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Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the nanoparticles formed ...


Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, KayLee Freitas 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, Kaylee Freitas

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. HCC is associated with cirrhosis. Poor survival rate of HCC is due to diagnosis of HCC at late stage.


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Design And Synthesis Of Α-Anomeric Diacetylene-Containing Glycosides As Photopolymerizable Molecular Gelators, Guijun Wang, Dan Wang, Anji Chen, Ifeanyi S. Okafor, Lalith Palitha Samankumara 2022 Old Dominion University

Design And Synthesis Of Α-Anomeric Diacetylene-Containing Glycosides As Photopolymerizable Molecular Gelators, Guijun Wang, Dan Wang, Anji Chen, Ifeanyi S. Okafor, Lalith Palitha Samankumara

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Glycolipids with diacetylene functional groups are fascinating compounds with many practical uses. Among these, diacetylene-containing gelators are especially important because they can form photopolymerizable gels, which are useful stimuli-responsive materials. Inspired by the unique properties of diacetylene-containing gelators and to understand the structural influences especially the location of the diacetylene functional groups on the self-assembling properties, a series of 15 novel N-acetyl-d-glucosamine derivatives with the diacetylene functional group introduced at the anomeric position were designed and synthesized. The diacetylene function is attached to the sugar through α-glycosylation with the distance from the anomeric oxygen being varied from one, two ...


Modified Ysk12-Mend-Sirna In Dendritic Cells For Cancer Immunotherapy, Syed S. Alam 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Modified Ysk12-Mend-Sirna In Dendritic Cells For Cancer Immunotherapy, Syed S. Alam

Undergraduate Research Posters

Tumors may induce tolerogenesis through signaling dendritic cells to produce tolerogenic molecules, such as indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). Tumor-associated immunosuppression is associated with higher mortality in patients. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been shown to silence specific target genes in the target cell. The siRNA associated with these genes could support a gene knockdown of these immunosuppressors and reduce mortality. Delivery of these therapeutic nucleic acids is difficult in vivo because siRNA is easily broken down inside the cell and the bloodstream through present nucleases. Use of liposome polymers has been reviewed extensively in literature. YSK12-C4, a lipid nanoparticle ...


Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe

Undergraduate Research Posters

The scope of this project was to design, synthesize and test targeted nanoparticles containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs that promote browning in adipose tissue. For hydrophilic drugs the use of liposomes and their hydrophilic core is more useful than the PLGA nanoparticles which have hydrophobic cores. The inhibition of the FOXO1 pathway and modulation of autophagy in adipose tissue can promote browning of white adipose tissue, or an energy burning state where excess energy is burned as heat instead of stored in the cell. If successful, these drugs would offer an alternative treatment for obesity where changes to the patient ...


Familial Hypercholesterolemia And Treatments, Alexis Steer 2022 The University of Akron

Familial Hypercholesterolemia And Treatments, Alexis Steer

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

My project will be a literature review regarding the genetic mutations associated with

familial hypercholesterolemia and the current available treatments.


Role Of Meibum And Tear Phospholipids In The Evaporative Water Loss Associated With Dry Eye., Samiyyah M. Sledge 2021 University of Louisville

Role Of Meibum And Tear Phospholipids In The Evaporative Water Loss Associated With Dry Eye., Samiyyah M. Sledge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is generally believed that the tear film lipid surface film inhibits the rate of evaporation (Revap) of the underlying tear aqueous. It is also generally believed that changes in the composition of the tear film lipid layer is responsible for an increase in Revap in patients with dry eye. Both of these ideas have never been proven. The purpose of the current studies was to test these ideas. Revap was measured in vitro gravimetrically. Lipid spreading was measured using Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. The influence of the following surface films on the Revap of the sub phase of physiologically ...


Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an organ system, the lung has unique advantages and disadvantages for direct drug delivery. Its contact with the external environment allows for the airways to be easily accessible to intrapulmonary delivery. However, its complex structure, which divides into more narrow airways with each branch, can make direct delivery to the remote alveoli challenging. The objective of this thesis was to overcome this issue by using exogenous surfactant, a lipoprotein complex used to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a carrier for pulmonary therapeutics. It was hypothesized that therapeutics administered with a surfactant vehicle would display enhanced delivery to the ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Self-Assemblies In Nature And Nanotechnology, Phu Khanh Tang 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Self-Assemblies In Nature And Nanotechnology, Phu Khanh Tang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Nature usually divides complex systems into smaller building blocks specializing in a few tasks since one entity cannot achieve everything. Therefore, self-assembly is a robust tool exploited by Nature to build hierarchical systems that accomplish unique functions. The cell membrane distinguishes itself as an example of Nature’s self-assembly, defining and protecting the cell. By mimicking Nature’s designs using synthetically designed self-assemblies, researchers with advanced nanotechnological comprehension can manipulate these synthetic self-assemblies to improve many aspects of modern medicine and materials science. Understanding the competing underlying molecular interactions in self-assembly is always of interest to the academic scientific community ...


