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Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. MacPherson 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of molecules can be radiolabeled and delivered to a cancer site for the purposes of diagnostics and therapy. Among the most promising of tumor targeting molecules are peptides and antibodies. These bio-inspired molecules can be designed and synthesized to target and respond to cancer cells based on the properties of those cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are over-expressed by some metastatic cancers, in which they are responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In recent years, MMPs have emerged as promising targets for enzyme-responsive diagnostic probes because oligopeptides can be designed to be selectively hydrolyzed …


Effects Of Chronic Cirrhosis Induced By Intraperitoneal Thioacetamide Injection On The Protein Content And Michaelis–Menten Kinetics Of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes In The Rat Liver Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Barent N. DuBois, Mamunur Rashid, Reza Mehvar 2022 Chapman University

Effects Of Chronic Cirrhosis Induced By Intraperitoneal Thioacetamide Injection On The Protein Content And Michaelis–Menten Kinetics Of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes In The Rat Liver Microsomes, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrashekar, Barent N. Dubois, Mamunur Rashid, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Chronic intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA) in rats has been used as an animal model of human cirrhosis to study the effects of the disease on drug metabolism. However, TAA inhibits P450 enzymes directly and independently of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of chronic cirrhosis in rats, induced by 10 weeks of intraperitoneal TAA, on the P450 enzymes after a 10-day washout period to eliminate TAA. Liver histology and serum biomarkers of hepatic function confirmed cirrhosis in all animals. Microsomal total P450 content, P450 reductase activity and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity, a general marker of P450 activity, were significantly reduced by …


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak 2022 Western University

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these …


Role Of Type 4 Phosphodiesterases In Thermoregulation And Salivation In Mice, Abigail Grace Boyd 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Type 4 Phosphodiesterases In Thermoregulation And Salivation In Mice, Abigail Grace Boyd

Theses and Dissertations

Type 4 cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) comprise a family of four isoenzymes, PDE4A to D, that hydrolyze and inactivate the second messenger cAMP. Non/PAN selective PDE4 inhibitors, which inhibit all four subtypes simultaneously, produce many promising therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory or cognition- and memory-enhancing effects. However, unwanted side effects, principally, nausea, diarrhea, and emesis, have long hampered their clinical and commercial success. Targeting individual PDE4 subtypes has been proposed for developing drugs with an improved safety profile, but which PDE4 subtype(s) is/are actually responsible for nausea and emesis remains ill defined. In mice treated with PAN-selective inhibitors, there is substantial …


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Anti-Hiv Activity Of Mono- And Di-Substituted Phosphonamidate Conjugates Of Tenofovir, Aaminat Qureshi, Louise A. Ouattara, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Amita Verma, Gustavo F. Doncel, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Hina Siddiqui, Keykavous Parang 2022 University of Karachi

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Anti-Hiv Activity Of Mono- And Di-Substituted Phosphonamidate Conjugates Of Tenofovir, Aaminat Qureshi, Louise A. Ouattara, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Amita Verma, Gustavo F. Doncel, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Hina Siddiqui, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The activity of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs as antiviral agents requires phosphorylation by endogenous enzymes. Phosphate-substituted analogs have low bioavailability due to the presence of ionizable negatively-charged groups. To circumvent these limitations, several prodrug approaches have been proposed. Herein, we hypothesized that the conjugation or combination of the lipophilic amide bond with nucleotide-based tenofovir (TFV) (1) could improve the anti-HIV activity. During the current study, the hydroxyl group of phosphonates in TFV was conjugated with the amino group of L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, and glycine amino acids and other long fatty ester hydrocarbon chains to synthesize 43 derivatives. Several …


Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa 2022 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Willow bark is considered as a disposable by-product when processing willow for biomass. Willow (Salix) is known to contain high value bioactive compounds which include salicin and its derivatives, and other phytochemicals of interest such as polyphenols and flavonoids. The plant is historically known as the primary source of salicylates to which the well-known drug aspirin is derived from. The work forms part of the Interreg project BioWILL, which is focused on integrated “Zero Waste” biorefinery utilising all fractions of willow feedstock for the production of biochemicals and renewable energy. This project aims to investigate the crude and …


