Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Chemicals and Drugs Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,329 Full-Text Articles 9,137 Authors 1,037,877 Downloads 248 Institutions

All Articles in Chemicals and Drugs

Faceted Search

3,329 full-text articles. Page 1 of 144.

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. MacPherson 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of molecules can be radiolabeled and delivered to a cancer site for the purposes of diagnostics and therapy. Among the most promising of tumor targeting molecules are peptides and antibodies. These bio-inspired molecules can be designed and synthesized to target and respond to cancer cells based on the properties of those cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are over-expressed by some metastatic cancers, in which they are responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In recent years, MMPs have emerged as promising targets for enzyme-responsive diagnostic probes because oligopeptides can be designed to be selectively hydrolyzed …


Second Generation Phenyloxadiazolyl Methyl Sulfones For Thiol-Specific Bioconjugations, Guillaume Dewaele-Le Roi 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Second Generation Phenyloxadiazolyl Methyl Sulfones For Thiol-Specific Bioconjugations, Guillaume Dewaele-Le Roi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of antibody-based molecular agents for diagnosis and therapy of cancer has expanded significantly over the past decades. However, most of these constructs are synthesized using traditional bioconjugation methods based on the random ligations between the molecular cargo and lysine residues within the protein. These non-specific approaches can create poorly defined conjugates with suboptimal immunoreactivity and in vivo performance while Site-specific approaches to antibody bioconjugation based on ligations between maleimides and free cysteine residues have long stood as attractive alternatives. Yet the inherent instability of the thiol-maleimide linkage has fueled the search for new, more stable thiol-reactive prosthetic groups. …


Synthesis Of Fluoroorganics And Applications Of Novel Fluorinated Building Blocks, Wei Wei 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Synthesis Of Fluoroorganics And Applications Of Novel Fluorinated Building Blocks, Wei Wei

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Diastereoselectivity of fluorination of a carbanion alpha to a sulfone in enantiomerically pure N-Boc protected (R)- and (S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-((arylsulfonyl)methyl)oxazolidines has been studied. Fluorination proceeded with good to excellent diastereoselectivity, which was base-dependent and was highest with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA). Diastereoselectivity also depended on the aryl moiety of the aryl sulfone and was highest with benzothiazole-derived sulfones. Under basic conditions, epimerization at the C–F stereogenic center alpha to the sulfone has been achieved for the first time and proceeded with good to excellent diastereoselectivity, which was highest in the case of a benzothiazole sulfone and with a lithium base. …


Brivaracetam To Treat Partial Onset Seizures In Adults., Dustin Latimer, David Le, Evan P. Falgoust, Patrick Ingraffia, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Elyse M. Cornett, Rupin Singh, JooHee Choi, Giustino Varrassi, Adam M. Kaye, Alan D. Kaye, Latha Ganti 2023 University of the Pacific

Brivaracetam To Treat Partial Onset Seizures In Adults., Dustin Latimer, David Le, Evan P. Falgoust, Patrick Ingraffia, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Elyse M. Cornett, Rupin Singh, Joohee Choi, Giustino Varrassi, Adam M. Kaye, Alan D. Kaye, Latha Ganti

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seizures are a hyperexcitable, and hypersynchronous imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory factors (E/I imbalance) in neurotransmission, and epilepsy is the recurrent manifestation of seizures within a reasonable time frame and without being attributable to a reversible cause. Brivaracetam is a derivative of the antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, that is used as adjuvant therapy for focal onset seizures. It was approved by the FDA in 2016 and has shown promising results with minimal adverse effect reactions in clinical trials.

RECENT FINDINGS: Brivaracetam has been used in multiple clinical trials at various dosages in adults that have partial-onset seizures refractory …


Review Of Interventional Therapies For Refractory Pediatric Migraine., Jacquelin Peck, Justin Zeien, Megha Patel, Elyse M. Cornett, Amnon A. Berger, Jamal Hasoon, Hisham Kassem, Jai Won Jung, Giovanni F. Ramírez, Paola Fugueroa, Neil R. Singhal, Jaehong Song, Adam M. Kaye, Alan D. Kaye, Sarang S. Koushik, Natalie H. Strand, Latha Ganti 2023 University of the Pacific

Review Of Interventional Therapies For Refractory Pediatric Migraine., Jacquelin Peck, Justin Zeien, Megha Patel, Elyse M. Cornett, Amnon A. Berger, Jamal Hasoon, Hisham Kassem, Jai Won Jung, Giovanni F. Ramírez, Paola Fugueroa, Neil R. Singhal, Jaehong Song, Adam M. Kaye, Alan D. Kaye, Sarang S. Koushik, Natalie H. Strand, Latha Ganti