Mechanism Of Lolcde As A Molecular Extruder Of Bacterial Triacylated Lipoproteins, Stuti Sharma, Ruoyu Zhou, Li Wan, Shan Feng, KangKang Song, Chen Xu, Yanyan Li, Maofu Liao 2021 Harvard Medical School

Mechanism Of Lolcde As A Molecular Extruder Of Bacterial Triacylated Lipoproteins, Stuti Sharma, Ruoyu Zhou, Li Wan, Shan Feng, Kangkang Song, Chen Xu, Yanyan Li, Maofu Liao

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Lipoproteins are important for bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance. These proteins use lipid acyl chains attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue to anchor on the outer surface of cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, many lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane (OM), a process dependent on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter LolCDE which extracts the OM-targeted lipoproteins from the cytoplasmic membrane. Lipid-anchored proteins pose a unique challenge for transport machinery as they have both hydrophobic lipid moieties and soluble protein component, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we determined the cryo-EM structures of nanodisc-embedded LolCDE in the nucleotide-free ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Characterization Of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsifiers In Topical Creams Containing A Novel Solvent, Melinda Joanna Sutton 2021 Missouri State University

Characterization Of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsifiers In Topical Creams Containing A Novel Solvent, Melinda Joanna Sutton

MSU Graduate Theses

Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE) is a promising solvent component in topical cream formulations due to its superior solubilizing abilities with certain active pharmaceutical ingredients. One of the goals of this study is to characterize the effects of pH on the physical and chemical stabilities of topical cream formulations containing particularly high concentrations of DEGEE by characterizing a full topical pH profile of 3.5 – 9.0. The second goal is to evaluate the presence, amount, and characteristics of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), molecularly structured in a lamellar phase, in a model cream emulsion utilizing polarized light microscopy (PLM). The ...


In Vivo Isotope Tracing Reveals The Versatility Of Glucose As A Brown Adipose Tissue Substrate, Su Myung Jung, Will G. Doxsey, Johnny Le, John A. Haley, Lorena Mazuecos, Amelia K. Luciano, Huawei Li, Cholsoon Jang, David A. Guertin 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

In Vivo Isotope Tracing Reveals The Versatility Of Glucose As A Brown Adipose Tissue Substrate, Su Myung Jung, Will G. Doxsey, Johnny Le, John A. Haley, Lorena Mazuecos, Amelia K. Luciano, Huawei Li, Cholsoon Jang, David A. Guertin

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Active brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes copious amounts of glucose, yet how glucose metabolism supports thermogenesis is unclear. By combining transcriptomics, metabolomics, and stable isotope tracing in vivo, we systematically analyze BAT glucose utilization in mice during acute and chronic cold exposure. Metabolite profiling reveals extensive temperature-dependent changes in the BAT metabolome and transcriptome upon cold adaptation, discovering unexpected metabolite markers of thermogenesis, including increased N-acetyl-amino acid production. Time-course stable isotope tracing further reveals rapid incorporation of glucose carbons into glycolysis and TCA cycle, as well as several auxiliary pathways, including NADPH, nucleotide, and phospholipid synthesis pathways. Gene expression differences ...


Associations Of Hdl Metrics With Coronary Artery Calcium Score And Density Among Women Traversing Menopause, Samar R. El Khoudary, Alexis Nasr, Karen A. Matthews, Trevor J. Orchard, Maria M. Brooks, Jeffrey Billheimer, Dan McConnell, Imke Janssen, Susan A. Everson-Rose, Sybil L. Crawford, Daniel J. Rader 2021 University of Pittsburgh

Associations Of Hdl Metrics With Coronary Artery Calcium Score And Density Among Women Traversing Menopause, Samar R. El Khoudary, Alexis Nasr, Karen A. Matthews, Trevor J. Orchard, Maria M. Brooks, Jeffrey Billheimer, Dan Mcconnell, Imke Janssen, Susan A. Everson-Rose, Sybil L. Crawford, Daniel J. Rader

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

The cardioprotective association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may vary by menopause stage or estradiol level. We tested whether associations of comprehensive HDL metrics (HDL subclasses, phospholipid and triglyceride content, and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity [HDL-CEC]) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and density vary by menopause stage or estradiol level in women transitioning through menopause. Participants (N = 294; mean age [SD]: 51.3 [2.9]) had data on HDL metrics and CAC measures at one or two time points during the menopause transition. Generalized estimating equations were used for analyses. Effect modifications by menopause stage or estradiol level were ...


Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal

Dissertations

Glycoalkaloids (GAs) are secondary metabolites found mostly in higher plant species and some marine invertebrates. They are known to form complexes with 3β-hydroxy sterols such as cholesterol causing membrane disruption. So far the visual evidence showcasing the complexes formed between glycoalkaloids and sterols has been mainly restricted to some earlier studies using Brewster angle microscopy. This study aimed to develop a method for topographic and morphological analysis of sterol-glycoalkaloid complexes. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer of monolayers comprising of glycoalkaloid tomatine, sterols, and lipids in varying molar ratios onto mica followed by AFM examination was performed. The AFM method used required minimal ...


Lipoprotein-Induced Increases In Cholesterol And 7-Ketocholesterol Result In Opposite Molecular-Scale Biophysical Effects On Membrane Structure, Manuela A.A. Ayee, Irena Levitan 2021 Dordt University

Lipoprotein-Induced Increases In Cholesterol And 7-Ketocholesterol Result In Opposite Molecular-Scale Biophysical Effects On Membrane Structure, Manuela A.A. Ayee, Irena Levitan

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

Under hypercholesterolemic conditions, exposure of cells to lipoproteins results in a subtle membrane increase in the levels of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, as compared to normal conditions. The effect of these physiologically relevant concentration increases on multicomponent bilayer membranes was investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Significant changes in the structural and dynamic properties of the bilayer membranes resulted from these subtle increases in sterol levels, with both sterol species inducing decreases in the lateral area and inhibiting lateral diffusion to varying extents. Cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, however, exhibited opposite effects on lipid packing and orientation. The results from this study indicate ...


Crohn’S Disease And Omega 3: Can It Decrease Crp? A Literature Review, Ariana L. Vyvjala 2021 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Crohn’S Disease And Omega 3: Can It Decrease Crp? A Literature Review, Ariana L. Vyvjala

Bachelors of Science in Nursing

The Crohn’s and Colitis foundation of America estimates that 70,000 Americans are diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) each year (2021). Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation triggered by an increase in stress (Mackner et al., 2020). Patients can experience debilitating abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, blood in the stool, and reduced appetite during an exacerbation period, all of which can lead to life-threatening complications (Mayo Clinic, 2020). In most cases, patients are diagnosed in their late teens or early adulthood years, and are prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs (Mayo Clinic, 2020 ...


Loss Of Function Of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (Lal) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis And Increases Fracture Risk In Humans, Ron C. Helderman, Daniel G. Whitney, Madalina Duta-Mare, Alena Akhmetshina, Nemanja Vujic, Shobana Jayapalan, Jeffry S. Nyman, Biswapriya B. Misra, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael P. Czech, Dagmar Kratky, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy 2021 Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Loss Of Function Of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (Lal) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis And Increases Fracture Risk In Humans, Ron C. Helderman, Daniel G. Whitney, Madalina Duta-Mare, Alena Akhmetshina, Nemanja Vujic, Shobana Jayapalan, Jeffry S. Nyman, Biswapriya B. Misra, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael P. Czech, Dagmar Kratky, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in the lysosome. Clinically, an autosomal recessive LIPA mutation causes LAL deficiency (LALD), previously described as Wolman Disease or Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). LAL-D is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver, small intestine, spleen, adrenal glands, and blood. Considering the importance of unesterified cholesterol and fatty acids in bone metabolism, we hypothesized that LAL is essential for bone formation, and ultimately, skeletal health. To investigate the role of LAL in skeletal homeostasis, we used LAL-deficient ((-/-)) mice, in vitro osteoblast cultures, and novel clinical ...


Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah 2021 Seton Hall University

Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract

The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in the applications of RNA in chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and biotechnology. At the forefront of its utility is the ability to self-assemble multiple siRNAs into nanostructure formulations capable of targeting selected oncogenes and potentiating the gene therapy of malignant tumors. Self-assembled siRNA integrates multiple siRNAs within a single molecular platform for silencing multiple oncogenic mRNA targets with high precision and efficacy to potentially induce cancer cell apoptosis through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Furthermore, the conjugation of siRNA self-assemblies with bio-active probes results in multi-functional theranostic (therapy ...


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