Effect Of Uracil Dna Glycosylase Activity On The Efficacy Of Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor/Hdac Inhibitor Combination Therapies In Colon Cancer, Rashmi Kulkarni, Brian P Weiser 2022 Rowan University

Effect Of Uracil Dna Glycosylase Activity On The Efficacy Of Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor/Hdac Inhibitor Combination Therapies In Colon Cancer, Rashmi Kulkarni, Brian P Weiser

Stratford Campus Research Day

Human uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) is responsible for removing uracil bases from DNA and initiates base excision repair pathways. Accumulation of uracil or its fluorinated analogs in DNA is one of the killing mechanisms of thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors in cancer cells, and depletion of UNG2 often enhances the toxicity of these anticancer drugs. We tested the effect of UNG2 KO on the efficacy of multiple TS inhibitors (5-fluorouracil, fluorodeoxyuridine, and pemetrexed) and we determined that, except for 5-fluorouracil, all other TS inhibitors were significantly more potent in UNG2 KO cells compared to wild-type HT29 cells. Interestingly, UNG2 protein levels …


Interactions Among Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cardiovascular System, And Nociception During Physiological And Pathophysiological States, Niribili Sarmah, Andromeda M. Nauli, Ahmmed Ally, Surya M. Nauli 2022 Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine

Interactions Among Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cardiovascular System, And Nociception During Physiological And Pathophysiological States, Niribili Sarmah, Andromeda M. Nauli, Ahmmed Ally, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays important roles within the cardiovascular system in physiological states as well as in pathophysiologic and specific cardiovascular (CV) disease states, such as hypertension (HTN), arteriosclerosis, and cerebrovascular accidents. This review discusses the roles of the endothelial NOS (eNOS) and its effect on cardiovascular responses that are induced by nociceptive stimuli. The roles of eNOS enzyme in modulating CV functions while experiencing pain will be discussed. Nociception, otherwise known as the subjective experience of pain through sensory receptors, termed “nociceptors”, can be stimulated by various external or internal stimuli. In turn, events of various cascade pathways …


Computer Simulations And Network-Based Profiling Of Binding And Allosteric Interactions Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Variant Complexes And The Host Receptor: Dissecting The Mechanistic Effects Of The Delta And Omicron Mutations, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Ryan Kassab, Keerthi Krishnan 2022 Chapman University

Computer Simulations And Network-Based Profiling Of Binding And Allosteric Interactions Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Variant Complexes And The Host Receptor: Dissecting The Mechanistic Effects Of The Delta And Omicron Mutations, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Ryan Kassab, Keerthi Krishnan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this study, we combine all-atom MD simulations and comprehensive mutational scanning of S-RBD complexes with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor in the native form as well as the S-RBD Delta and Omicron variants to (a) examine the differences in the dynamic signatures of the S-RBD complexes and (b) identify the critical binding hotspots and sensitivity of the mutational positions. We also examined the differences in allosteric interactions and communications in the S-RBD complexes for the Delta and Omicron variants. Through the perturbation-based scanning of the allosteric propensities of the SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD residues and dynamics-based network centrality and …


Discovering The Role Of Repeat Sequences In Regulation Of The Phaz Gene In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Harrison Senter, Stephen Baron 2022 Bridgewater College

Discovering The Role Of Repeat Sequences In Regulation Of The Phaz Gene In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Harrison Senter, Stephen Baron

Honors Projects

Streptomyces sp. SFB5A is an actinomycete (filamentous bacterium) that degrades PHB using an extracellular PHB depolymerase. PHB depolymerase synthesis is induced by growth on PHB and repressed by glucose (or other preferred carbon sources)2, which suggests that there is transcriptional regulation of its corresponding gene, phaZ. Binding sites are suspected to be the repeat sequences found in the phaZ gene. There are 3 different sets of primers that can be made in order to emphasize specific functional repeats while disrupting the functionality of others. The goal of the project is to transform Streptomyces sp. 5A with constructs …


Late-Stage Chemoenzymatic Installation Of Hydroxy-Bearing Allyl Moiety On The Indole Ring Of Tryptophan-Containing Peptides, Nagaraju Mupparapu, Lauren Brewster, Katrina F. Ostrom, Sherif I. Elshahawi 2022 Chapman University

