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Full-Text Articles in Epidemiology

A Secondary Data Analysis Of The Prevalence Of Reported Dementia And Subjective Cognitive Decline Across U.S. National Surveys, Matthew C. Picchiello Aug 2021

A Secondary Data Analysis Of The Prevalence Of Reported Dementia And Subjective Cognitive Decline Across U.S. National Surveys, Matthew C. Picchiello

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States, many large-scale, nationally representative studies exist with the goal of tracking and monitoring aspects of health. These studies are often used to establish the prevalence of dementia and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in the population. The goal of the current study is to examine how different population-based studies probe respondents about conditions related to cognitive impairment, and to assess similarities and differences in point estimates. We reviewed eight studies and identified comparable items related to dementia and SCD. We calculated design-appropriate point prevalence estimates and compared weighted estimates across studies, finding a wide range and statistically ...


Triple Negative Breast Cancer In An Appalachian Region: Exponential Tumor Grade Increase With Age Of Diagnosis, Gina Sizemore, Toni Marie Rudisill Jul 2021

Triple Negative Breast Cancer In An Appalachian Region: Exponential Tumor Grade Increase With Age Of Diagnosis, Gina Sizemore, Toni Marie Rudisill

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive breast cancer with decreased five-year survival, increased risk for recurrence, and higher risk for metastases. Unlike other breast cancers, it has no targeted treatment and has heterogeneous genetics which make classification and treatment difficult.

Purpose: The purpose of our research was to compare triple negative breast cancer to non-triple negative breast cancer to identify key epidemiologic factors that might lead to improved basic science directives for biomarkers, treatments, and classification.

Methods: The state cancer registry was used to provide the first West Virginia state-wide population evaluation of triple negative breast cancer.

Results ...


On The Conventional Definition Of Path-Specific Effects - Fully Mediated Interaction With Multiple Ordered Mediators, An-Shun Tai, Le-Hsuan Liao, Sheng-Hsuan Lin Jul 2021

On The Conventional Definition Of Path-Specific Effects - Fully Mediated Interaction With Multiple Ordered Mediators, An-Shun Tai, Le-Hsuan Liao, Sheng-Hsuan Lin

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Path-specific effects (PSEs) are a critical measure for assessing mediation in the presence of multiple mediators. However, the conventional definition of PSEs has generated controversy because it often causes misinterpretation of the results of multiple mediator analysis. For in-depth analysis of this issue, we propose the concept of decomposing fully mediated interaction (FMI) from the average causal effect. We show that FMI misclassification is the main cause of PSE misinterpretation. Two strategies for specifying FMI are proposed: isolating FMI and reclassifying FMI. The choice of strategy depends on the objective. Isolating FMI is the superior strategy when the main objective ...


Martial Arts In The Pandemic, Martin J. Meyer, Andrea Molle, Benjamin N. Judkins, Paul Bowman Jul 2021

Martial Arts In The Pandemic, Martin J. Meyer, Andrea Molle, Benjamin N. Judkins, Paul Bowman

Political Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on martial arts training worldwide. A mixed-method online questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used as a survey instrument. 306 martial artists responded. These were mainly from the United Kingdom, the USA, Germany, Italy and Japan. The questionnaire focused on pragmatic adaptations of training volume, training rhythm, training location, training mode (individual or group) and training methods. The survey sought to gain insights into modifications that martial artists made as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic in relation to their training, curriculum, alternative fitness, strength and health activities, as well as ...


