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Data-Driven Analysis Of Drug And Substance Abuse Rates Across The Varying Regions In The United States Of America, Reem Saleh 2022 Portland State University

Data-Driven Analysis Of Drug And Substance Abuse Rates Across The Varying Regions In The United States Of America, Reem Saleh

University Honors Theses

Drugs and substance abuse is one of the leading causes of death for adolescents in the United States. The consequences of using these drugs are profound and can cause both damage to one's physical and psychological health. The rates of drug abuse in the United States continue to increase over the years. This paper analyzes the trends in rates of drug abuse in the four regions in the United States. It looks at the rates in cocaine, cigarettes, marijuana, and tobacco. A preliminary analysis was done to look at the trend in rates followed by an ARIMA time series ...


Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria 2022 Keck Graduate Institute

Full- Versus Sub-Regional Quantification Of Amyloid-Beta Load On Mouse Brain Sections, Yuu Ohno, Riley Murphy, Matthew Choi, Weijun Ou, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is the target of the only FDA-approved disease-modifying treatment for AD. Accordingly, the use of transgenic mouse models that overexpress the amyloid precursor protein and thereby accumulate cerebral Aβ plaques are widely used to model human AD in mice. Therefore, immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunostaining, commonly measure the Aβ load in brain tissues derived from AD transgenic mice. Though the methods for Aβ detection and quantification have been well established and documented, the impact of the size of ...


Lectin-Glycan Complexes: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Docking Calculations, Ashton Custer 2022 University of Mississippi

Lectin-Glycan Complexes: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Docking Calculations, Ashton Custer

Honors Theses

Lectins are a type of glycan-binding protein that noncovalently bind glycans. Carbohydrates are molecules consisting of sugar units joined together. Glycans are carbohydrates. Hence, glycans are also sugars. Lectins and lectin-glycan complexes have a range of biological roles and can be found in animals (including humans), plants, bacteria, viruses, and yeasts and fungi.1 Many scientists focus on the computational study of these complexes due to their intricate roles in many living organisms. Computational study is important in furthering our knowledge of lectin-glycan complexes and other such protein complexes. However, computational study is not perfect. There are many challenges in ...


Hdac6 Inhibition Reverses Long-Term Doxorubicin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction By Restoring Microglia Homeostasis, Blake McAlpin 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Hdac6 Inhibition Reverses Long-Term Doxorubicin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction By Restoring Microglia Homeostasis, Blake Mcalpin

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

One in 8 women in the US will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Currently, doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapies for breast cancer. Unfortunately, up to 60% of survivors report long-term chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) characterized by deficits in working memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. Currently, no interventions for CICD have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. I show here that a 14-day treatment with a blood-brain barrier permeable histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor successfully reverses long-term CICD following a therapeutic doxorubicin dosing schedule in female mice, as assessed by the puzzle box test ...


Synthesis, Structural Characterization, And In Vitro Biological Assessment Of Trans- Platinum (Ii) Thionate Complexes As Potent Anticancer Agents, Mia Alshami 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Synthesis, Structural Characterization, And In Vitro Biological Assessment Of Trans- Platinum (Ii) Thionate Complexes As Potent Anticancer Agents, Mia Alshami

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The content of this thesis has been originally reported in our published paper, “trans-Platinum (II) Thionate Complexes: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and in vitro Biological Assessment as Potent Anticancer Agents” ChemPlusChem 2019 84, 1525-1535, DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201900394, in which I served as coauthor. Cancer caused 9.6 million deaths in 2018 worldwide, with 18.1 million new diagnoses during that same year.The most widely used metal in anticancer drugs is platinum (Pt), and these drugs are used to treat almost 50% of cancer patients. To optimize drug effectiveness, trans-configured Pt(II) complexes have been introduced as ...


