since the early 90’s. The epidemic is the most rapidly growing epidemic of HIV/AIDS seen in history and has caused much international attention. The epidemic coinciding with the fall of the Soviet Union and the transition of the Russian government from socialist to democratic state has had a huge impact on the policy and government actions to fight the epidemic. The financial struggles that hit a large portion of the population as a result of the fall of the Soviet ...


Plasma Prekallikrein Levels Are Positively Associated With Circulating Lipid Levels And The Metabolic Syndrome In Children., James A. MacKenzie, Kristen A. Roosa, Brooks B. Gump, Amy K. Dumas, Kestutis G. Bendinskas 2010 Syracuse University

Plasma Prekallikrein Levels Are Positively Associated With Circulating Lipid Levels And The Metabolic Syndrome In Children., James A. Mackenzie, Kristen A. Roosa, Brooks B. Gump, Amy K. Dumas, Kestutis G. Bendinskas

Brooks B. Gump

Plasma prekallikrein (PK) has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, but these associations have not been investigated in children. The present study examined PK activity in relation to well-established cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of children aged 9–11 years (N = 97). We found a significant and positive association between PK and fasting levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.01), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01), and triglycerides (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant association between PK activity and the metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors considered to ...


Gender, Germs, And Dirt: A Case Study Of Properly Politicised Science, Sharyn Clough 2010 Oregon State University

Gender, Germs, And Dirt: A Case Study Of Properly Politicised Science, Sharyn Clough

XIV IAPh Symposium 2010

This presentation is part of the Feminist Perspectives in the Sciences: Epidemiology track.

The relatively recent increase in cases of allergies and asthma, especially in industrialised nations of the north and west, has been explained by the “hygiene hypothesis”—viz., that increased cleanliness and sanitation have unintended negative consequences for immune health—an hypothesis that has received robust epidemiological support (e.g., Platts-Mills 2002). Over the last few years, support for the hypothesis has increased with the discovery that populations regularly exposed to certain parasitic worms (helminths) have very low incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn’s (Elliot ...


Recent Trends In Exposure To Secondhand Smoke In The United States Population, Chieh-I Chen, Tanya Burton, Christine L. Baker, Vera Mastey, David M. Mannino 2010 University of Kentucky Medical Center

Recent Trends In Exposure To Secondhand Smoke In The United States Population, Chieh-I Chen, Tanya Burton, Christine L. Baker, Vera Mastey, David M. Mannino

David M. Mannino

Background Previous research using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data documented a significant downward trend in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure between 1988 and 2002. The objective of this study was to assess whether the downward trend in exposure continued from 2001 through 2006.

Methods We analyzed data from the 2001-2006 NHANES to estimate exposure of nonsmokers to SHS. Geometric means of serum cotinine levels for all nonsmokers were computed.

Results Overall serum cotinine levels (95% Confidence Intervals) in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, and 2005-2006 were 0.06 ng/mL (0.05-0.07), 0.07 ng/mL (0.06-0.09 ...


Interventions To Improve Excreta Disposal For Preventing Diarrhoea, Thomas F. Clasen, Kristof Bostoen, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Sophie Boisson, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Marion W. Jenkins, Beth Scott, Steven Sugden, Sandy Cairncross 2010 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Interventions To Improve Excreta Disposal For Preventing Diarrhoea, Thomas F. Clasen, Kristof Bostoen, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Sophie Boisson, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Marion W. Jenkins, Beth Scott, Steven Sugden, Sandy Cairncross

Isaac Chun-Hai Fung

Background: Diarrhoeal diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, especially among young children in low-income countries, and are associated with exposure to human excreta.
Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoeal diseases.
Search Strategy: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and Chinese-language databases available under the Wan Fang portal, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI-CAJ). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, and ...


Socioeconomic Status And Coronary Heart Disease Mortality In The City Of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1996 To 2007), Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Socioeconomic Status And Coronary Heart Disease Mortality In The City Of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1996 To 2007), Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education, Lisa D. Lieberman 2010 Montclair State University

Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Objective: To monitor the progress in the promotion of walkable community initiatives.


Association Between Obesity, Depression, And Inflammation Among Seventh-Day Adventists In The Biopsychosocial Religion And Health Study, Michael Paalani 2010 Loma Linda University

Association Between Obesity, Depression, And Inflammation Among Seventh-Day Adventists In The Biopsychosocial Religion And Health Study, Michael Paalani

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The effects of obesity and depression on morbidity and mortality may be mediated by inflammatory processes. Homeostasis within the immune system depends on a balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine molecules, so chronic inflammatory diseases may result from cytokine dysregulation. The target population consisted of 508 Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs) who participated in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BHRS), a sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of the association between obesity, depression, and inflammation after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, health behavioral, and health status variables among BHRS participants.

Obesity was assessed by body ...


The Association Between Teen Parenthood And Marital Status Among Women, Amy Feinberg 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Association Between Teen Parenthood And Marital Status Among Women, Amy Feinberg

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Teen pregnancy and teen parenting are prevalent and significant public health issues. Teen parenting also has many social and economic consequences for mother and family. Single parenthood is associated with increased financial, work and child care strains compared to a more traditional family type. Therefore, the impact of teen pregnancy on marital status needs to be investigated. This study examines the association between teen parenthood and future marital status. Methods: The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 6 was analyzed. This study included 12398 women age 20 – 44 years who had children. Teen parenthood was defined as age ...