Longitudinal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) Acceptability, Initiation And Adherence Among Criminal Justice-Involved Adults In The Usa: The Southern Prep Cohort Study (Specs) Protocol, Katherine Lemasters, Carrie B. Oser, Mariah Cowell, Katie Mollan, Kathryn Nowotny, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein Jul 2021

Longitudinal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) Acceptability, Initiation And Adherence Among Criminal Justice-Involved Adults In The Usa: The Southern Prep Cohort Study (Specs) Protocol, Katherine Lemasters, Carrie B. Oser, Mariah Cowell, Katie Mollan, Kathryn Nowotny, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein

Sociology Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: HIV prevalence among criminal justice (CJ)-involved adults is five times higher than the general population. Following incarceration, CJ-involved individuals experience multilevel barriers to HIV prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a widely available, daily medication efficacious in preventing HIV. Little is known about PrEP knowledge, acceptability, initiation and sustained use among CJ-involved persons or about how these outcomes vary by multilevel factors. The Southern Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study (SPECS) will investigate barriers and facilitators for PrEP initiation and sustained use among CJ-involved adults, building a foundation for PrEP interventions for this underserved population.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: SPECS uses a mixed-methods ...


Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 And Polypharmacy: If You Think There’S Too Much Polypharmacy Now, Just Wait, Demetra Antimisiaris Jul 2021

Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 And Polypharmacy: If You Think There’S Too Much Polypharmacy Now, Just Wait, Demetra Antimisiaris

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The intersection of increased chronic disease burden worldwide with the COVID-19 pandemic was called the “perfect storm”. This article discusses yet another perfect storm: Post COVID-19 (acute and non-acute) syndrome, high chronic disease burdens, advanced age, and polypharmacy. The expected hyper polypharmacy that should result from the added disease and symptom burden due to post COVID-19 syndrome is discussed, as well as the importance of studying the incidence and characteristics to be able to address avoidable medication-related problems.


Baricitinib In The Treatment Of A Critical Patient With Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report, Nishant Patel, Dylan Goldsmith, Forest W. Arnold Jul 2021

Baricitinib In The Treatment Of A Critical Patient With Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report, Nishant Patel, Dylan Goldsmith, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

A 72-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of diarrhea after having tested positive for COVID-19 two days prior. He initially had minimal respiratory complaints, but was eventually transferred to the intensive care unit for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. In addition to dexamethasone, remdesivir, and antibiotics, the patient was treated with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor that was recently granted emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. He had an extensive and complicated hospital course and had to be placed on mechanical ventilation, ultimately undergoing tracheostomy. After ...


Mathematical Modeling, Analysis, And Simulation Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Behavioral Patterns And Group Mixing, Comfort Ohajunwa, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer Jul 2021

Mathematical Modeling, Analysis, And Simulation Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Behavioral Patterns And Group Mixing, Comfort Ohajunwa, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Due to the rise of COVID-19 cases, many mathematical models have been developed to study the disease dynamics of the virus. However, despite its role in the spread of COVID-19, many SEIR models neglect to account for human behavior. In this project, we develop a novel mathematical modeling framework for studying the impact of mixing patterns and social behavior on the spread of COVID-19. Specifically, we consider two groups, one exhibiting normal behavior who do not reduce their contacts and another exhibiting altered behavior who reduce their contacts by practicing non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing and self-isolation. The dynamics ...


Indoor Cooking Practices And Associated Health Factors Among Participants In The Dominican Republic And Nicaragua: A Collaborative Study Between Respiratory Therapy Students And Comunidad Connect, Rachel Culbreth, Rachel Trawick, Jon Thompson, Douglas S. Gardenhire Jul 2021

Indoor Cooking Practices And Associated Health Factors Among Participants In The Dominican Republic And Nicaragua: A Collaborative Study Between Respiratory Therapy Students And Comunidad Connect, Rachel Culbreth, Rachel Trawick, Jon Thompson, Douglas S. Gardenhire

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

The purpose of this study is to determine factors associated with indoor cooking practices and specific vital signs across two middle-income countries, Dominican Republic and Nicaragua. This study used data from Nicaragua (n=76) and Dominican Republic (n=62) (collected in 2018-2019). Multivariable linear regression was utilized to determine factors associated with carbon monoxide levels and systolic blood pressure. Among all participants (n=138), approximately half lived in Nicaragua (n=76, 55.1%) and half lived in Dominican Republic (n=62, 44.9%). The overall smoking prevalence in each country was low (9.2% in Nicaragua and 4.8% in ...