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

This is a review of the latest and seminal evidence in pediatric migraine. It covers the etiology and pathophysiology known today, and then will review treatment options, efficacy and safety, quality of data and indications. Though migraine is usually regarded as an infliction in adults, it is not uncommon in the pediatric population and affects up to 8% of children. Children may experience migraine differently than adults, and present not only with headache but also frequent gastrointestinal symptoms. They are frequently shorter in duration than in adults. Traditional migraine treatment in adults is less effective in children. In this population, …


Suvorexant, A Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist, For The Management Of Insomnia., Andrew H. Han, Carolin R. Burroughs, Evan P. Falgoust, Jamal Hasoon, Grace Hunt, Juyeon Kakazu, Tim Lee, Adam M. Kaye, Alan D. Kaye, Latha Ganti 2023 University of the Pacific

Suvorexant, A Novel Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonist, For The Management Of Insomnia., Andrew H. Han, Carolin R. Burroughs, Evan P. Falgoust, Jamal Hasoon, Grace Hunt, Juyeon Kakazu, Tim Lee, Adam M. Kaye, Alan D. Kaye, Latha Ganti

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present investigation is a comprehensive review regarding the use of Suvorexant for insomnia treatment. It covers the background, pathophysiology, and significance of addressing insomnia, the pharmaceutical details of Suvorexant, and its safety, efficacy, and implications in treating insomnia. We further discuss Suvorexant's role in targeting insomnia with other comorbidities.

RECENT FINDINGS: Insomnia refers to poor quality and/or quantity of sleep. While there are many existing treatments such as benzodiazepines, melatonin agonists, TCAs, and atypical antipsychotics used to target various receptors involved in normal induction and maintenance of sleep, Suvorexant is an antagonist that specifically targets orexin …


Potential Of Biduri Fiber (Calotropis Gigantea) As Material For Oil Spill Absorbent, Anne Sukmawati, Wulan Septiani 2023 Balai Besar Tekstil

Potential Of Biduri Fiber (Calotropis Gigantea) As Material For Oil Spill Absorbent, Anne Sukmawati, Wulan Septiani

Journal of Materials Exploration and Findings (JMEF)

Biduri fiber (Calotropis gigantea) is a natural hollow fiber with hydrophobic and oleophilic properties potentially used as oil spilled sorbent from seawater. This study aims to determine the absorption capacity and efficiency of the Biduri fiber and membrane to fuel oil. Measurement of oil absorption to seawater was carried out at various fiber weights (0.5-1.5 g), fiber composition (50-95%), contact time (10-90 minutes), temperature (30 and 50°C), and compared with commercial products. The results showed that the fiber weight variation of 0.5-1.5 g has an average absorption efficiency of 96.67%, and the highest absorption was obtained in a weight of …


Prescription Opioid Misuse And Addiction: Healthcare’S Contribution To The Opioid Epidemic And What Can Be Done About It, Emily Larsen, Katrina Ecke 2023 Dominican University of California

Prescription Opioid Misuse And Addiction: Healthcare’S Contribution To The Opioid Epidemic And What Can Be Done About It, Emily Larsen, Katrina Ecke

Nursing | Senior Theses

Up to one in four patients undergoing prolonged opioid therapy in a primary care setting battle opioid addiction. In 2020, the CDC found that more than 16,000 deaths involving prescription opioids (limited to natural and semi-synthetic opioids and methadone) had occurred, which is equivalent to about 45 deaths per day. Opioid overdose death can be identified through three distinct waves; increased prescribing of opioids in the 1990’s began the first wave, the beginning of the second wave came in 2010 with a rapid increase in heroin related overdose deaths, and in 2013 the third wave began with a significant increase …


Efficacy And Safety Of Vibegron For The Treatment Of Overactive Bladder In Women: A Subgroup Analysis From The Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Empowur Trial, Diane K. Newman DNP, Elizabeth Thomas MS, Heather Greene MPH, Cornelia Haag-Molkenteller MD, Susann Varano MD 2023 Sacred Heart University

Efficacy And Safety Of Vibegron For The Treatment Of Overactive Bladder In Women: A Subgroup Analysis From The Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Empowur Trial, Diane K. Newman Dnp, Elizabeth Thomas Ms, Heather Greene Mph, Cornelia Haag-Molkenteller Md, Susann Varano Md