Late-Stage Chemoenzymatic Installation Of Hydroxy-Bearing Allyl Moiety On The Indole Ring Of Tryptophan-Containing Peptides, Nagaraju Mupparapu, Lauren Brewster, Katrina F. Ostrom, Sherif I. Elshahawi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The late-stage functionalization of indole- and tryptophan-containing compounds with reactive moieties facilitates downstream diversification and leads to changes in their biological properties. Here, the synthesis of two hydroxy-bearing allyl pyrophosphates is described. A chemoenzymatic method is demonstrated which uses a promiscuous indole prenyltransferase enzyme to install a dual reactive hydroxy-bearing allyl moiety directly on the indole ring of tryptophan-containing peptides. This is the first report of late-stage indole modifications with this reactive group.


Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) And The Cardiovascular System: In Physiology And In Disease States, N Tran, T Garcia, M Aniqa, S Ali, A Ally, Surya M. Nauli 2022 Arkansas College of Osteopathic Medicine

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) And The Cardiovascular System: In Physiology And In Disease States, N Tran, T Garcia, M Aniqa, S Ali, A Ally, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a critical role in regulating and maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system. The importance of eNOS can be emphasized from the genetic polymorphisms of the eNOS gene, uncoupling of eNOS dimerization, and its numerous signaling regulations. The activity of eNOS on the cardiac myocytes, vasculature, and the central nervous system are discussed. The effects of eNOS on the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (SANS) and the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (PANS), both of which profoundly influence the cardiovascular system, will be elaborated. The relationship between the eNOS protein with cardiovascular autonomic reflexes such as the baroreflex …


A Review Of Calcineurin Biophysics With Implications For Cardiac Physiology, Ryan B. Williams 2021 Mississippi State University

A Review Of Calcineurin Biophysics With Implications For Cardiac Physiology, Ryan B. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Calmodulin is a prevalent calcium sensing protein found in all cells. Three genes exist for calmodulin and all three of these genes encode for the exact same protein sequence. Recently mutations in the amino acid sequence of calmodulin have been identified in living human patients. Thus far, patients harboring these mutations in the calmodulin sequence have only displayed an altered cardiac related phenotype. Calcineurin is involved in many key physiological processes and its activity is regulated by calcium and calmodulin. In order to assess whether or not calcineurin contributes to calmodulinopathy (a pathological state arising from dysfunctional calmodulin), a comprehensive …


Characterizing And Overcoming Resistance To Aminomethylspectinomycins In Gram-Negative Bacteria, Nisha Das 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Characterizing And Overcoming Resistance To Aminomethylspectinomycins In Gram-Negative Bacteria, Nisha Das

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Spectinomycin (SPC) is a broad-spectrum aminocyclitol antibiotic. Its use in agriculture has led to widespread resistance in enteric bacteria, necessitating the development of more effective analogs. Aminomethyl spectinomycins (amSPC) are modified spectinomycins with increased potency against many bacterial species. These species include Legionella pneumophila, which harbors a chromosomally encoded aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME). In this study, we follow up on this observation and examine the extent to which the amSPCs are substrates for AMEs through adenylation (ANTs) and phosphorylation (APH). APH(9)-Ia and ANT(3")(9) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified using the Ni-affinity chromatography. The ability of AMEs to …


Physiological Roles Of Mammalian Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms, Katrina F. Ostrom, Justin E. LaVigne, Tarsis F. Brust, Roland Seifert, Carmen Dessauer, Val J. Watts, Rennolds S. Ostrom 2021 Claremont McKenna College

Physiological Roles Of Mammalian Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms, Katrina F. Ostrom, Justin E. Lavigne, Tarsis F. Brust, Roland Seifert, Carmen Dessauer, Val J. Watts, Rennolds S. Ostrom

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of ATP to the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Mammals possess nine isoforms of transmembrane ACs, dubbed AC1-9, that serve as major effector enzymes of G protein-coupled receptors. The transmembrane ACs display varying expression patterns across tissues, giving potential for them having a wide array of physiologic roles. Cells express multiple AC isoforms, implying that ACs have redundant functions. Furthermore, all transmembrane ACs are activated by Gαs so it was long assumed that all ACs are activated by Gαs-coupled GPCRs. AC isoforms partition to different microdomains of the plasma membrane and form …