Age And Acute Ischemic Stroke Outcome In North American Patients With Covid-19, Adam A. Dmytriw, Anna L. Kuhn, Ajit S. Puri Jul 2021

Age And Acute Ischemic Stroke Outcome In North American Patients With Covid-19, Adam A. Dmytriw, Anna L. Kuhn, Ajit S. Puri

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Background: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the context of COVID-19 has received considerable attention for its propensity to affect patients of all ages. We aimed to evaluate the effect of age on functional outcome and mortality following an acute ischemic event.

Methods and Results: A prospectively maintained database from comprehensive stroke centers in Canada and the United States was analyzed for patients with AIS from March 14 to September 30, 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was Modified Rankin Scale score at discharge, and the secondary outcome was mortality. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, imaging, and thrombectomy workflow ...


Identification Of Novel And Rare Variants Associated With Handgrip Strength Using Whole Genome Sequence Data From The Nhlbi Trans-Omics In Precision Medicine (Topmed) Program, Chloé Sarnowski, Han Chen, Mary L. Biggs, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Jan Bressler, Marguerite R. Irvin, Kathleen A. Ryan, David Karasik, Donna K. Arnett, L. Adrienne Cupples, David W. Fardo, Stephanie M. Gogarten, Benjamin D. Heavner, Deepti Jain, Hyun Min Kang, Charles Kooperberg, Arch G. Mainous, Braxton D. Mitchell, Alanna C. Morrison, Jeffrey R. O'Connell Jul 2021

Identification Of Novel And Rare Variants Associated With Handgrip Strength Using Whole Genome Sequence Data From The Nhlbi Trans-Omics In Precision Medicine (Topmed) Program, Chloé Sarnowski, Han Chen, Mary L. Biggs, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Jan Bressler, Marguerite R. Irvin, Kathleen A. Ryan, David Karasik, Donna K. Arnett, L. Adrienne Cupples, David W. Fardo, Stephanie M. Gogarten, Benjamin D. Heavner, Deepti Jain, Hyun Min Kang, Charles Kooperberg, Arch G. Mainous, Braxton D. Mitchell, Alanna C. Morrison, Jeffrey R. O'Connell

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Handgrip strength is a widely used measure of muscle strength and a predictor of a range of morbidities including cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Previous genome-wide association studies of handgrip strength have focused on common variants primarily in persons of European descent. We aimed to identify rare and ancestry-specific genetic variants associated with handgrip strength by conducting whole-genome sequence association analyses using 13,552 participants from six studies representing diverse population groups from the Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program. By leveraging multiple handgrip strength measures performed in study participants over time, we increased our effective sample size by 7-12 ...


Prevalence Of Covid-19 And Possible Antigenic Drifts In Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein In Kurdistan Region-Iraq, Karzan R. Sidiq Jul 2021

Prevalence Of Covid-19 And Possible Antigenic Drifts In Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein In Kurdistan Region-Iraq, Karzan R. Sidiq

Passer Journal

The COVID-19 is an on-going viral pandemic that has been affecting the public health, routine life and global economy. The disease is caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 outbreak has been reporting in Kurdistan region of Iraq since March 2020. However, few studies investigated the epidemiology of COVID-19 and SARS CoV-2 virus in the region. This study aims at investigating the epidemiological situations of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 variants in Kurdistan region over a year of the pandemic. The results revealed that the prevalence of COVID-19 is 1.9% in the region and is still ...