Physician Assistant Studies Faculty Publications

Importance The international phase 3 EMPOWUR trial demonstrated efficacy and safety of vibegron, a newer b3-adrenergic receptor agonist, in adults with overactive bladder (OAB). Women are disproportionately affected by OAB, especially those with bothersome symptoms, such as urge urinary incontinence (UUI). Objective This subgroup analysis from EMPOWUR assessed efficacy and safety of vibegron in women. Study Design In EMPOWUR, patients with OAB were randomized 5:5:4 to 12 weeks of treatment with once-daily vibegron 75 mg, placebo, or tolterodine 4-mg extended release. Efficacy end points included change from baseline at week 12 in mean daily number of micturitions, UUI episodes, and …


Analysis Of D- And L- Isomers Of (Meth)Amphetamine In Human K2edta Plasma, Brian Robbins, Jacob Perry, Mary Long, Rob E. Carpenter 2023 Advanta Genetics

Analysis Of D- And L- Isomers Of (Meth)Amphetamine In Human K2edta Plasma, Brian Robbins, Jacob Perry, Mary Long, Rob E. Carpenter

Human Resource Development Faculty Publications and Presentations

Methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine are frequently abused drugs. Whether obtained legally or from clandestine laboratories it is of relevance to determine the chiral makeup of these drugs for investigative purpose. Although urine and oral fluid matrices are commonly offered, less available to independent laboratories are techniques to verify dextro (D-) or levo (L-) (meth)amphetamine from human K2EDTA plasma. This paper outlines the development and validation of a method that includes the addition of internal standard and a two-step liquid-liquid extraction to remove the analytes from human K2EDTA plasma by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The assay was validated according …


Structure-Based Rational Design Of Small Α-Helical Peptides With Broad-Spectrum Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens, Sandeep Lohan, Anastasia G. Konshina, Roman G. Efremov, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Keykavous Parang 2022 Chapman University

Structure-Based Rational Design Of Small Α-Helical Peptides With Broad-Spectrum Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens, Sandeep Lohan, Anastasia G. Konshina, Roman G. Efremov, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A series of small (7–12 mer) amphipathic cationic peptides were designed and synthesized to create short helical peptides with broad-range bactericidal activity and selectivity toward the bacterial cells. The analysis identified a lead 12-mer peptide 8b with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive (MIC = 3.1–6.2 μg/mL) and Gram-negative (MIC = 6.2–12.5 μg/mL) bacteria and selectivity toward prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells (HC50 = 280 μg/mL, >75% cell viability at 150 μg/mL). The rapid membranolytic action of 8b was demonstrated by a calcein dye leakage assay and confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. According to circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, the peptides have an …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Evaluation Of Antibody Response To Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Sars-Cov-2) Vaccination In Patients With Lymphoid And Solid Organ Malignancies, Mukul Singal, Sanjana Kalvehalli Kashinath, S. Shahzad Mustafa, Edward Walsh, Karthik Vadamalai, Saad Jamshed 2022 Rochester Regional Health System

Evaluation Of Antibody Response To Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Sars-Cov-2) Vaccination In Patients With Lymphoid And Solid Organ Malignancies, Mukul Singal, Sanjana Kalvehalli Kashinath, S. Shahzad Mustafa, Edward Walsh, Karthik Vadamalai, Saad Jamshed

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. There is emerging evidence regarding suboptimal response to vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with hematologic and solid organ malignancies.

We conducted a single-center prospective study assessing seroconversion in response to vaccination against COVID-19 in 53 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and solid organ malignancies.

A quantitative immunoassay of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein was measured prior to vaccination and at 2 weeks after completion of two-dose vaccination series. A fourfold increase in antibody titers was considered positive …


Arginine Methylation Of The Pgc-1Α C‑Terminus Is Temperature- Dependent, Meryl Mendoz, Mariel Mendoza, Tiffany Lubrino, Sidney Briski, Immaculeta Osuji, Janielle Cuala, Brendan Ly, Ivan Ocegueda, Harvey Peralta, Benjamin A. Garcia, Cecilia Zurita-Lopez 2022 California State University, Los Angeles

Arginine Methylation Of The Pgc-1Α C‑Terminus Is Temperature- Dependent, Meryl Mendoz, Mariel Mendoza, Tiffany Lubrino, Sidney Briski, Immaculeta Osuji, Janielle Cuala, Brendan Ly, Ivan Ocegueda, Harvey Peralta, Benjamin A. Garcia, Cecilia Zurita-Lopez