A Community-Engaged Research Approach To The Development Of An Assessment Tool For Historical Data Collection Of Saara Client Population, Jessica Markey 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Community-Engaged Research Approach To The Development Of An Assessment Tool For Historical Data Collection Of Saara Client Population, Jessica Markey

Theses and Dissertations

Through collaboration between the Substance Abuse and Addiction Recovery Alliance (SAARA) and several community partners, a need was identified for a new measurement tool to gather comprehensive client histories for program evaluation and development. The purpose of this study was to (1) develop a culturally relevant and organizationally appropriate mechanism for the collection of comprehensive client histories and (2) to provide the opportunity for staff to engage in a new process of developing and implementing data collection strategies. As a result of the use of a community-based participatory approach, (1) a missed opportunity for program evaluation and development was identified ...


A Qualitative Approach To Explore The Experiences Of Health Care Providers Who Treat Patients For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Ptsd), Mark Killebrew 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Qualitative Approach To Explore The Experiences Of Health Care Providers Who Treat Patients For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Ptsd), Mark Killebrew

Theses and Dissertations

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs when people are exposed to stressful, life-threatening experiences. Consequently, after exposure to such an event, many people may experience fear, guilt, or anger and may believe the trauma is reoccurring. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, approximately 5.2 million U.S. adults age 18-54 have PTSD in any given year. The prevalence of PTSD is even more problematic within the military where an estimated 30% of those who have spent time in war zones experiences PTSD. Researchers have been examining the impact of veterans’ PTSD symptoms ...


Reduction Of Circulating Endothelial Cells In Peripheral Blood Of Als Patients, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Robert L. Woods III, Michael K. Louis, Theresa A. Zesiewicz, Nicole Kuzmin-Nichols, Kelly L. Sullivan, Amber M. Miller, Diana G. Hernandez-Ontiveros, Paul R. Sanberg 2010 University of South Florida

Reduction Of Circulating Endothelial Cells In Peripheral Blood Of Als Patients, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Robert L. Woods Iii, Michael K. Louis, Theresa A. Zesiewicz, Nicole Kuzmin-Nichols, Kelly L. Sullivan, Amber M. Miller, Diana G. Hernandez-Ontiveros, Paul R. Sanberg

Kelly L. Sullivan

Background: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) treatment is complicated by the various mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration. Recent studies showed that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) are compromised in an animal model of ALS due to endothelial cell degeneration. A later study demonstrated a loss of endothelium integrity in the spinal cords of ALS patients. Since circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in the peripheral blood are associated with endothelium damage, being detached dysfunctional endothelial cells, we hypothesized that CEC levels may reflect endothelium condition in ALS patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings: CEC levels were estimated in whole blood smears ...


The Relationship Between Treatment-Seeking And Characteristics Of Depression Among African Americans, Tamara Scott 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Relationship Between Treatment-Seeking And Characteristics Of Depression Among African Americans, Tamara Scott

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Depression is a common psychiatric condition, and despite the availability of effective treatments, this condition is largely under-recognized and undertreated, particularly among African Americans. One reason for this discrepancy may be that depressive symptoms often co-occur with physical health conditions, which can influence both the reporting of depressive symptomology, willingness to seek care, and the type of healthcare provider sought. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between treatment-seeking characteristics and diagnostic attributions of depression among community-dwelling African American adults. Methods: Data come from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative sample of African ...


Strategies For Deriving A Single Measure Of The Overall Burden Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Hospitals, Alessandro Orlando 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

Strategies For Deriving A Single Measure Of The Overall Burden Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Hospitals, Alessandro Orlando

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Antimicrobial-resistant infections result in hospital stays costing between $18,000 and $29,000. As of 2009, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services no longer upgrade payments for hospital-acquired infections. Hospital epidemiologists monitor and document rates of individual resistant microbes in antibiogram reports. Overall summary measures capturing resistance within a hospital may be useful. Objectives: We applied four techniques (L1- and L2-principal component analysis (PCA), desirability functions, and simple summary) to create summary measures of resistance and described the four summary measures with respect to reliability, proportion of variance explained, and clinical utility. Methods: We requested antibiograms from hospitals participating ...


Statin Use And The Risk Of Clostridium Difficile In Academic Medical Centers: A Matched Case Control Study, Christine Motzkus 2010 Virginia Commonwealth University

Statin Use And The Risk Of Clostridium Difficile In Academic Medical Centers: A Matched Case Control Study, Christine Motzkus

Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of hospital acquired Clostridium difficile (CDI), as well as mortality owing to CDI, warrants further exploration of risk factors. Clostridium difficile bacteria typically produce toxins which inactivate the Rho proteins found in the colonic epithelium. Statins also disrupt Rho protein cell signaling functions. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which use of statins increases the risk of healthcare-acquired CDI. METHODS: Patients over 18 years of age admitted to hospitals contributing data to the University HealthSystem Consortium between 2002 and 2009 were eligible. We identified 25, 111 incident cases of CDI and matched ...


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