Evaluating Public Masking Mandates On Covid-19 Growth Rates In U.S. States, Angus K. Wong Jul 2021

Evaluating Public Masking Mandates On Covid-19 Growth Rates In U.S. States, Angus K. Wong

Masters Theses

U.S. state governments have implemented numerous policies to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19. While there is strong biological evidence supporting the wearing of face masks or coverings in public spaces, the impact of public masking policies remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate how early versus delayed implementation of state-level public masking orders impacted subsequent COVID-19 growth rates. We defined “early” implementation as having a state-level mandate in place before September 1, 2020, the approximate start of the school-year. We defined COVID-19 growth rates as the relative increase in confirmed cases 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, 60-days after September ...


Examining The Co-Infection Effects Of Helminths And Malaria In An Indonesian Community, Andrea Rodríguez-Sánchez Jul 2021

Examining The Co-Infection Effects Of Helminths And Malaria In An Indonesian Community, Andrea Rodríguez-Sánchez

Masters Theses

Malaria is one of the most prevalent vector-borne infectious diseases with major morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that co-occurrence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, or infection caused by parasitic worms, are associated with increased risk of malaria infection. However, studies of the association between STH and malaria, and the effect of antihelminth (deworming) treatments that are more commonly used in areas with high STH infection rates, are sparse. Therefore, we explored the relationship between STH and malaria infection in an Indonesian community (N=1997) with high prevalence of both STH and ...


Birthweight And Risk Of Autoimmune And Thyroid Conditions Within The Women’S Health Initiative, Brian C. Monahan Jul 2021

Birthweight And Risk Of Autoimmune And Thyroid Conditions Within The Women’S Health Initiative, Brian C. Monahan

Masters Theses

Autoimmune and thyroid conditions account for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality experienced in the United States, affecting >40 million Americans combined. Co-occurrence of both an autoimmune and thyroid condition is also likely, particularly among women. Epidemiologic studies on both sets of conditions have examined many risk factors, including demographic, lifestyle, genetic, and environmental risk factors. However, one area which has been neglected is the effect of early life exposures on the development of autoimmune and thyroid conditions. To investigate the potential association between an individual’s birth weight (by category;in uteroand early childhood, extending the hypothesis ...


Can Community Gardens With Workshops Increase Gardening Behavior? A Navajo Wellness Collaboration, Kevin A. Lombard Phd, India J. Ornelas Phd, Desiree Deschenie, Felix Nez, Sonia Bishop, Katie Osterbauer Ms, Eileen Rillamas-Sun Phd, Shirley A.A. Beresford Phd Jul 2021

Can Community Gardens With Workshops Increase Gardening Behavior? A Navajo Wellness Collaboration, Kevin A. Lombard Phd, India J. Ornelas Phd, Desiree Deschenie, Felix Nez, Sonia Bishop, Katie Osterbauer Ms, Eileen Rillamas-Sun Phd, Shirley A.A. Beresford Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

This paper seeks to evaluate the potential efficacy of a community gardening intervention on the Navajo Nation to increase gardening and healthy eating behaviors, which are potentially important in preventing obesity and related health conditions. Rates of obesity are high among American Indians, including those living on Navajo Nation land. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables is part of healthy eating. However, availability and access to fresh fruits and vegetables are severely limited on the Navajo Nation, due to distance and cost. One way to increase both availability and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is through community gardening, yet many ...


Health Disparities And Covid-19 Pandemic: Increasing Clinical Research Participation Among African Americans, Kashica J. Webber-Ritchey, Abbi D. Lane-Cordova Jul 2021

Health Disparities And Covid-19 Pandemic: Increasing Clinical Research Participation Among African Americans, Kashica J. Webber-Ritchey, Abbi D. Lane-Cordova

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Health disparities in African Americans is a persistent issue. Higher rates and severity of the novel coronavirus-19 [COVID-19] among African Americans only widens health disparities. Effective COVID-19 treatment options are imperative, requiring representation of African Americans in clinical research. However, low participation and under-representation of African Americans is complex in nature. This article describes health disparities, the impact of COVID-19, and participation in clinical research among African Americans. We offer strategies for researchers to enhance the inclusion of African Americans. We also offer strategies in conducting clinical research during COVID-19.