“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

“Translation Of Hdac6 Pet Imaging Using [18f]Ekz-001 – Cgmp Production And Measurement Of Hdac6 Target Occupancy In Nhps” – A Review, Dania Rahal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been reported to alleviate the effects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. The brain-penetrant PET radioligand [18F]EKZ-001 has high affinity and selectivity towards HDAC6 and therefore suggests great promise in therapeutic treatment studies and development for neurodegenerative diseases. “Translation of HDAC6 PET imaging using [18F]EKZ-001 – cGMP production and measurement of HDAC6 target occupancy in NHPs” has achieved an effective, fully automated method of producing [18F]EKZ-001 in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) to support the translation of [18F]EKZ-001 PET for first-in-human ...


Unveiling The Opioid Crisis: The Impact Of Opioids On Body Systems And Alternative Treatment Options To Reduce The Nationwide Opioid Epidemic, Krishna S. Patel, Elizabeth A. Manheim Ph.D. 2022 Kean University

Unveiling The Opioid Crisis: The Impact Of Opioids On Body Systems And Alternative Treatment Options To Reduce The Nationwide Opioid Epidemic, Krishna S. Patel, Elizabeth A. Manheim Ph.D.

Kean Quest

No abstract provided.


Computational Design Of Β-Fluorinated Morphine Derivatives For Ph-Specific Binding, Nayiri Alexander, Makena Augenstein, Matthew Gartner 2022 Chapman University

Computational Design Of Β-Fluorinated Morphine Derivatives For Ph-Specific Binding, Nayiri Alexander, Makena Augenstein, Matthew Gartner

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The opioid epidemic impacted over 12 million Americans in 2019. Although they are effective pain-relieving medications, they carry addictive and dangerous side effects. Opioids, like morphine, bind non-selectively in both central and peripheral tissues; however, dangerous side effects result from central activation. Inflamed conditions of injured tissues have a lower pH (pH=6-6.5) environment than healthy central tissue (pH=7.4). We aim to design a morphine derivative that binds selectively within inflamed tissue using computationally-based molecular extension and dissection techniques. Binding to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is dependent on protonation of the biochemically active amine group of morphine ...


Seeing Thro The Musical Eye: Santo Daime, Fuke-Shū, 1960s Psychedelia, And The Antipodes Of Musical Experience, Forest Anthony-Muran 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Seeing Thro The Musical Eye: Santo Daime, Fuke-Shū, 1960s Psychedelia, And The Antipodes Of Musical Experience, Forest Anthony-Muran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates the relationships between altered states of consciousness and the musical experience in religious tradition and practice. A common accompaniment to religious worship and ceremony, music is often used as a way of attempting to capture something of the ineffable and to help bring about a mystical experience. In this thesis, I make use of three contrasting case studies – the Brazilian syncretic religion Santo Daime, the historical branch of Zen Buddhism Fuke-shū, and the psychedelic rock of 1960s counterculture – to paint a portrait of the variety of ways that music has been used in different musical traditions to ...


Cannabis And Opioids In Chronic Pain Management, Estefan Tsegaye, Clara Kathryn Pollard, Emilie Tate, Justin White, Raphaela Woods 2022 Kennesaw State University

Cannabis And Opioids In Chronic Pain Management, Estefan Tsegaye, Clara Kathryn Pollard, Emilie Tate, Justin White, Raphaela Woods

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Many adults suffer from chronic pain. Opioids are commonly prescribed to treat chronic pain, though they can produce adverse side effects and carry the potential for abuse and addiction. The introduction of cannabis in medicine has provided a possible alternative to opioids in chronic pain management. Objective: This systematic literature review aims to synthesize evidence from published studies to answer the following research question in the PICOT format: In adults over the age of 18 with chronic pain (P), how does prescribed cannabis therapy (I) compare with prescribed opioid therapy (C) in affecting perceived pain levels and quality of ...