The Concise Guide To Pharmacology 2021/22: Enzymes, Stephen PH Alexander, Doriano Fabbro, Eamonn Kelly, Alistair Mathie, John A. Peters, Emma L. Veale, Jane F. Armstrong, Elena Faccenda, Simon D. Harding, Adam J. Pawson, Christopher Southan, James A. Davies, Detlan Boison, Kathryn Elisa Burns, Carmen Dessauer, Jürg Gertsch, Nuala Ann Helsby, Angela A. Izzo, Doris Koesling, Rennolds Ostrom, Nigel J. Pyne, Susan Pyne, Michael Russwurm, Roland Seifert, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Mario van der Stelt, Albert van der Vliet, Val Watts, Szu Shen Wong 2021 University of Nottingham

The Concise Guide To Pharmacology 2021/22: Enzymes, Stephen Ph Alexander, Doriano Fabbro, Eamonn Kelly, Alistair Mathie, John A. Peters, Emma L. Veale, Jane F. Armstrong, Elena Faccenda, Simon D. Harding, Adam J. Pawson, Christopher Southan, James A. Davies, Detlan Boison, Kathryn Elisa Burns, Carmen Dessauer, Jürg Gertsch, Nuala Ann Helsby, Angela A. Izzo, Doris Koesling, Rennolds Ostrom, Nigel J. Pyne, Susan Pyne, Michael Russwurm, Roland Seifert, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Mario Van Der Stelt, Albert Van Der Vliet, Val Watts, Szu Shen Wong

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record …


Computational Analysis Of Bshc, An Enzyme Responsible For Antibiotic Resistance In Firmicute Bacteria, Matthew R. Martin 2021 Grand Valley State University

Computational Analysis Of Bshc, An Enzyme Responsible For Antibiotic Resistance In Firmicute Bacteria, Matthew R. Martin

Student Summer Scholars Manuscripts

Bacillithiol is a compound synthesized by certain gram-positive bacteria called firmicutes, such as B. Subtilis. This compound is used to protect the bacterium from oxidative stress and establish antibiotic resistance. There are three enzymes in the synthesis pathway of bacillithiol: BshA, BshB, and BshC1.BshC, unlike the other two, has a potentially novel mechanism that is not yet well understood. This enzyme is a putative cysteine ligase, however the ligand that donates the cysteine is unknown. The structure of BshC has been previously solved and has a unique dumbbell shape suggesting a hinging motion. Previous Small Angle X-ray Scattering …


Inhibition Of Glutathione Peroxidase, Tosin Masha, Carol Chrestensen, Daniela Tapu, Meleye Mel, Madison Jaames 2021 Kennesaw State University

Inhibition Of Glutathione Peroxidase, Tosin Masha, Carol Chrestensen, Daniela Tapu, Meleye Mel, Madison Jaames

Symposium of Student Scholars

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an intracellular antioxidant enzyme that mediates the amount of hydrogen peroxide present in cells. Through this activity, GPx aids in the regulation of cellular processes that use hydrogen peroxide, including growth and proliferation. It may be desirable to inhibit GPx in certain diseased states, e.g. cancer, where GPx is over expressed. The Tapu lab is making N-heterocyclic compounds that have shown efficiency inhibiting thioredoxin reductase, which is another selenocysteine containing enzyme. Our aim is to test similar compounds to see if they have the ability to inhibit GPx. In order to test these compounds, we have …


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This …


Targeting Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Content To Inhibit Oncogenic Kras Function, Walaa E. Kattan 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Targeting Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Content To Inhibit Oncogenic Kras Function, Walaa E. Kattan

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The small GTPase KRAS, which is frequently mutated in human cancers, must be localized to the plasma membrane (PM) for biological activity. We recently showed that the KRAS C-terminal membrane anchor exhibits exquisite lipid-binding specificity for select species of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). We therefore investigated whether reducing PM PtdSer content is sufficient to abrogate KRAS oncogenesis. Oxysterol-related binding proteins ORP5 and ORP8 exchange PtdSer synthesized in the ER for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) synthesized in the PM. We show that depletion of ORP5 or ORP8 reduced PM PtdSer levels, resulting in extensive mislocalization of KRAS from the PM. Concordantly, ORP5 or ORP8 depletion …


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