Factors That Influence Enrollment In Syringe Services Programs In Rural Areas: A Qualitative Study Among Program Clients In Appalachian Kentucky, Umedjon Ibragimov, Katherine E. Cooper, Evan Batty, April M. Ballard, Monica Fadanelli, Skylar B. Gross, Emma M. Klein, Scott Lockard, April M. Young, Hannah L. F. Cooper Jun 2021

Factors That Influence Enrollment In Syringe Services Programs In Rural Areas: A Qualitative Study Among Program Clients In Appalachian Kentucky, Umedjon Ibragimov, Katherine E. Cooper, Evan Batty, April M. Ballard, Monica Fadanelli, Skylar B. Gross, Emma M. Klein, Scott Lockard, April M. Young, Hannah L. F. Cooper

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Enrolling sufficient number of people who inject drugs (PWID) into syringe services programs (SSP) is important to curtail outbreaks of drug-related harms. Still, little is known about barriers and facilitators to SSP enrollment in rural areas with no history of such programs. This study's purpose was to develop a grounded theory of the role of the risk environment and individual characteristics of PWID in shaping SSP enrollment in rural Kentucky.

METHODS: We conducted one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 41 clients of 5 SSPs that were established in rural counties in Appalachian Kentucky in 2017-2018. Interviews covered PWID needs, the ...


Lessons From A Local Effort To Screen For Sars-Cov-2, Noah J. Silverstein, Jeremy Luban Jun 2021

Lessons From A Local Effort To Screen For Sars-Cov-2, Noah J. Silverstein, Jeremy Luban

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

It is breathtaking to consider how the response to pandemic viral pathogens has been transformed over the past century by greater knowledge of fundamental biology and technological innovations including PCR and next-generation sequencing. In striking contrast to the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the pathogen responsible for the 1918 influenza pandemic was not identified until years after the outbreak. The definitive text in 1927 described influenza as “an epidemiologic conception” likely caused by the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. Six decades later, HIV-1 was discovered within a few years of the first report of AIDS, although it took ...


The Association Between Ethnicity And Caregiver Health, Adetola Aboyeji Jun 2021

The Association Between Ethnicity And Caregiver Health, Adetola Aboyeji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Existing research shows that caregiving is associated with several adverse health outcomes. Despite the growing number of caregivers in Canada, little research has been conducted on caregivers' potential unique experiences and outcomes based on their ethnicity. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether ethnicity was associated with a caregiver’s health.

Methods: To address these research gaps, we used data from the 2012 Canadian General Social Survey (GSS) Caregiving and Care Receiving. Focusing on caregivers (n=9,552), we examined the association using three measures of health – self-reported overall health, self-reported mental health, and the Health ...


Descriptive Analysis Of Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults In Ontario, Nicolette Lappan Jun 2021

Descriptive Analysis Of Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults In Ontario, Nicolette Lappan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Falls are the leading cause of injury-related hospitalizations among older adults in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of older adults who experienced fall-related injuries (FRIs) and the types of falls that caused them. We analyzed Ontario-wide secondary data from three databases (NACRS, DAD, RPDB) covering 2010-2014. Older adults (≥ 65 years) who visited emergency departments (ED) with FRIs were selected using ICD-10-CA codes for a fall and injury. Counts, measures of central tendency, and prevalence rates (crude, age- and sex-specific, age-standardized) were calculated. There were 304,610 (63.0% females) ED admissions (3,089 per ...


Plotting The Literature On Precautionary Measures Of Covid-19: A Scientometric Analysis Of Web Of Science, Muhammad Shoaib, Nusrat Ali, Abeel Naseer Jun 2021

Plotting The Literature On Precautionary Measures Of Covid-19: A Scientometric Analysis Of Web Of Science, Muhammad Shoaib, Nusrat Ali, Abeel Naseer

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study attempted to evaluate the scholarly publications on COVID-19, social distance, physical distance, social isolation, and self-isolation employing the scientometric analysis technique from 2020 to 2021. The main purpose was to consolidate the published scholarship on the COVID-19 in the Web of Science indexed documents. A total of 635 publications were found. The results indicated that social distance and COVID-19 was the top topic along with the article as a type of document, and the majority were published in the English language in 2021. The name of Gimenez-Llort L was at top of the list of authors, along with ...