Structural And Computational Studies Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Binding Mechanisms With Nanobodies: From Structure And Dynamics To Avidity-Driven Nanobody Engineering, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2022 Chapman University

Structural And Computational Studies Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Binding Mechanisms With Nanobodies: From Structure And Dynamics To Avidity-Driven Nanobody Engineering, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Nanobodies provide important advantages over traditional antibodies, including their smaller size and robust biochemical properties such as high thermal stability, high solubility, and the ability to be bioengineered into novel multivalent, multi-specific, and high-affinity molecules, making them a class of emerging powerful therapies against SARS-CoV-2. Recent research efforts on the design, protein engineering, and structure-functional characterization of nanobodies and their binding with SARS-CoV-2 S proteins reflected a growing realization that nanobody combinations can exploit distinct binding epitopes and leverage the intrinsic plasticity of the conformational landscape for the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to produce efficient neutralizing and mutation resistant characteristics. Structural ...


A Case Of Diphenhydramine With Alcohol Induced Rhabdomyolysis, Adham Abdulamir, Kayla Szolek, Wahab Gbadamosi, Muhammad Awais 2022 Piedmont Macon Hospital Affiliated with Mercer University

A Case Of Diphenhydramine With Alcohol Induced Rhabdomyolysis, Adham Abdulamir, Kayla Szolek, Wahab Gbadamosi, Muhammad Awais

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyolysis is muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle components into circulation. Approximately 26,000 cases of rhabdomyolysis are reported annually in the United States. The severity varies greatly from asymptomatic individuals to individuals with life-threatening muscle enzyme elevations along with severe electrolyte abnormalities, acute other organ damage, and compartment syndrome. The mortality rates are as high as 59% in critically ill patients. There are multiple causes of rhabdomyolysis that can be classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. The traumatic cases are usually evident at presentation however, in a non-traumatic setting, the presentation may be misleading. In this specific ...


Hydroxyapatite Toothpaste On Caries Prevention In Children, Samantha Richardson, Kelly Vaughan 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Hydroxyapatite Toothpaste On Caries Prevention In Children, Samantha Richardson, Kelly Vaughan

Dental Hygiene Student Scholarship

Are Hydroxyapatite Toothpastes The Answer To Fluoride Free Patients?

Richardson, Samantha 1 and Vaughan, Kelly 2

Dental Hygiene Program, Virginia Commonwealth University

Abstract:

Objectives/Aims: With the rising trend to become more clean with our ingredient lists, we are facing more patients refusing fluoride treatments and fluoridated toothpastes. This trend has been prevalent in our younger generations due to parents only wanting the purest natural ingredients for their children and now declining fluoride application. The goal of this literature is to find a safe alternative toothpaste that will be just as effective as fluoride.

Methods: This review of literature has ...


Physician Assisted Dying (Pad): An Investigation Into The Mechanistic Action Of Opioid, Benzodiazepine, And Barbiturate Administration As An Alternative Measure To Forgoing Life Sustaining Treatment And Aggressive Palliation., Jordana Chanel Deighton 2022 Claremont McKenna College

Physician Assisted Dying (Pad): An Investigation Into The Mechanistic Action Of Opioid, Benzodiazepine, And Barbiturate Administration As An Alternative Measure To Forgoing Life Sustaining Treatment And Aggressive Palliation., Jordana Chanel Deighton

CMC Senior Theses

Whilst modern medicine has increased longevity, the rise in life expectancy has brought about new struggles, namely that of aging and age related disease. Thus, humanity has been presented with a new problem: at what point is death preferable to aggressive life-prolonging treatment in the face of inevitable death? And if so, what right do individuals have to control the circumstances of their death? In the West, traditionally, individuals who seek to end their own lives in the face of terminal illness opt for forgoing artificial hydration and nutrition. Driven by an increase in desire for autonomous dignified death, a ...


Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe

Undergraduate Research Posters

The scope of this project was to design, synthesize and test targeted nanoparticles containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs that promote browning in adipose tissue. For hydrophilic drugs the use of liposomes and their hydrophilic core is more useful than the PLGA nanoparticles which have hydrophobic cores. The inhibition of the FOXO1 pathway and modulation of autophagy in adipose tissue can promote browning of white adipose tissue, or an energy burning state where excess energy is burned as heat instead of stored in the cell. If successful, these drugs would offer an alternative treatment for obesity where changes to the patient ...