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We set out to determine whether the C-terminus (amino acids 481–798) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α, UniProt Q9UBK2), a regulatory metabolic protein involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, and respiration, is an arginine methyltransferase substrate. Arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) alters protein function and thus contributes to various cellular processes. In addition to confirming methylation of the C-terminus by PRMT1 as described in the literature, we have identified methylation by another member of the PRMT family, PRMT7. We performed in vitro methylation reactions using recombinant mammalian PRMT7 and PRMT1 at 37, 30, 21, 18, and 4 °C. …


Personality Disorder Predisposing To Alcohol Dependence, Samarchitha S Ms., Venkatesh Babu Dr., Megha Sadashiv Dr., Sudeep PK Mr. 2022 JSS MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

Personality Disorder Predisposing To Alcohol Dependence, Samarchitha S Ms., Venkatesh Babu Dr., Megha Sadashiv Dr., Sudeep Pk Mr.

Digital Journal of Clinical Medicine

No abstract provided.


Editorial: Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms As Potential Drug Targets, Tarsis F. Brust, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Val J. Watts 2022 Palm Beach Atlantic University

Editorial: Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms As Potential Drug Targets, Tarsis F. Brust, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Val J. Watts

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Editorial on the Research Topic Adenylyl cyclase isoforms as potential drug targets


Reducing The Risk Of Chemotherapy Exposure, Miranda Susman 2022 Kennesaw State University

Reducing The Risk Of Chemotherapy Exposure, Miranda Susman

Symposium of Student Scholars

Concerns about antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs), also known as chemotherapy, began in the early 1970s by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Although ANPDs are used as a standard treatment for cancer, these drugs are considered hazardous due to their adverse health effects. About eight million healthcare workers are exposed to ANPDs and therefore essential that we continue to educate on ways to reduce the risk of exposure to occupational and home health hazards. The overall purpose of this study is to determine if additional education and use of surface wipe samplings reduce the risk of exposure. A literature …


Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore 2022 Kennesaw State University

Designing And Synthesizing A Warhead-Fragment Inhibitory Ligand For Ivyp1 Through Fragment-Based Drug Discovery, Samuel Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a powerful tool for developing anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Within this, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative approach to screening and validating weak and robust binders with targeted proteins, making NMR among the most attractive strategies in FBDD. Inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme (Ivyp1) of P. aeruginosa serves as an excellent target because of its active cellular location and implications in clinical prognosis for cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. This study uses current NMR and biophysical techniques to develop a covalent, fragment-linked warhead inhibitor for Ivyp1 through synthetic methods, warhead linking, and …


Exploring Alternative Treatment Options For A Patient With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding And Mistrust Of The Healthcare System, Rachel A. O'Dell 2022 Wayne State University

Exploring Alternative Treatment Options For A Patient With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding And Mistrust Of The Healthcare System, Rachel A. O'Dell

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A clinical decision report using:

Tinelli A, Gustapane S, D’Oria O, Licchelli M, Panese G. Nutraceuticals in fibroid management after ulipristal acetate administration: An observational study on patients’ compliance. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 2022;156(1):133-138. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13692

for a patient with chronic, symptomatic anemia with menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.


Efficacy And Safety Of Pacritinib Vs Placebo For Patients With Severe Covid-19: A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial, John Cafardi, Carole Miller, Howard Terebelo, Chad Tewell, Sadia Benzaquen, David Park, Pamela Egan, Daniel Lebovic, Kristen Pettit, Eric Whitman, Douglas Tremblay, Jonathan Feld, Sarah Buckley, Karisse Roman-Torres, Jennifer Smith, Adam Craig, John Mascarenhas 2022 The Christ Hospital

Efficacy And Safety Of Pacritinib Vs Placebo For Patients With Severe Covid-19: A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial, John Cafardi, Carole Miller, Howard Terebelo, Chad Tewell, Sadia Benzaquen, David Park, Pamela Egan, Daniel Lebovic, Kristen Pettit, Eric Whitman, Douglas Tremblay, Jonathan Feld, Sarah Buckley, Karisse Roman-Torres, Jennifer Smith, Adam Craig, John Mascarenhas

Einstein Health Papers

IMPORTANCE: The morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 remain high despite advances in standard of care therapy, and the role of anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit the interleukin 6/JAK2 pathway is still being elucidated.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the oral JAK2/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib vs placebo in the treatment of adults with severe COVID-19.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial enrolled hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 at 21 centers across the US between June 2020 and February 2021, with approximately 1.5 months of safety follow-up per patient. Data analysis was performed …


Digital Commons powered by bepress