Interplay Between Shift Work, Psychological Distress, Sleep Quality, And Cognitive Performance, Rea Therese Alonzo Jun 2021

Interplay Between Shift Work, Psychological Distress, Sleep Quality, And Cognitive Performance, Rea Therese Alonzo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Shift work schedules are designed to maintain a continuous operation of goods and services. However, engaging in shift work may impact cognitive functioning. This thesis assessed the relationship between shift work and cognitive performance. Using cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the association between shift work and cognitive performance, as well as the moderating effects of psychological distress and sleep quality. Differences by sex and retirement status were also investigated. Shift work was significantly associated with poor performance for executive functioning but not for declarative memory. Poorer cognitive performance ...


Research Visualization Of Different Treatment Modalities To Treat Covid-19 Infection: Bibliometric Analysis Of Pubmed Database, Abeel Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Nusrat Ali, Imtiaz Ahmad Jun 2021

Research Visualization Of Different Treatment Modalities To Treat Covid-19 Infection: Bibliometric Analysis Of Pubmed Database, Abeel Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Nusrat Ali, Imtiaz Ahmad

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This paper designed to examine research published in PubMed indexed journals of different treatment modalities to treat COVID -19 infection employing bibliometric analysis technique from 2020 to 2021. The purpose was to consolidate the published scholarly work in the PubMed database on different treatment modalities including vaccine, oxygen supplementation, dexamethasone or steroids, aspirin, heparin, remdesivir, zinc, vitamin c or ascorbic acid, oxygen, anti-malarial like chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin or macrolides. We employed a bibliometric analysis technique and found a total of 3043 published documents. The study findings depicted that vaccine and COVID-19 top was at the top of the ...


Landscape-Based Mutational Sensitivity Cartography And Network Community Analysis Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Structures: Quantifying Functional Effects Of The Circulating D614g Variant, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Deniz Yasar Oztas, Grace Gupta Jun 2021

Landscape-Based Mutational Sensitivity Cartography And Network Community Analysis Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Structures: Quantifying Functional Effects Of The Circulating D614g Variant, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Deniz Yasar Oztas, Grace Gupta

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We developed and applied a computational approach to simulate functional effects of the global circulating mutation D614G of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations are combined with deep mutational scanning and analysis of the residue interaction networks to investigate conformational landscapes and energetics of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins in different functional states of the D614G mutant. The results of conformational dynamics and analysis of collective motions demonstrated that the D614 site plays a key regulatory role in governing functional transitions between open and closed states. Using mutational scanning and sensitivity analysis of protein residues, we identified the stability ...


Outcomes Of Sars-Cov-2 Infection In Patients With Chronic Liver Disease And Cirrhosis: A N3c Study [Preprint], Jin Ge, Mark J. Pletcher, Jennifer C. Lai, N3c Consortium Jun 2021

Outcomes Of Sars-Cov-2 Infection In Patients With Chronic Liver Disease And Cirrhosis: A N3c Study [Preprint], Jin Ge, Mark J. Pletcher, Jennifer C. Lai, N3c Consortium

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Background and Aims In patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) with or without cirrhosis, existing data on the risk of adverse outcomes with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been mixed or have limited generalizability. We used the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Data Enclave, a harmonized electronic health record (EHR) dataset of 5.9 million nationally-representative, diverse, and gender-balanced patients, to describe outcomes in patients with CLD and cirrhosis with SARS-CoV-2.