Mechanism Of Antibiotic Permeability Through The Gram-Negative Bacterial Envelope, Olaniyi Alegun 2022 University of Kentucky

Mechanism Of Antibiotic Permeability Through The Gram-Negative Bacterial Envelope, Olaniyi Alegun

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria (GN) makes them distinct among superbugs that are associated with the development of antibiotic resistance. The outer membrane, and inner membrane, separated by the periplasm, form a double-membrane barrier to the entry of antibiotics into the cell. Several studies have been conducted to examine the role of outer membrane modifications such as porins, lipopolysaccharides, and efflux pumps on antibiotic resistance. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on how antibiotics behave in the periplasm, to gain access into their target region. My thesis focuses on understanding the mechanism of antibiotic permeability through the cellular ...


The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana 2021 Faculty of Medicine, Duta Wacana Christian University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

Treatment of diabetic neuropathy is still carried out by providing symptomatic therapy, which only improves ± 50% of the total symptoms felt by patients, but does not tackle the underlying causes of the disease. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic carotenoid that could be an additional treatment option. We aimed to measure the effectiveness of administering astaxanthin as an additional therapy to improve the impact of pain and discomfort experienced daily by diabetes mellitus patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. We conducted a randomized experimental study with an open label design of 36 patients who had been diagnosed with painful ...


Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain 2021 Chapman University

Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: To evaluate trends in national emergency department (ED) adolescent opioid use in relation to reported pain scores. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data was conducted on ED visits involving patients aged 11–21 from 2008–2017. Crude observational counts were extrapolated to weighted estimates matching total population counts. Multivariate models were used to evaluate the role of a pain score in the reported use of opioids. Anchors for pain scores were 0 (no pain) and 10 (worst pain imaginable). Results: 31,355 observations were captured, which were extrapolated by the NHAMCS ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Regulates Phagocytic Activation Of Monocytes And Reduces Il-1Β Secretion By Urate Crystal Stimulated Gout Pbmcs, Sandy ElSayed, Gregory D. Jay, Ralph Cabezas, Marwa Qadri, Tannin A. Schmidt, Khaled A. Elsaid 2021 Chapman University

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Regulates Phagocytic Activation Of Monocytes And Reduces Il-1Β Secretion By Urate Crystal Stimulated Gout Pbmcs, Sandy Elsayed, Gregory D. Jay, Ralph Cabezas, Marwa Qadri, Tannin A. Schmidt, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives

To compare phagocytic activities of monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from acute gout patients and normal subjects, examine monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced IL-1β secretion ± recombinant human proteoglycan 4 (rhPRG4) or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and study the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rhPRG4 in MSU stimulated monocytes.

Methods

Acute gout PBMCs were collected from patients in the Emergency Department and normal PBMCs were obtained from a commercial source. Monocytes in PBMCs were identified by flow cytometry. PBMCs were primed with Pam3CSK4 (1μg/mL) for 24h and phagocytic activation of monocytes was determined using fluorescently labeled latex beads. MSU ...


Design And Synthesis Of Small Molecular Probes For Cns And Kidney Disorders, Swagat H. Sharma 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Design And Synthesis Of Small Molecular Probes For Cns And Kidney Disorders, Swagat H. Sharma

Theses & Dissertations

The G protein regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) are a family of inwardly rectifying potassium channels and are key effectors in signaling pathways. GIRK 1/2 channel subunit, predominantly found in the brain, is involved pathophysiology of various neurological disorders including, but not limited to, epilepsy, anxiety, Parkinson's, pain, reward, and addiction. Previously, our laboratory had identified a series of urea containing molecules as GIRK1/2 preferring activators. Unfortunately, the urea series suffers from significant PK liabilities (solubility, brain penetration and high clearance). The chapter 1 of the dissertation describes our efforts in developing three new series of ...


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