Methods We identified all chronic liver diseases patients with and without cirrhosis who had SARS-CoV-2 testing documented in the N3C Data Enclave as of data release date 5/15/2021. The ...


Can Racial Disparities In Poor Birth Outcomes Be Partially Attributed To Stress: A Mendellian Randomization Study, Madeline Travers Jun 2021

Can Racial Disparities In Poor Birth Outcomes Be Partially Attributed To Stress: A Mendellian Randomization Study, Madeline Travers

Dissertations and Theses

In the United States, low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant death overall, and the leading cause of death for Black infants. Understanding and preventing adverse birth outcomes is a major public health priority. Observationally, there is some evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress may be associated with LBW. To clarify the effect of maternal stress exposure on LBW, I conducted three separate-sample instrumental variable analyses with genetic instruments (Mendelian randomization) based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), from genome wide association studies, strongly (p-value < 5 × 10−6) and independently associated with neuroendocrine, vascular, and immune measures of ...


Serious Mental Illness In Nursing Homes: Quality Concerns, Dylan J. Jester Jun 2021

Serious Mental Illness In Nursing Homes: Quality Concerns, Dylan J. Jester

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objective: This dissertation is made of two academic papers followed by a chapter discussing policy implications of the findings. The objective of this dissertation is to better understand if high-serious mental illness (SMI) nursing homes (NHs) provide poorer quality of care (e.g., operationalized as staffing levels, NH Compare quality star ratings, and health deficiencies) and whether quality in high-SMI NHs is confounded by payer mix (e.g., the proportion of residents who are Medicaid-reimbursed). A modified Donabedian Structure, Process, Outcome (SPO) Model was used as the main theoretical framework.

Methods: Data came from the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced ...


Changes In Student Behaviors And Policy Opinion Regarding E-Cigarettes At A Kentucky University From 2014 To 2018, Jason W. Marion, Alina Strand, Elliott Baldridge Jun 2021

Changes In Student Behaviors And Policy Opinion Regarding E-Cigarettes At A Kentucky University From 2014 To 2018, Jason W. Marion, Alina Strand, Elliott Baldridge

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The behaviors and opinions regarding e-cigarette use and campus policies prohibiting vaping vary greatly among college students nationally. Kentucky is one of the four U.S. states with the highest tobacco use prevalence, and characterizing e-cigarette use, trends and policy opinions among Kentucky undergraduates may inform interventions. To characterize population-level differences in e-cigarette-related behaviors and policy opinions among undergraduates from 2014 to 2018, results from two cross-sectional surveys (2014 and 2018) from a public regional university in south-central Kentucky were analyzed. Students from randomly selected undergraduate general studies courses completed a 5-minute in-class survey. Data were obtained from 514 and ...


Systematic Review On Epidemiology, Interventions And Management Of Noncommunicable Diseases In Acute And Emergency Care Settings In Kenya, Christine Ngaruiya, Annrita Kawira, Florence Mali, Faith Kambua, Beatrice Mwangi, Mbatha Wambua, Denise Hersey, Laventa Obare, Rebecca Leff, Benjamin Wachira Jun 2021

Systematic Review On Epidemiology, Interventions And Management Of Noncommunicable Diseases In Acute And Emergency Care Settings In Kenya, Christine Ngaruiya, Annrita Kawira, Florence Mali, Faith Kambua, Beatrice Mwangi, Mbatha Wambua, Denise Hersey, Laventa Obare, Rebecca Leff, Benjamin Wachira

Emergency Medicine, East Africa

Introduction: Mortality and morbidity from Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Africa are expected to worsen if the status quo is maintained. Emergency care settings act as a primary point of entry into the health system for a spectrum of NCD-related illnesses, however, there is a dearth of literature on this population. We conducted a systematic review assessing available evidence on epidemiology, interventions and management of NCDs in acute and emergency care settings in Kenya, the largest economy in East Africa and a medical hub for the continent.

Methods: All searches were run on July 15, 2015 and updated on December 11 ...